N: Most isolated early civ. YELLOW AND YANGZI RIVERS
a group of states or territories controlled by one ruler
First libraries in Nineveh
Structured law code
City-states around the Mediterranean
Early alphabet (ours is based off of it)
Traded purple dye and glass
Govt. divided into provinces each governed by satrap
practiced tolerance towards others religions, set up a series of common laws and common currency.
Religion – Zoroasterism believed to have influenced Judaism & Christianity
African Kingdoms/ Bantu Migrations
Kingdoms of Africa: Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
Tracing the migration of the African people based on language – of which Bantu is the root of
Prosperous because of trading gold and salt!
Founded by Abraham (from Ur – Mesopotamia)
Hebrews – from Israel
Covenant – deal with God
Moses – takes people out of Egypt back to Israel
Holy city – Jerusalem, where Solomon built his temple
Trace themselves back to Abraham
Jesus – Palestinian Jew who claims to be the Messiah – save the Jewish people
Jesus believed in one God and accepted the Jewish prophets and Ten Commandments
Jesus called for justice, morality, forgiveness, and charity for others
Paul – Christian persecutor, sees Jesus, Wrote part of the New Testament (outline of Christian beliefs)
Trace themselves back to Abraham
Muhammad: prophet who hears the teachings of Allah (God) and writes them in the Quran
5 Pillars: 1. prayer 2. hajj: trip to Mecca 3. charity 4. fast during Ramadan 5. declaration of faith
Holy cities: Jerusalem and Mecca
Spread rapidly because of Muslims taking over areas in the Middle East, Africa, and Europe
3500 year old tradition that originated in India as a combination of ancient and Vedic traditions
Polytheistic, but all deities leading to the Brahman, or world soul.
Belief in reincarnation, rebirth of a soul until moksha is achieved (release).
Rebirth is affected by karma (one’s good and bad deeds) and dharma (religious duties).
Siddhartha Gautama: The founder of Buddhism. He went on a quest to search for religious truth and an end to suffering. After wandering for 6 years, he found enlightenment. He became known as the Buddha, or “enlightened one”.
Four Noble Truths:
1. Everything in life is suffering and sorrow.
2. The cause of all suffering is desire.
3. To end suffer, you must end desire.
4. To overcome desire, you must follow the Eightfold Path.
Christians and Muslims both claiming Jerusalem; Four in all; trade increases, religious tension increases, Pope’s power decreases, Kings’ power increases
posted 95 theses against the indulgences being sold by the Catholic Church; started the Reformation
believed in predestination (God saves/doesn’t save before birth)
split from the Catholic Church and made the Church of England when he couldn’t get his marriage annulled
Henry’s son, Protestant
“Bloody Mary”, Henry’s daughter, SUPER Catholic
created compromise between the Protestants and the Catholics in England
Ignatius of Loyola:
started the Jesuits
Council of Trent:
started the Catholic/counter-reformation
can purchase to limit one’s time spent in purgatory
Peace of Augsburg:
stops the fighting in Germany between Lutheran and Catholic princes
What are some causes of the 30 years war? Effects?
The long term causes of the 30 Years’ War are the Peace of Augsburg, the Protestant Union/Catholic League, people in HRE/Austria disliking the Hapsburg and the other European powers wanting to check the power of the Hapsburgs. Short term cause is the Defenestration of Prague
France the clear winner, Spain and Austria the clear losers, Germany left divided into states with independent princes, Final split between the Protestants and the Catholics, Huge amounts of damage to Germany’s land, industry, and population.
Early civilization of traders on Crete
Legend of the Minator
No one knows what happened to their civilization
Dominated the Aegean sea on both mainland Greece and eventually Crete
Iliad and the Odyssey
Democracy – all the citizens (adult free males) vote
Valued education through formal discussion, valued beauty and art
Women’s rights limited
Oligarchy with 2 “kings”
Military service EXTREMELY important and expected
Women = much more freedom
Wars b/w Athens and Sparta, Sparta WINS!
(city-state) fundamental political unit of Ancient Greece
rule by kings or monarchs
rule by landowning families
rule by a few powerful people
Tyrant gains control of government by appeal to poor and discontented for support
rule by citizens either directly or indirectly through representatives
leader during Athens’ Golden Age
invented the lever and pulley
Pythagorean theorem, for right triangles
earth is round
question and answer approach, taught Plato
idea of a philosopher-king in The Republic
student of Plato; taught Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great:
prince from Macedonia who conquered Greece, the Persian empire, and into India. Started the Hellenistic Age.
