World History Final Exam

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World History Final Exam
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2010-12-16 16:03:25
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  1. what was the main reason for domestication of animals?
    it created a ready supply of meat and animal products
  2. what was the Neolithic Revolution
    (Agricultural Revolution)- when agriculture was developed
  3. what time in the past does "prehistoric" refer to?
    the time before the invention of writing
  4. what led to the rise of civilization
    agriculture-prosperous farming villages
  5. what are the 5 characteristics of Civilization?
    • -advanced cities
    • -advanced technology
    • -record keeping
    • -complex institutions
    • -specialized workers
  6. what important change does the beginning of the Sumerian Civilization signal?
    the beginning of written history (end of prehistory)
  7. how do we have any knowledge about history before the invention of writing?
    scientific clues from archaelogists, anthropologists, and paleontologists
  8. archaelogist
    study bones and artifacts
  9. anthropologists
    examine artifacts to recreate early cultures
  10. paleontologists
    study fossils
  11. why is specialization of workers important for the development of civilization?
    -allows people to learn to do one job very well

    -lead to the inventions of new products, a more complex society, and extra time for cultural and social development
  12. when was the Bronxe Age?
    time when people began using bronze(stop copper and stone) to fashion tools and weapons. (following Stone Age)
  13. what is culture?
    • a people's unique way of life
    • components
    • -common practices
    • -shared understandings
    • -social organization
  14. what is the Sumerian written language?
    cuneiform
  15. what principle of gov. did Hammurabi's Code demonstrate
    gov. had a responsibility for what occured in society
  16. what did the pyramids show about the Old Kingdom dynasties in Egypt?
    symbolized the strength of Egyptian civilization, economy, leadership. and technology.
  17. what was the ancient egyptian calender based on?
    the sun
  18. what is "China's Sorrow"
    the Yellow River (Huang He)...caused so much devastation by flooding
  19. what was the most important virtue in the Chinese Society
    respect for one's parents
  20. what was a major advantage of the Chinese Society?
    people in all parts of China could learn the same system of writing, even if their spoken languages were very different
  21. what is the most sacred writing of the Jewish religion?
    Torah
  22. What was the Phoenicians great legacy?
    their alphabet
  23. what advances did the Hittites make in war?
    the chariot and iron
  24. who led the Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt?
    Moses
  25. what are the Hindu and Buddhist terms for enlightment?
    Moksha and nirvana
  26. what was the basis of Hebrew law?
    The Ten Commandments
  27. what is ethical monotheism?
    the emphasis on right conduct and the worship of one God
  28. what is Canaan?
    land that God promised the Hebrews
  29. who united the Hebrews and established Jerusalem as the capital of Israel?
    King David
  30. what is karma?
    a soul's good and bad deeds
  31. who is Abraham?
    the "father" of the Hebrew people
  32. covenant
    a mutual promise made between God and his people
  33. who drove the Philistines out of Israel?
    King Saul
  34. what was the location of Nebuchadnezzar's hanging gardens (one of the seven wonders of the ancient world)?
    Babylon
  35. wgich Chinese philosophy stressed that social order, harmony, and good government could be restored by organizing society around five basic relationships?
    Confucianism
  36. what great structure was created by force labor to protect China from attacks by northern nomads?
    Great Wall of China
  37. what necessity caused the Assyrians to develop a strong army?
    they were frequently attacked in the Mesopotamia by invaders
  38. what belief of the prophet Zoroaster was simliar to later concepts in Christianity and Islam?
    Monotheism
  39. what was the chief purpose for constructing and using the Royal Road
    to make communication within the empire easier
  40. Among the conquests of the ancient world, what was Cyrus famous for?
    Tolerance of diversity
  41. who allowed the Jews to rebuild Solomon's temple in Jerusalem?
    The Persian King Cyrus
  42. what does Confucious believe will transform the people of China?
    education/knowledge
  43. which warriors used metal armor, copper helmets, and leather protection?
    Assyrians
  44. what significat democratic reform did Pericles carry out?
    he increased the # of paid public officials
  45. characteristics of "classical art"
    harmony, order, balance, proportion, beauty
  46. which philosopher was condemned to death for "corrupting the youth of Athens" and "neglecting the city's gods?"
    Socrates
  47. why was Alexandria, Egypt the foremost center for the spread of Hellenistic civilization?
    its strategic location, its museum and research library, and its rich mix of cultures
  48. who fought in the Peloponnesian war?
    Athenians and Spartans
  49. what cultures were blended into the Hellenistic culture?
    Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian
  50. what regions did Alexander the Great conquer?
    Greece, Persian Empire, Egypt, Indus Valley
  51. scientist that arrived at a fairly accurate calculation of the value of pi
    Archimedes
  52. emphasized duty, strength, and discipline
    Spartans
  53. blind story teller best known for Achilles and Odysseus
    Homer
  54. led a force of more than 50,000 soldiers and 60 elephants across the Alps to invade Italy
    Hannibal
  55. daring Roman general finally won the Second Punic Way
    Scipio
  56. after forcing Lepidus to retire, whos armies does Octavian defeat to become Emperor of Rome?
    Mark Antony and Cleopatra
  57. emperor ushered Rome into a 200-year period of peace and prosperity
    Augustus
  58. 200-year period of peace and prosperity in Rome
    Pax Romana
  59. which Roman ruler held the title of dictator at the time of his assassination by member of the Senate?
    Julius Caesar
  60. which Christian leader wrote letters that formed the Epistles of the New Testament to group believers?
    Paul
  61. who moved the capital of Rome to Byzantium?
    Constatine
  62. who is considere to be the first pope of the Christian Church?
    Peter
  63. what was the basis from many of Jesus' teachings?
    Monotheism and the Ten Commandments
  64. information about the life of Jesus come from where?
    the Gospel
  65. what family of languages developed from Latin?
    Romance Languages
  66. why did the triumvirate of Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey end?
    Caesar and Pompey became political rivals and went to war with one abother
  67. what characteristics a republic for of gov?
    representatives are elected by citizens to rule
  68. Jewish Diaspora
    Jews exiled from their homeland
  69. why did Diocletian divide the Roman Empire
    To make it easier to control (was huge!)
  70. what regions of the world today are still strongly influenced by the achievements of Rome?
    United States and Europe
  71. what are the basic principles of law modern gov. tool from Rome?
    -everyone had the right to = treatment under law

