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2010-12-16 09:54:21
Final Review week one

Ch. one, two, three, six, seven
Show Answers:

  1. Radiation is the emission and propogation of energy through space or a substance in the form of waves or particles. Radioactivity is the process by which certain unstable atoms or elements undergo spontaneous degeneration, or decay, in an effort to attain a more balanced nuclear state
    both statements are true
  2. Lead-lined cylinder that extends from the opening of the metal housing of the tubehead; it aims and shapes the x-ray beam
    PID - position indicating device
  3. What is the source in the x-ray tubehead that supplies enough energy to generate x-rays?
    Cathode - or negative electrode
  4. What is the purpose of the positive anode?
    to convert electrons into x-ray photons
  5. What type of radiation is most detrimental to the pt and radiographer?
    scatter radiation
  6. What type of x-ray interaction is responsible for producing densities on film and making dental radiographs possible?
    X-rays that pass through the pt with no interaction with matter
  7. What effect does an increase of kVp have on a film?
    increased density
  8. A film with low contrast is useful for the detection of _________ and a film with low contrast has many shades of ________
    • periodontal disease or periapical disease
    • gray
  9. Milliamperesegulate what?
    the quantity of electrons at the cathode
  10. true or false. Milliamperes x exposure time (sec) = milliamperes/second
  11. How does miliamperage affect density of a film?
    an increase in mA increases the density
  12. What percent of the total electron energy produced is converted to x-rays?
  13. Collimation of the x-ray beam does what to the primary beam?
    decreases the diameter of the primary beam
  14. true or false. A primary use of the intensifying screen used in radiography is to reduce the exposure time
  15. Which of the following devices are used to reduce radiation exposure to the pt?
    aluminum filter
    all of the above
  16. What are the correct mA and kVp settings used on a pt?
    • 7-15 mA
    • 65-100 kVp
  17. How many x-ray impulses occur in 1 second?
  18. How will the film appear if you increase the source to film distance?
  19. a form of secondary radiation that is the result of an x-ray beam that has been deflected from its path by the interaction with matter
    scatter radiation
  20. At the atomic level, which type of radiation effect accounts for most of the scatter radiation that takes place?
    compton scatter
  21. Which of the following results in the greatest radiation exposure reduction?
    fast emulsion speed
    aluminum filter
    fast emulsion speed
  22. radiation that is capable of producing ions by removing or adding an electron to an atom
    Ionizing radiation
  23. The propgation of wave-like energy (without mass) through space or matter, including; cosmic rays, gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet rays, visible light, infrared light, radar waves, microwaves, and radio waves
    electromagnetic radiation
  24. Low frequency electromagnification has _____ wavelength and ______ energy, and high frequency electromagnification has _____ wavelenth and _______ energy
    • long
    • less
    • short
    • more
  25. weightless bundles of energy without an electrical charge that travel in waves with a specific frequency at the speed of light
  26. The number of electrons passing through the cathode filament is adjusted by what?
  27. The current passing from the cathode to the anode is controlled by what?
    kilovoltage peak
  28. The distance from the source of radiation to the pt's skin
    target-surface distance
  29. distance from the source of radiation to the tooth
    target-object distance
  30. distance from the source of radiation to the film
    target-film distance
  31. The intensity of the x-ray beam is __________ as the distance increases