Biology Final

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caralarissa
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56403
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Biology Final
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2010-12-15 21:49:12
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animal diversity population ecologly biology
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  1. Determinate
    Fate of each cell is determined
  2. Indeterminate
    Fate of cell is determined at a later time
  3. Stem Cell
    Taking of a cell and trying to convince it that it is a new cell at the beginning of its formation
  4. Multicellular Ancestor
    • Assymetrical ancestor
    • Radial ancestor
    • Bilateral ancestor -> Coelomate
  5. Prorifera
    • Sponges
    • Assymmetry
    • No tissues
    • Aggregate of cells
    • Spicules - supportive
  6. What are the names of the 8 phylum?
    • Chordates
    • Echinoderms
    • Arthropods
    • Annelids
    • Mollusks
    • Platyhelminths
    • Cnidarians
    • Profiera
  7. Which have coelomate ancestors?
    • Deuterostomes (Chordates, echinoderms)
    • Protosomes (anthropods, annelids, mollusks)
  8. Cnidaria
    • jellyfish - medusa stage
    • anemones - polyp
    • hydra - polyp
    • corals - colonial polyps
  9. What are the characteristics of cnidarians?
    • 2 tissue layers (ectoderm & endoderm)
    • Radial symmetry
    • Toxic substance
  10. What are humans?
    Homo sapiens
  11. What are the different body plans and examples of each?
    • Radial symmetry - jellyfish
    • Bilateral symmetry - humans
    • Assymmetry - no symmetry
  12. Ectoderm
    epidermis and nerve chord
  13. Mesoderm
    Blood - skeletal system, muscle, blood vessels
  14. Endoderm
    gut lining
  15. Coelom
    Body cavity surrounded by differentiated mesoderm
  16. Protosomes
    • 1st mouth
    • Blastophore -> mouth
    • Ectoderm forms the skeleton
    • Mesoderm splits to form coelom
    • Determinate spinal cleavage
  17. Deuterostomes
    • 2nd mouth
    • Blastophore forms anus and second opening becomes teh mouth
    • Mesoderm outpouches
    • Indeterminate radial cleavage
  18. Platyhelminths
    • Flat worms
    • Free living - planaria
    • Cephalization
    • Bilateral
    • Gastrovascular cavity
    • Parasitic (tapeworm
    • 3 tissue layers
    • no coelom
  19. How do tapeworm absorb nutrients?
    Through their integument
  20. Nematodes
    • (worms)
    • Free-living in soil
    • Parasitic
    • Complete digestive tract
    • Grow by shedding outter cuticle
    • Have coelom
  21. Caehorhabdits Elegans (C. Elegans)
    • Nematodes
    • 1000 cells as an adult
    • 15,000 different genes
  22. Population
    Group of individuals of the same species taht live in the same area at the same time
  23. Species (morphological and biological concept)
    • Biological - group of indiviuals that interbreed and produce viable fertile offspring
    • Morphological - Tyrannosaurus Rex
  24. What does the population of snapping turtles look for?
    • # of females producing nests
    • # of eggs per nest
    • Size of eggs
  25. Emmigration
    Leaving population
  26. Immigration
    Entering population
  27. J-shaped curve
    exponent growth
  28. What happens if the populations continues to grow exponentially?
    Resources become limited
  29. What leads to introspecific competition?
    K
  30. Introspecified competition
    Competition within a species
  31. Density - dependent factors that affect population growth
    Dependent on food
  32. Density - indepedent factors that affet population growth
    • Dependent solely on the individuals and not food
    • Disease
    • Climate
    • Weather
  33. Opportunistic Life History
    • Demonstrate r-selective traits
    • No parental care
    • Many small offspring
    • "boom and bust"
    • Less stable population
    • More likely to be affected by density independent factors
    • Semelparity
  34. Semelparity
    Die after giving birth
  35. Equilibrial Life Histories
    • Demonstrate k-selective traits
    • Few large offspring
    • Parental care
    • Live within their carrying capacity
    • Stable population
    • Density - dependent factors
    • Many reproductive eventss (interoparity)
  36. Interparity
    Capable of reproducting many times during life cycle
  37. R-selective traits
    Traits that have evolved to increase reproduction
  38. K-selective Traits
    Evolved to allow animals to live within their carrying capacity
  39. Communities
    Groups of different species interacting with each other
  40. Species Diversity
    • # of different species
    • Relative abundance of each species
  41. Exploitative Competition
    When consumption of a limiting resource by one species makes that resource unavailable for consumption by others
  42. Interference Competition
    • Occurs directly between individuals via aggression
    • etc. when the individuals interfere with foraging, survival,
    • reproduction of others, or by directly preventing their physical establishment in a portion of the habitat.
  43. Niche
    Everything an animal does (eat, mate)
  44. What did Gause discover?
    Competitive exclusion
  45. Competitive Exclusion
    States that two species with identical niches cannot coexist in the same place if other ecological factors are constant. When one species has even the slightest advantage or edge over another, then the one with the advantage will dominate in the long term.
