Scholarly Research Final

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Scholarly Research Final
2010-12-15 23:03:43

Research final review
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  1. Inductive reasoning
    • Moves from the specific to the general
    • e.g. A headache is an altered level of health that is stressful. A terminal illness is an altered level of health that is stressful.
    • Therefore, all altered levels of health are stressful
  2. Deductive reasoning
    • Moves from the general to the specific
    • Generalizing
    • e.g. All human being experience loss. All adolescents are human beings.
    • Therefore, all adolescents experience loss
  3. Premise
    A statement of the proposed relationship between concepts
  4. Quantitative research
    • A formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information about the world
    • Pretest-posttest
    • Randomized clinical trial - experimental group vs. control group
  5. Qualitative research
    • A systematic, subjective approach used to describe life experiences and situations
    • Gives them meaning
  6. Outcomes research
    • Examining the end result of patient care (subjects and providers)
    • May involve multiple studies and designs
    • Determining changes in health status for the patient
    • 1. What's the patient response?
    • 2. Improvement of the patient's health
    • 3. Financial outcomes
    • 4. Patient satisfaction
  7. Descriptive research
    • The exploration and description of phenomena in real-life situations; discovers new meaning, what exists, frequency of event
    • A type of quantitative research
  8. Correlational research
    • The systematic investigation of relationships between variables
    • -1 = perfect negative correlation
    • 0 = no relationship
    • +1 = perfect positive correlation
  9. Quasi-experimental research
    • Conducted to determine the effect of a treatment
    • Determines the effect of one variable on another
    • Lacks strict control, sample, and setting
  10. Experimental research
    • Examines causality between the independent and dependent variables under highly controlled conditions (e.g. lab)
    • Needs randomly assigned control and experimental groups
    • Predicts and controls phenomena in nursing practice
  11. Rigor
    (in quantitative research)
    • Striving for excellence in research
    • Discipline, adherence to detail, strict accuracy
    • Needs precise measuring tools, a representative sample, and a tightly controlled study design
  12. Precision
    • An aspect of rigor
    • Encompasses accuracy, detail, and order
  13. Problem-solving process
    Systematic identification of a problem, determination of goals, planning approaches to achieve goals, implementation of approaches, evaluation of goal achievement
  14. Nursing process
    • Assessment
    • Diagnosis
    • Planning
    • Implementation
    • Evaluation
  15. Quantitative research process
    Conceptualizing a research project, planning and implementing that project, communicating the findings
  16. Research problem
    An area of concern where there is a gap in knowledge
  17. Research purpose
    • Identifies the specific goal of the study
    • Generated from the problem
  18. Framework
    • Theoretical basis that guides development of study
    • Enables the researcher to link findings to nursing's body of knowledge
    • A testable theory
  19. Conceptual definition
    • Provides an abstract variable or concept with theoretical meaning
    • e.g. physical symptoms are 'behavior manifestations of blah blah blah'
    • connotative
  20. Operational definition
    • Developed so that the variable can be measured or
    • manipulated in the study
    • e.g. physical symptoms are measures with ASI Questionnaires
  21. Assumptions
    Statements that are considered true, even though they have not been scientifically tested
  22. Research design
    • A blueprint for the conduct of a study
    • Maximizes control over factors that could interfere with study's desired outcome
  23. Population vs. Sample
    • Population: all individuals that meet certain criteria for
    • inclusion in a study
    • Sample: a subset of the population that is selected for a study
  24. Phenomenological research
    • Describes experiences as they are lived
    • “What is the meaning of one's lived experiences?”
  25. Grounded theory research
    • Discovers the problems that exist in social scenes and the process that people use to handle them
    • Based on social interactions
  26. Ethnographic research
    • Studies cultures
    • Emic approach – studies from within
    • Etic approach – studies from outside
  27. External criticism
    Determines validity of source material
  28. Internal criticism
    Examines the reliability of the document
  29. External validity
  30. Internal validity
    Do results of a study reflect reality rather than extraneous variables?
