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An increase in behavior that removes or reduces an aversive stimulus
Drug that blocks opiate receptors; antagonizes the reinforcing effects of opiates.
Sudden withdrawal from a drug caused by a technique of blocking the effects with an antagonist.
Something the organism will approach.When a behavior is regularly followed by this, causes positive reinforcement.
Factors are the positive reinforcement and the speed of the effects-Drugs with more immediate effects are more addictive
Important role in reinforcement, all addictive drugs that produce positive reinforcement stimulate dopamine release in the NAC.
Nueral changes begin in the VTA and NAC eventually involve the dorsal striatum which is critical in intrumental conditioning.
The urge to take a drug to which it becomes addictive; cannot be explained by withdrawal symptoms.
vmPFC plays an inhibitory role in reinstatement, dACC plays a facilitatory role.
ACC, OFC, Insula, Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.
Cravings for appetizing food increases activity in these.
Higher proportion of drug addicts than general population
produce analgesia, hypothermia, sedation, and reinforcement.
May play a role in the reinforcing a effects of stimuli such as water or addictive drugs.
- Inhibits the reuptake of dopamine by terminal buttons.
- Reinforcing effects mediated by increase dopamine in NAC. Symptoms of alertness, activation, and psychotic like paranoid schizo.
Causes the dopamine transporters in terminal buttons to run in reverse, releasing dopamine from terminal buttons. Reinforcing effects mediated by dopamine in NAC.
Chronic abuse associated with reduced number of dopaminergic axons & terminals in the striatum which may be involved in the development of hypofrontality.
Stimulates the release of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons. Smoking excites nioctinic acetylcholine receptors and also desensitizes them leading to withdrawal.
Insula & Nicotine
Damage to the Insula is associated with the cessation to smoking which can lead to weight gain b/c nicotine releases GABA in the hypothalamus which decreases activity of MCH neurons which reduce food intake.
Alcohol During Development
Exposure causes neural destruction through apoptosis.
- Has positive reinforcing effects and through anxiolytic action, has negative reinfocring effects.
- Indirect antagonist at NMDA receptors
- Indirect agonist at GABA receptors
- Stimulates dopamine release in NAC
Can lead to seizures caused by compensatory upregulation of NMDA receptors.
endogenous opioids plays a role in reinforcement, increase in number of u opiate receptors during abstinence intensify cravings
- Stimulates release of dopamine in NAC.
- CB1 receptor is responsible for effects of THC.
- Produces memory deficits by acting on inhibitory GABAergic neurons.
- Its been indicated that cannabis use is associated with incidence of Schizophrenia
- When mutated there is a reduced reinforcing effect of alcohol, cocaine, and opiates and cannabinoids.
- Blocking reduces nicotine effects.
Heredity and Drug Abuse
- Most ppl exposed to addictive drugs dont become addicts.
- Likelihood is strongly effected by heredity.
- Ex. variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, u opiate, GABA, and acetylcholine receptors involved in susceptibility to alcoholism.
Replaces addiction to heroin by addiction to a opiate that does not make a euphoric effect.
Partial agonist for u opiate receptors reduces crazings for opiates and isnt of interest to opiate addicts especially combined with naltrexone.
GVG (gamma-vinyl GABA)
Promising for Cocaine addiction.
CB1 receptor antagonist aids in quiting smoking and reduces the likelihood of weight gain.
An antidepressant drug; shown to help smokers stop their habit.
Partial Agonist for the nicotinic receptor is one of the more effective possibly for smoking.
- An opiate receptor blocker that is the most effective adjunct treatment for alcoholism as it reduces the its reinforcing effects.
- Addition of Acamprosate (NMDA receptor antagonist) helps facilitate these effects.