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Does biology require any "new" chemistry?
No, but primarily uses C, H, O, N, and (P,S)
What are the 4 major classes of macromolecules?
- nucleic acids
What are polymers?
Long chains of repeating subunits
How does polymers assembled?
- Using the same same simple chemistry
- Dehydration - removal of water
What is the function of carbohydrates?
energy stroage and structural molecules
How are carbohydrates divided?
What are polysaccharides?
How is polymers form?
made by plants, energy storage
made by animals, energy storage
what is the equivalent of starch
made by plants, structrual (cell wall)
What are the polymers of glucose?
how are starch & glycogen similar?
- both are branched chains
- have similar bonds holding glucose together
- means similar enzymes can degrade both
What is the nucleic acids made of?
consists of polymers made of nucleotide monomers
What consists of nucleotides?
- ribose sugar
- phosphate group (PO4-)
- nitrogen-containing base
What are proteins made of?
polymers made up of amino acid monomers
how is pH measure?
pH = -log[H+]
What does amino acid have?
- amino group (NH2)
- carboxylic acid (COOH)
- Hydrogen (H)
- R group: what makes each unique (20 different)
What are the 4 levels of proteins?
- Primary: sequence of amno acids
- Secondary: regulate folding of backbone
- tertiary: the 3-D structure of 1 chain
- Quanternary: the arrangement of more than 1 chain
- cell receives external "message" and converts it inot an interanl signal
- first messenge binds to receptor
- second messanger product of chemical reaction
How can protein structure stabilize?
- Secondary: H-bonds along peptide backbone
How can proteins be natured (lose 3-D) structure?
Why does treatment of heat and change of pH level destroy protein structure?
- Change ion of protein, change structure
- Heat will disrupt a varity of weak bonds
- pH can change ioinization of acds/bases
- water loving
- polar or charged
fatty acids are long hydrocarbon chain with COOH
Hydrocarbon chain = hydrophobic?
What is triglyceride?
- 3 fatty acids linked to glycerol
- In animals fats (solid at toom temp)
- In plants oils (liquid at room temp)
Fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated
- saturated (saturated with H) means no C=C (Fats)
- unsaturated (fewer H's) means contains C=C (Oils)
Why are saturated fats solid at room temp?
they pack well
What is hydrogenation?
- makes oil solid at room temp
- produces partially hydrogenated trans fat
What are phospholipids?
Triglyceride with phosphate (PO4-) replacing 1 fatty acid
What is amphipathic
- both hydrophobic and hydrophillic
- has a hydrophobic end: the fatty acids
- has a hydrophillic end: the PO4-
What is the cell theory?
- 1. All lving things are made of one or more cells
- 2. The cell is the fundamental unit of life
- 3. All cells come from pre-exisitng cells
What are the common features of a cell?
- Plasma membrane: barier that defines cell contents
- Inofrmation molecules: DNA and RNA
- Ribosomes: structures that make proteins
- Some cells have functional substructure: organelles
- Fluid within the cell is called cytoplasm
What is plasma membrane
- complex structure that regulate internal contents
- Basic structure is phospholipid bylayer
- many proteins associated with the membrane
have membrane bounded nucleus (DNA)
no membrane bounded nucleus (DNA)
- Lack membrance nucleus
- Do not have genetic material concentrated in nucleid
- Have cell wall made of peptidoglyco
- Have relatively simple internal structure
- Divde by binary fission
- Have different membrane lipids
- Phosphate/fatty connection is differnt
- some aspect of cell physiology more like Eukaryotes
- Often found in extreme, harsh environments
- membrane bounded nucleus
- complex internal structure with internal membranes
- DNA packaged into linear chromosomes
- divide by Mitosis
What are the major organelles of the cell?
- Endoplasmic Reticulum
Describe structure of the nucleus
- double membrane (2 phospholipid bilayers)
- contiguous with internal membrane system (ER)
- Nuclear pores allow communication with cytoplasm
- Nucleolus is site of ribosomje assembly
What is the function of the nucleus?
- Contains genetic infromation
- Chromatic organized into Chromosomes (DNA)
What is Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
inner network of membrane
What is smooth ER (SER)
- move tubular in structure
- Site of membrane/lipid synthesis
Rough ER (RER)
- More flattened sheets in structure
- Site of protein synthesis (ribosomes)
Golgi Apparatus structure?
- Structually separated form ER
- compose of series of flattened sacs
- Has Cis face (receiving end)
- Has Trans face (Export end)
Golgi Apparatus function?
- connected to ER
- receives vesicles from ER
- Modifies and packages proteins
- two membranes: inner and outer
- Outer surrounds organelle
- Inner is folded and critical for function
- stacks of internal membrane are called cristae
- Fluid in the interior is called matrix
Mitochondria in eukaryotes?
- Major site of eneryg metabolism
- Cellular respiration requires mitochondria
- Site of oxidative phosphorylation
- Have DNA and ribosmes: were one free living bacteria
- Interior skelton that supports cell structure
- Dynamic structure can change with cell needs
What are the 3 proteins of Cytoskeleton
- Microtubules: Cynlinders to tubulin subunits
- Microfilaments: small fibers; little twisted wires
- Intermediate filaments: long fibers
Functional Organization: Folow the production of milk
- Into to make proteins in nucleus
- DNA --> mRNA in nucleus
- mRNA is used to make protein in RER
- Protein packaged into vesicle
- Lipids in milk made in SER
- Vesicle move to Golgi