509 BC –
Roman Republic is formed, only patricians can vote
The 12 Tablets-
Rome’s plebeians petition for the city’s first written laws
Julius Caesar is assassinated by the Senate.
Pax Romana begins-
Octavian Augustus rises as Rome’s first official emperor.
Jesus is born in Roman-controlled Bethlehem.
____________ death ends the “Pax Romana”.
Emperor Marcus Aurelius’s
___________builds a wall to protect the northernmost parts of the Roman empire in Great Britain.
Emperor Diocletian divides the empire into two parts—East and West.
_______________rises to power in the Eastern empire, making Constantinople the new capital
after years of decline, Odoacer (leader of Germanic invaders) ousts the final emperor of Rome.
Fall of the Roman Empire
Military (weak legions, mercenaries, Germanic invasions)
Social (bread and circuses, bad upper class, no values)
Economic (heavy taxes, decreasing population)
Political (corruption, oppressive gov’t, splitting the Empire into two)
Legacies of Roman Republic/Empire:
Government – republic, trail before peers, innocent until proven guilty
Roads and architecture
Eastern continuation of the Roman Empire
Reason for the Crusades – being invaded by Muslims
Justinian: Byzantine Emperor
Justinian’s Code: written compilation of the laws of the Byzantine Empire
100 Years War:
war between France and England over English territory in France and the French crown; inventions of the longbow and cannon, French win
killed 1/3 of the population, helped end feudalism
3 Popes in all, one in France and two in Italy; makes the papacy (office of the Pope) look v. bad!
only thing that unified Europe during the Middle Ages; power slowly DECREASED
Pope Urban II:
called for the Crusades
signed the Magna Carta in 1215 which made the King of England follow the laws and gave more rights to English people
William the Conqueror:
Duke of Normandy (Normandy – on the coast of France) who invaded and took over England in 1066
Frankish king who unified much of Europe; named first Holy Roman Emperor
Political system of governing & landholding based on mutual obligations
Economic arrangement based on mutual obligations between a lord & his serfs
Feudalism in Japan
Emperor à Shogun (supreme military commander) à Daimyo (warrior lords) à Samurai (warriors) à peasants (NO WEAPONS)
way of the warrior
centralized feudalism in Japan
Charles V: .
Hapsburg ruler of both Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. Signed the Peace of Augsburg
Catholic son of Charles V; ruled Spain; his armada (navy) lost to the English (under Elizabeth); patron of Spain’s golden age
Henry IV: .
French ruler who converted to Catholicism to keep France together. Issued the Edict of Nantes
Absolute ruler of France who revoked the Edict of Nantes, spent tons of money on his palace at Versailles and was known as the “sun king”
Stewart king of England who is forced to sign the Petition of Rights; dismantles Parliament; challenged by the Roundheads under Cromwell during the English Civil War; eventually tried for treason and executed by Parliament.
Leader of the Roundheads against Charles I during the English Civil War. After Charles had been beheaded, Cromwell was the Puritan leader of the Commonwealth of England.
Charles II: .
part of the “Restoration” of the English monarchy
William and Mary:
William and Mary’s rise to the throne was called the “Glorious Revolution”. forced to sign the English Bill of Rights, making England a constitutional monarchy.
Peter the Great:
Forces changes in Russia in order to make them more modern like Western Europe
Catherine the Great:
Continued Peter the Great’s reforms, portioned Poland along with Austria and Prussia
All people are naturally cruel, selfish, and greedy. Social contract – where they give up the state of nature for an organized society
Claimed that men were born with natural rights – life, liberty, and property. If the government fails to secure these rights, then the people should overthrow the government
Wrote Candide. Defended the freedom of speech. Said democracy was a bad form of government and a good monarch was a good form.
Proponent of separation of powers and checks and balances within the government
People are naturally good and society corrupts them
Wrote the Encyclopedia
Woman who said that women should not be completely dependent on their husbands. Fought for equal education for girls and boys
argued that the free market should be allowed to regulate business activity. He was a strong supporter of laissez faire. Wrote Wealth of Nations