English 1 review 2 (terms)

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English 1 review 2 (terms)
2010-12-15 19:34:58

Grammar and literary terms
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  1. Nouns
    • common
    • proper
  2. Pronouns
    • personal
    • possessive
    • demonstrative
    • interrogative
    • indefinite
    • relative
    • reflexive
    • intensive
  3. Verbs
    • a word plus another work, linking or action.
    • linking, action, transitive or intransitive
  4. Ajectives
    modify pronouns or other nouns
  5. Adverbs
    • modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs
    • usually end in -ly
    • examples: also, very, rather, and too
  6. Prepositions
    • a word cannot not be a preposition unless its in a prep phrase
    • prep + noun/pronoun, if it is at the end of a sentence it is an adverb
  7. Conjunctions
    • coordinating- (and, but, or, so, yet?
    • correlative- (two words put together to make a conj.)
    • subordiating - (because,if, when, sine
  8. Subjects
    what or who the sentence is talking about
  9. Direct object
    answers what or who after the ver
  10. Indirect object
    • No Io without Do
    • Io comes before do
  11. Object Complement
    refers to DO- can be a noun or pronoun
  12. Predicate Nominative and Adjective
    • a noun that refers to the subject
    • a adjective that refers to the subjet
  13. Prepositional phrases
    • first word must be a prep word
    • the phrase can act as a adjective, noun or pronoun
    • also, the phrase can act as an adverb describing adjs, verbs, or other advs.
  14. Appositives
    • two nouns next to each other; one renames the other
    • usually set off by commas
  15. Participial Phrases
    • the first word is formed from a verb
    • the participle ends with an -ing, -en, or -ed
    • the whole phrase acts like an adjective
    • the phrase will be next to the noun/pronoun it is describing
  16. Gerunds
    • the word is formed by a verb
    • the whole phrase acts like a noun
    • the first word ends in -ing
    • the phrase is next to the noun/pronoun it is describing
  17. Infinitive Phrases
    the first words are: to + a verb
  18. Adjective Clause
    • first word will be a relative pronoun
    • will be next to the noun/pronoun it is describing
  19. Adverb Clause
    • First word will be a subordinating conjunction
    • will describe a verb, adjective, or other adverbs
  20. Noun Clause
    • will start with either relative pronouns or subordinating conjunctions
    • will be placed next to a verb or after a preposition
    • *try substituting the word it for the whole clause
  21. Conflict
    a struggle between opposing forces
  22. Round Character
    has many qualities and traits
  23. Foil
    a character who illuminates another character
  24. Epiphany
    a sudden realization
  25. Tone
    the authors attitude towards his subject
  26. PoV Third Person Limited
    uses pronouns he/she; the reader sees the world through one characters eyes
  27. PoV Third Person Omniscient
    the reader can see what any character thinks and feels
  28. PoV First Person
    uses the pronoun "I"; the reader sees only what the narrator sees
  29. Foreshadowing
    clues that suggest events to come
  30. Metaphor
    a direct comparison of 2 unlike things
  31. Situational Irony
    the expected outcome is different than the actual outcome
  32. Dramatic Irony
    when the reader knows what the characters do not know
  33. Verbal Irony
    saying on thing and meaning another
  34. Theme
    the central idea or meaning
  35. Allusion
    a reference to past literature or history
  36. Symbolism
    the practice of representing things by symbols, or ofinvesting things with a symbolic meaning or character.