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What are the 6 properties of human language?
- 1) Semanticity
- 2) Arbitrariness
- 3) Discreteness
- 4) Duality of patterning
- 5) Displacement
- 6) Productivity
Which properities of human language do animals possess?
Some animals have arbitrariness and discreteness. Some animals have semanticity, but most do not. Most animals do not have displacement or productivity and animals do not have duality of patterning.
Who was Nim Chimpsky?
A chimp trained in ASL by Terrace et al in 1980. He used repetitive word utterances and random word order. He imitated signs, instead of producing language. This is also true for other animals tested.
What is semanticity?
Signals mean something. It relates to something of the world.
What is arbitrariness?
There is no resemblance between a symbol and its meaning; makes referentiality possible.
What is discreteness?
Discrete symbols combine to change meaning.
What is duality of patterning?
meaningful symbols made up of nonmeaningful units
What is displacement?
Messages need not be tied to the immediate context.
What is productivity?
the ability to say things never heard before.
What is the difference between prescriptive and descriptive rules?
Prescriptive are the rules that we are supposed to follow. Descriptive rules are the ones we care about.
Why is language considered studying the human mind?
- -Everyone does it, despite culture, language, education, or intelligence.
- -All humans have it. No non-humans don't have it.
- -Linguistic knowledge is learned by induction, not taught explicitly.
- -All languages and dialects are complex.
- -It is defined by what takes place in the mind, not the mouth
Describe the Marr's levels of analysis.
- 1. Computational- What problems do we need to solve? What representations are the input and output?
- 2. Representational- What algorithms or step-by-step procedures do we use.
- 3. Implementational- How can the processes be performed physically?