    -innocent till proven guilty

    -burden of proof rested with the accuser rather than the accused

    -a person should be punished for actions only, not thoughts

    -any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside
  72. a member of the wealthy, privileged upper class
    patricians
  73. the common farmers, merchants, workers, and artisans that made up the majority of Roman citizens
    plebians
  74. Greco-Roman culture- an ancient culture that developed from a blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman cultures
    Classical culture
  75. how did Justinian regulate his expansive empire
    a new set of laws (Justinian code)
  76. what awas the cause of a major disagreement between Leo III and the Western Christian Church
    Leo III banned the use of icons by Eastern Christians because he viewed their use as idol worship
  77. after the official division of the Christian Church, what became the state religion of the Byzantine Empire? Of the Western Roman Empire?
    • Byzantine Empire- Orthodox Church
    • Western Roman Empire- Roman Catholic
  78. who inveted the alphabet that is used by many Slavic languages?
    Cyril and Methodius (2 eastern orthodox missionaries)
  79. what did Yaroslav the Wise do that was not so wise?
    He divide his kingdom among all his son (civil war)
  80. what title did Ivan III take for himself? WHAT DOES IT MEAN?
    Czar, Caesar
  81. How did Russia win their freedom from Mongol rule?
    Both armies faced each other at the Ugra River, neither advanced and both turned around and marched home.
  82. what was the result of the bond between the Turks and the Persians?
    persians became gov officials. Turks took on the Persian culture, language, and religion- Islam
  83. why did the Crusades begin in 1095?
    Pope Urban II called on Christians to drive the Turks out of Anatolia and recover Jerusalem from the Muslim rule
  84. who conquered the Seljuk Empire?
    The Mongols
  85. in what city did Muhammad live when he received his message from Gabriel?
    Mecca
  86. arabic word for God?
    Allah
  87. what are the basic beliefs of Islam?
    • -only one God, Allah
    • -there is good and evil
    • -each individual is responsible for the actions of his or her life
  88. what links does Islam have to Judaism and Christianity
    to muslims, allah is the same God that is worshiped in Christianity and Judaism
  89. jihad
    • -inner struggle against evil
    • -an armed struggle against nonbelievers

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