Card Set Information
notes form lecture
Does biology require any "new" chemistry?
No, but primarily uses C, H, O, N, and (P,S)
What are the 4 major classes of macromolecules?
What are polymers?
Long chains of repeating subunits
How does polymers assembled?
Using the same same simple chemistry
Dehydration - removal of water
What is the function of carbohydrates?
energy stroage and structural molecules
How are carbohydrates divided?
What are polysaccharides?
How is polymers form?
made by plants, energy storage
made by animals, energy storage
what is the equivalent of starch
made by plants, structrual (cell wall)
What are the polymers of glucose?
how are starch & glycogen similar?
both are branched chains
have similar bonds holding glucose together
means similar enzymes can degrade both
What is the nucleic acids made of?
consists of polymers made of nucleotide monomers
What consists of nucleotides?
phosphate group (PO
What are proteins made of?
polymers made up of amino acid monomers
how is pH measure?
pH = -log[H+]
What is the neutral pH
What does amino acid have?
amino group (NH
carboxylic acid (COOH)
: what makes each unique (20 different)
What are the 4 levels of proteins?
: sequence of amno acids
: regulate folding of backbone
: the 3-D structure of 1 chain
: the arrangement of more than 1 chain
cell receives external "message" and converts it inot an interanl signal
first messenge binds to receptor
second messanger product of chemical reaction
How can protein structure stabilize?
: H-bonds along peptide backbone
How can proteins be natured (lose 3-D) structure?
Why does treatment of heat and change of pH level destroy protein structure?
Change ion of protein, change structure
Heat will disrupt a varity of weak bonds
pH can change ioinization of acds/bases
polar or charged
fatty acids are long hydrocarbon chain with COOH
Hydrocarbon chain = hydrophobic?
What is triglyceride?
3 fatty acids linked to glycerol
In animals fats (solid at toom temp)
In plants oils (liquid at room temp)
Fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated
saturated (saturated with H) means no C=C (Fats)
unsaturated (fewer H's) means contains C=C (Oils)
Why are saturated fats solid at room temp?
they pack well
What is hydrogenation?
makes oil solid at room temp
produces partially hydrogenated trans fat
What are phospholipids?
Triglyceride with phosphate (PO4
) replacing 1 fatty acid
What is amphipathic
both hydrophobic and hydrophillic
has a hydrophobic end
: the fatty acids
has a hydrophillic end
: the PO4-
What is the cell theory?
1. All lving things are made of one or more cells
2. The cell is the fundamental unit of life
3. All cells come from pre-exisitng cells
What are the common features of a cell?
: barier that defines cell contents
: DNA and RNA
: structures that make proteins
Some cells have functional substructure
Fluid within the cell is called cytoplasm
What is plasma membrane
complex structure that regulate internal contents
Basic structure is phospholipid bylayer
many proteins associated with the membrane
have membrane bounded nucleus (DNA)
no membrane bounded nucleus (DNA)
Lack membrance nucleus
Do not have genetic material concentrated in nucleid
Have cell wall made of peptidoglyco
Have relatively simple internal structure
Divde by binary fission
Have different membrane lipids
Phosphate/fatty connection is differnt
some aspect of cell physiology more like Eukaryotes
Often found in extreme, harsh environments
membrane bounded nucleus
complex internal structure with internal membranes
DNA packaged into linear chromosomes
divide by Mitosis
What are the major organelles of the cell?
Describe structure of the nucleus
double membrane (2 phospholipid bilayers)
contiguous with internal membrane system (ER)
Nuclear pores allow communication with cytoplasm
Nucleolus is site of ribosomje assembly
What is the function of the nucleus?
Contains genetic infromation
Chromatic organized into Chromosomes (DNA)
What is Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
inner network of membrane
What is smooth ER (SER)
move tubular in structure
Site of membrane/lipid synthesis
Rough ER (RER)
More flattened sheets in structure
Site of protein synthesis (ribosomes)
Golgi Apparatus structure?
Structually separated form ER
compose of series of flattened sacs
Has Cis face (receiving end)
Has Trans face (Export end)
Golgi Apparatus function?
connected to ER
receives vesicles from ER
Modifies and packages proteins
: inner and outer
Outer surrounds organelle
Inner is folded and critical for function
stacks of internal membrane are called
Fluid in the interior is called matrix
Mitochondria in eukaryotes?
Major site of eneryg metabolism
Cellular respiration requires mitochondria
Site of oxidative phosphorylation
Have DNA and ribosmes
: were one free living bacteria
Interior skelton that supports cell structure
Dynamic structure can change with cell needs
What are the 3 proteins of Cytoskeleton
: Cynlinders to tubulin subunits
: small fibers; little twisted wires
: long fibers
Functional Organization: Folow the production of milk
Into to make proteins in nucleus
DNA --> mRNA in nucleus
mRNA is used to make protein in RER
Protein packaged into vesicle
Lipids in milk made in SER
Vesicle move to Golgi