  31. Reflexive thought
    The researcher explores personal feelings and experiences that may influence the study and integrates this understanding into the study
  32. Bracketing
    • Suspending or laying aside what the researcher knows about the experience being studied
    • Using reflexive thought
  33. Rigor
    (in qualitative research)
    Openness, scrupulous adherence to a philosophical perspective, thoroughness in collecting data, and consideration of all the data
  34. Research objective
    • A clear, concise, declarative statement
    • Present tense
    • Usually focuses on one or two variables
  35. Research question
    • A clear, concise interrogative statement
    • Present tense
    • Guides implementation of study
  36. Hypothesis
    Formal statement of the expected relationship between variables
  37. Associative hypothesis
    • Proposes relationships among variables that exist together in the real world (they are related)
    • e.g. predicts the relationship between symptoms and functional performance in COPD
  38. Simple hypothesis
    States a relationship (associative or causal) between two variables
  39. Complex hypothesis
    States a relationship (associative or causal) between three or more variables.
  40. Nondirectional hypothesis
    States that a relationship exists but does not predict the nature of the relationship
  41. Null/statistical hypothesis
    States "There is no relationship between ______"
  42. Research hypothesis
    • Alternative to the null hypothesis
    • States "There is a relationship between _______"
  43. Independent variable
    Is manipulated by the researcher
  44. Dependent variable
    • Outcome or response that the researcher wants to predict or explain
    • Depends on the independent variable
  45. Confounding variables
    Extraneous variables that are recognized but cannot be controlled for
  46. Abstract ideas
    • Conceptual model: broadly explains phenomena of interest, most abstract
    • Middle range theories: linked to clinical practice, less abstract
    • Practice theories: proposes specific approaches, least abstract
  47. Scientific misconduct
    • fabrication, falsification, or forging of data
    • dishonest manipulation
    • misrepresentation of findings
    • plagiarism
  48. Three ethical principles to conduct research
    • respect for person: self-determination, freedom
    • beneficence: do good, "above all, do no harm"
    • justice: subjects should be treated fairly
  49. Informed consent
    (4 elements)
    • disclosure of essential study information
    • comprehension
    • competence to give consent
    • voluntary consent
  50. Comparative descriptive research design
    Describes variables and examines differences in variables in naturally occuring groups
  51. Variance analysis
    • tracking individuals and group variance from a specific pathway
    • goal is to decrease preventable variance
    • aka, help patients achieve optimal outcomes
  52. Random variation
    expected difference between subjects in a sample
  53. Systematic variation
    • subjects in a sample are systematically different than the rest of the population
    • aka. systematic bias
  54. Simple random sampling
    randomly selecting subjects from a list of population members
  55. Stratified random sampling
    ensures that all identified variables (age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconimoc status, diagnosis, region, type of care, etc) are adequately represented in the sample
  56. Cluster sampling
    • selects from a random sample of areas in a study
    • certain cities, or institutions, or organizations, all with potential identified population
  57. Systematic sampling
    selecting ever nth individual from a complete list of the population
  58. Probability sampling
    Nonprobability sampling
    • Probability sampling: every member of a population has an opportunity for selection in a sample
    • Nonprobability sampling: not every member of a population has an opportunity for selection
  59. Convenience sampling
    subjects are included in the study becase they're in the right place at the right time
  60. Quota sampling
    • convenience sampling + an attempt to include an underrepresented population
    • e.g. females, minorities, elderly, poor, rich, undereducated
  61. Power
    capacity of the study to detect differences or relationships that actually exist in a population
  62. Purposive sampling
    • researcher consciously selects certain subjects
    • used in qualitative research
  63. Network sampling
    • "snowball sampling"
    • uses social networks to recruit more subjects
    • used in qualitative research
  64. Theoretical sampling
    • conducts one interview, forms theory, seeks another source if necessary, etc
    • used in grounded theory research
  65. Nominal measurement
    categorizes data
  66. Ordinal measurement
    • ranked categories
    • intervals are unequal
  67. Interval measurement
    • interval scales, with equal numerical distances between intervals
    • no absolute zero
    • e.g. temperature
  68. Ratio measurement
    • ordered ranks, equal numberical distance between intervals, has an absoluate zero
    • e.g. weight, length, volume
  69. Reliability
    consistency of the measurement technique
  70. Validity
    how well does an instrument reflect abstract concept being examined
  71. Relationship between reliability and validity
    • If a measurement method is not reliable, validity becomes a moot issue
    • If a measurement is not consistent, it wont reflect reality
  72. Serendipity
    accidental discovery of something useful or valuable
  73. Median
    score in the exact center of the frequency distribution
  74. Mean
  75. Probability theory
    Decision theory
    • Probability theory: deductive, explains a relationship
    • Decision theory: inductive, assumes that all groups are compenents of same population in relation to variables
  76. Type I error
    Type II error
    • I: null hypothesis is rejected when it should be accepted
    • II: null hypothesis is accepted when it should be rejected