World History Final Exam
Card Set Information
World History Final Exam
greeks spartans dajbsla
what was the main reason for domestication of animals?
it created a ready supply of meat and animal products
what was the Neolithic Revolution
(Agricultural Revolution)- when agriculture was developed
what time in the past does "prehistoric" refer to?
the time before the invention of writing
what led to the rise of civilization
agriculture-prosperous farming villages
what are the 5 characteristics of Civilization?
what important change does the beginning of the Sumerian Civilization signal?
the beginning of written history (end of prehistory)
how do we have any knowledge about history before the invention of writing?
scientific clues from archaelogists, anthropologists, and paleontologists
study bones and artifacts
examine artifacts to recreate early cultures
why is specialization of workers important for the development of civilization?
-allows people to learn to do one job very well
-lead to the inventions of new products, a more complex society, and extra time for cultural and social development
when was the Bronxe Age?
time when people began using bronze(stop copper and stone) to fashion tools and weapons. (following Stone Age)
what is culture?
a people's unique way of life
what is the Sumerian written language?
what principle of gov. did Hammurabi's Code demonstrate
gov. had a responsibility for what occured in society
what did the pyramids show about the Old Kingdom dynasties in Egypt?
symbolized the strength of Egyptian civilization, economy, leadership. and technology.
what was the ancient egyptian calender based on?
what is "China's Sorrow"
the Yellow River (Huang He)...caused so much devastation by flooding
what was the most important virtue in the Chinese Society
respect for one's parents
what was a major advantage of the Chinese Society?
people in all parts of China could learn the same system of writing, even if their spoken languages were very different
what is the most sacred writing of the Jewish religion?
What was the Phoenicians great legacy?
what advances did the Hittites make in war?
the chariot and iron
who led the Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt?
what are the Hindu and Buddhist terms for enlightment?
Moksha and nirvana
what was the basis of Hebrew law?
The Ten Commandments
what is ethical monotheism?
the emphasis on right conduct and the worship of one God
what is Canaan?
land that God promised the Hebrews
who united the Hebrews and established Jerusalem as the capital of Israel?
what is karma?
a soul's good and bad deeds
who is Abraham?
the "father" of the Hebrew people
a mutual promise made between God and his people
who drove the Philistines out of Israel?
what was the location of Nebuchadnezzar's hanging gardens (one of the seven wonders of the ancient world)?
wgich Chinese philosophy stressed that social order, harmony, and good government could be restored by organizing society around five basic relationships?
what great structure was created by force labor to protect China from attacks by northern nomads?
Great Wall of China
what necessity caused the Assyrians to develop a strong army?
they were frequently attacked in the Mesopotamia by invaders
what belief of the prophet Zoroaster was simliar to later concepts in Christianity and Islam?
what was the chief purpose for constructing and using the Royal Road
to make communication within the empire easier
Among the conquests of the ancient world, what was Cyrus famous for?
Tolerance of diversity
who allowed the Jews to rebuild Solomon's temple in Jerusalem?
The Persian King Cyrus
what does Confucious believe will transform the people of China?
which warriors used metal armor, copper helmets, and leather protection?
what significat democratic reform did Pericles carry out?
he increased the # of paid public officials
characteristics of "classical art"
harmony, order, balance, proportion, beauty
which philosopher was condemned to death for "corrupting the youth of Athens" and "neglecting the city's gods?"
why was Alexandria, Egypt the foremost center for the spread of Hellenistic civilization?
its strategic location, its museum and research library, and its rich mix of cultures
who fought in the Peloponnesian war?
Athenians and Spartans
what cultures were blended into the Hellenistic culture?
Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian
what regions did Alexander the Great conquer?
Greece, Persian Empire, Egypt, Indus Valley
scientist that arrived at a fairly accurate calculation of the value of pi
emphasized duty, strength, and discipline
blind story teller best known for Achilles and Odysseus
led a force of more than 50,000 soldiers and 60 elephants across the Alps to invade Italy
daring Roman general finally won the Second Punic Way
after forcing Lepidus to retire, whos armies does Octavian defeat to become Emperor of Rome?
Mark Antony and Cleopatra
emperor ushered Rome into a 200-year period of peace and prosperity
200-year period of peace and prosperity in Rome
which Roman ruler held the title of dictator at the time of his assassination by member of the Senate?
which Christian leader wrote letters that formed the Epistles of the New Testament to group believers?
who moved the capital of Rome to Byzantium?
who is considere to be the first pope of the Christian Church?
what was the basis from many of Jesus' teachings?
Monotheism and the Ten Commandments
information about the life of Jesus come from where?
what family of languages developed from Latin?
why did the triumvirate of Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey end?
Caesar and Pompey became political rivals and went to war with one abother
what characteristics a republic for of gov?
representatives are elected by citizens to rule
Jews exiled from their homeland
why did Diocletian divide the Roman Empire
To make it easier to control (was huge!)
what regions of the world today are still strongly influenced by the achievements of Rome?
United States and Europe
what are the basic principles of law modern gov. tool from Rome?
-everyone had the right to = treatment under law
-innocent till proven guilty
-burden of proof rested with the accuser rather than the accused
-a person should be punished for actions only, not thoughts
-any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside
a member of the wealthy, privileged upper class
the common farmers, merchants, workers, and artisans that made up the majority of Roman citizens
Greco-Roman culture- an ancient culture that developed from a blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman cultures
how did Justinian regulate his expansive empire
a new set of laws (Justinian code)
what awas the cause of a major disagreement between Leo III and the Western Christian Church
Leo III banned the use of icons by Eastern Christians because he viewed their use as idol worship
after the official division of the Christian Church, what became the state religion of the Byzantine Empire? Of the Western Roman Empire?
Byzantine Empire- Orthodox Church
Western Roman Empire- Roman Catholic
who inveted the alphabet that is used by many Slavic languages?
Cyril and Methodius (2 eastern orthodox missionaries)
what did Yaroslav the Wise do that was not so wise?
He divide his kingdom among all his son (civil war)
what title did Ivan III take for himself? WHAT DOES IT MEAN?
How did Russia win their freedom from Mongol rule?
Both armies faced each other at the Ugra River, neither advanced and both turned around and marched home.
what was the result of the bond between the Turks and the Persians?
persians became gov officials. Turks took on the Persian culture, language, and religion- Islam
why did the Crusades begin in 1095?
Pope Urban II called on Christians to drive the Turks out of Anatolia and recover Jerusalem from the Muslim rule
who conquered the Seljuk Empire?
in what city did Muhammad live when he received his message from Gabriel?
arabic word for God?
what are the basic beliefs of Islam?
-only one God, Allah
-there is good and evil
-each individual is responsible for the actions of his or her life
what links does Islam have to Judaism and Christianity
to muslims, allah is the same God that is worshiped in Christianity and Judaism
-inner struggle against evil
-an armed struggle against nonbelievers