Final Exam part II
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Which bones belong to the Axial Skeleton:
Skull, Vertebral collumn, Thoracic cage. Forms the long axis of the skeleton.
Which bones belong to appendicular skeleton:
Bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder, and pelvic girdle that attach limbs to the axial skeleton.
Define Amphaiarthrosis Joints:
- Slightly moveable joints, such as bones in the vertebral
Define Diarthrosis Joints:
Any freely movable joint, such as the shoulder and hip joints
Define Synarthrosis Joints:
- Permits very little or no movement under normal conditions.
- Gomphosis are found in the sockets of the teeth.
- Synostoses are where two bones fuse together.
Define Synovial Joint?
Most moveable joints; all are diarthroses.
All synovial joints have these common features:
- 1) Articular Cartilage
- 2) Joint Cavity (synovial cavity)
- 3) Articular Capsule
- 4) Synovial fluid
- 5) Reinforcing Ligaments
- 6) Nerves and Vessels
Examples of each of the 6 types of synovial joints:
1) Plane Joints -
2) Hinge Joints -
3) Pivot Joint -
4) Condyloid Joint
5) Saddle Joints
6) Ball and Socket Joint
- 1) Plane Joints - Intertarsal and intercarpal joints
- 2) Hinge Joints - Elbow joint, ankle joint
- 3) Pivot Joint - Proximal Radioulnar Joint
- 4) Condyloid Joint - Knuckle, wrist joints.
- 5) Saddle Joints - Ball of the thumb
- 6) Ball and Socket Joint - Shoulder and Hip joints.
- 1. Dorsiflexion
- 2. Plantarflexion
- 1. Medial Rotation
- 2. Lateral Rotation
What is the function of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum.
The special type of smooth endoplasmic reticulum found in smooth and striated muscle fibers whose function is to store and release calcium ions.
What is a T Tubule
It is a deep invagination of the sarcolemma, which is the plasma membrane, only found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. These invaginations allow depolarization of the membrane to quickly penetrate to the interior of the cell.
What are synaptic vesicles:
They store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Receptors in Motor Endplate
A neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the synapse or junction of the axon terminal of a motoneuron with the motor end plate,
Z line disc
The line formed where actin filaments attach between two sarcomeres.
Organelles in skeletal muscle that are long rod shaped and are in the sarcoplasm. They are cylinders.
- The filaments of myofibrils constructed from proteins,
- Actin Myofilament:
- Myosin Myofilament:
Define muscle fascicles:
A fascicle is a bundle of skeletal muscle fibers surrounded by perimysium, a type of connective tissue.
is a sheath of connective tissue that groups individual muscle fibers (anywhere between 10 to 100 or more) into bundles or fascicles.
Is a layer of connective tissue that ensheaths a muscle fiber and is composed mostly from reticular fibers.
is a layer of connective tissue which ensheaths the entire muscle.
Function of RBC's
Carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues around your body. As a secondary function, they are also a key player in getting waste carbon dioxide from your tissues to your lungs,
Function of Neutrophils:
Destroy bacteria. 60% of all WBC's
Function of Eosiniphils:
- Play a roll in allergic reations and parasites.
- 1-4% of all WBC's
Function of Basophils:
- Weak phagocytes. Direct later stages of parasitic infections.
- 0.5% of all WBC's
Function of Monocytes:
- Macrophages. Particles of debris, foreign cells.
- Largest WBC.
- 4 - 8 % of all WBC's.
Function of Lymphocytes:
- Fight infectious organizms. Responses produce antigens.
- Most important of all WBC's
- 20 - 45% of all WBC's
Trace the path of blood through the heart:
- Vena Cavae
- Right atrium
- Tricuspid Valve
- Right Ventricle
- Pulmonary Semilunar valve
- Pulmonary artery
- Pulmonary Veins
- Left Atrium
- Mitral Valve
- Left Ventricle
- Aortic Semilunar Valve
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