  46. Niche overlap
    When two species compete for the sme limiting resource therefor tehy overlap and develop similar traits
  47. Why is introspective competition more serious than interspecific competition?
    Because the species compete within their own species
  48. Barnacle
    • A type of arthropod belonging to infraclass Ciripedia in the subphylum Crustacea
    • Related to crabs and lobsters
  49. Symbiotic Relationships
    • mutualism - both organisms benefit
    • Ex. Yucca plant and yucca moth: The yucca plant uses the moth for pollination and the yucca moth lays eggs in ovaries of yucca plany & larvae hatch and feed on the seeds
  50. Other examples of symbiotic relationships
    • Acadia trees & ants: The trees have nodules that the ants live in and it also provides food for the ants
    • Trees and Fungi-mycorrhizae: Trees provide food for fungi & fungi bring inorganic nutrients & water
  51. Coevolution
    • Also known as the Red Queen hypothesis
    • Students keep evolving with cheating mechanisms and professors catch on so in the end, everyone is in the same place
  52. Protosomes
    • Mollusks
    • Bivalves
    • Gastropods
    • Cephalopods
  53. Bivalves
    • 2 shells
    • Clams, mussels, oysters
    • Scallops -> take in water to trap to make mucous
    • mucus helps food particles pass through the mouth
  54. Gastropods
    • Snails, slugs
    • Feed by graspping their radula (rough tongue) - scrapes food it is eating
  55. Cephalopods
    • Octopus, squids
    • Internal support system ("pen")
    • "beaks to scrape food
    • Squirt out ink as a defense
    • Eyes just as vertebrate eyes
    • Octopus - changes color to camoflage
  56. Annelids
    • (ventral nerve cord -> solid dorsal hearts)
    • Segmented worms
    • Circular & longitudinal muscles -
    • contract longitudinal muscles body shortens
    • contracts circular muscles body longates
    • Individual compartments (coelom)
    • Fluid filled
    • Hydrostatic skeleton - w/o worm would be flat
  57. Major Groups of Annelids
    • Oligochaetes - earthworms
    • Polychaetes -clam worms
  58. Arthropods
    • Chelicerates - horse shoe crabs
    • Arachnids
    • Crustaceans
    • Insects
  59. Arachnids
    • 4 leg pairs
    • Spiders
    • Scorpions
    • Ticks
    • Mites
    • Inject a fluid into prey that digests the inside so predator can suck the fluid out
  60. Millipedes
    • Herbivores
    • 2 pair of legs per segment
  61. Centipedes
    • Predators (carnivores)
    • 1 pair of legs per segment
  62. Crustaceans
    • Pecapods - 5 pair of legs
    • Lobsters
    • Shrimps
    • Crabs
    • Barnacles
    • Krill
  63. Insects
    • 3 pair of legs
    • Acquatic
    • Land
    • Air
  64. Deuterostome Phyla
    • Echinoderms
    • Chordates
    • Urochordates
  65. Echinoderms
    • Sea stars - 2degrees radial
    • Sea Cucumbers - water vascular system
    • Sea urchins - set of tubes run through the body
  66. Chordates
    • sub phylum - cephalochordata, urochordates vertebrates
    • Dorsal hollow nerve chord
    • Notochord (mouth)
    • Gill slits
  67. Urochordates
    • "uro" means tall
    • Tunicates
    • Sea squirst
    • Subphylum - vertebrates (bone) presence of vertebral column
  68. Fish
    • Tetrapods - amphibians, reptiles
    • Birds are endothermic - feathers, hair
    • Ectothermic - warm body with external heat
    • Fish are ectothermic
  69. Mammals
    • Monothemes
    • Echialna -> spiny ant eater
    • Duck billed platypus - leathery eggs, embryo hatched before developmetn attached to a sweat gland till mature
  70. Marsupials
    • Opossum
    • Kangaroos
    • Koalas
  71. Placentals
    • Normal birth - embryo fuly grows into mom and tehn comes out
    • Afterbirth (placenta_
  72. Keystone Predator
    An animal that is important for maintainging species richness (number of species) in a community
  73. Prey Defenses
    • Bad tasting
    • Can make predator sick
    • Spray noxcious chemicals - skunk
    • Cause pain - bombadier beetle
    • Advertising - animals with a white stripe should be avoided (hornets/ wasps have black & yellow stripes)
  74. Mimicry
    Good tasting animal will mimic a bad tasting animal in order to protect itself from predators
  75. Snakes (coral snake)
    • Red & yellow kill a fellow
    • Red & black friend of Jack
  76. Camouflage
    • Caterpillars camouflage into bird droppings
    • Arctic hares fur changes from brown to white to avoid predators
  77. Succession
    Changes in community overtime
  78. Primary Succession
    • Volcanic island
    • Recently deglaciated region
    • Pioneer species -> grass -> weeds -> pernials -> shrubs -> trees
    • (lichens)
  79. Secondary Succession
    • Soil
    • Forrest - remove trees
    • -> farmland -> forrest
  80. Climax Community
    Last kind of vegetation (final community)
  81. DDT
    Pesticide used to kill mosquitos
  82. Laws of Thermodynamics
    • Energy can not be created or destroyed but it can be converted into other forms of energy
    • At every conversion, there is a loss of energy in the amount of ?
  83. Autotrophs
    Plants
  84. Flow of energy
    Producers (autotrophs) -> herbivores (grasshopper) -> carnivores -> decomposers
  85. Net primary productivity
    Gross primary productivity - (minus) respiration
  86. Talga
    • Cold
    • Slower decompostition rates
  87. Temperate Decidous Forest
    • Simultaneous leaf drop (fall)
    • Simultaneous leaf out (spring)
    • Warmer climate supports greater decomposition rates
  88. Tundra
    • Lichens
    • No trees
    • Slow decompostion rate

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