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What is Taxonomy?
The branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying organisms
Term that means true relationships between animals.
SpeciesList the seven important taxonomic levels.
Name the five kingdoms.
What are Monera?
Bacteria and bluegreens (Cyanobacteria)
What is a Prokaryote?
Simple cell lacking organelles
No membrane bound nucleus
DNA is a circular chromosome
How do Monera consume food?
- Some are heterotrophic and some are autotrophic.
- ( Photosynthetic and Chemosynthetic)
What are Protista?
Mostly single celled.
Can be photosynthetic, heterotrophic, or both.
What are Fungi?
Multicellular and have a rigid chitinous cell wall.
Heterotrophs, decomposers. Use exoenzymes.
What are Plantae?
Rigid cell walls (Cellulose)
Multicellular, with different cell types
What are Animalia?
Multicellular, with diverse cells, lacking a cell wall.
Tissues develop from embryonic layers.
What is a cladogram?
It is a graphic representation of evolutionary relationships.
What is Archaea?
They were first considered extremophiles, but were later found in less extreme environments.
Morphologically similar to Eubacteria
Their RNA is different from other organisms.
What are the three domains?
Eukarya, Eubacteria, and Archaea
Who is Carolus Linnaeus?
The father of Binomial Nomenclature.
What is Binomial Nomenclature?
Universally recognized system of naming. Genus is capitalized. Specific epithet is in lower case.
What does carbon readily bond with?
C, H, O, N, P, and S
What are the four Macromolecules?
Lipids, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids
What is dehydration synthesis?
It is removing water to join to molecules together.
What is Hydrolysis?
It is adding water to split a molecule apart.
What is a Carbohydrate?
Simple sugars and their polymers.
They are either an Aldehide or Keytone.
C, H, O have and 1:2:1 ratio.
What is a Disaccharide?
It is two simple sugars, linked together by a glycosidic link. (Covalent bond)
What are Lipids?
They are hydrophobic.
Mainly hydrocarbon regions with non-polar bonds.
Includes fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes.
What are Fats?
It is a carbon compound with fatty acid tails attached to it.
What is an example of a fat?
Triacylglycerols: a glycerol and three fatty acids.
What is a saturated fat?
It is a fat with only single bonds and has no kinks in the tail. This makes it a solid at room temperature.
What is an unsaturated fat?
It is a fat that contains one or more double bonds. This makes a kink in the tail and it is a liquid at room temperature.
Which has more energy, 1 gram of fat or 1 gram of carbohydrates?
Fat. It is also easy to store in animals and plants.
What is a steroid?
It is four fused carbon rings and their functional groups. It includes cholesterol and some hormones.
What are waxes?
They are long fatty acid chains plus rings or alcohols. They are water proof and are used in many structures.
What are proteins used for?
Support, Storage, Transport, Stimulation hormones, Movement, Defense, and Enzymes.
How many proteins are there?
The book says twenty but there are more.
What do R groups determine?
They determine properties of the amino acids.
Example: polar and nonpolar. Positive or negative charge. Acid or Base.