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Bivariate Tables:
a table, which examines the relationship between two variables (crosstabulation).

Coding:
The assignment of numerical values to responses/information gathered using a research instrument.

Components of Reliability: Consistency:
Consistency of measurement is determined by whether the set of items used to measure a phenomenon are highly related (associated with each other) and measuring the same concept.

Components of Reliability: Stability:
Stability of measurement is determined by whether, assuming that conditions(rival causal factors) have not changed, a respondent will give the sameanswer to the question on a second testing.

Construct (Concept) Validity:
Accuracy ofthe instrument in measuring the concept it was designed to measure (e.g., thefit between the theory and the operational or working definition of terms).

Content Analysis:
Systematic classificationand study of the content of mass media, such as newspapers and television.

Content Validity:
Accuracy of individual itemsin a scale in measuring the concept being measured.

Convergentdiscriminant Validity:
Different measures of the same concept should yield similar results (convergence).Whereas the same measure of different concepts should yield different results(discrimination).

Crime Seriousness Scales:
Procedures thatassign weights or ratings to various crimes to measure severity.

Data Archives:
Data libraries ororganizations that store date resources (raw data) from pervious researchstudies.

Data Verification:
doublechecking a datafile to find and correct errors.

Descriptive statistics:
statistics intended to summarize or describe data.

Face Validity:
Accuracy of the instrument in measuring (on face value) that whichis intended.

Focus Groups:
Purposively selected groupsbrought together to measure theirreactions to some stimuli (for example, a commercial).

Frequency Distribution:
procedure to display a single variable in a summary table,which shows the number of cases within each category.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS):
the analytical mapping of incidents, such ascrimes and arrest, showing the extent and type of a crime problem withrespect to location.

Hot Spots:
The use of GIS computer software to identify clusters of crime (hotspots).

Inferential Statistics:
statistics that enable generalization or inference of samplefindings to a larger population.

Interval Level Measurement:
Variables that contain all the elements of nominal andordinal data and also assume equal distance between items on a scale.

Likert Scales:
Simple attitude scale consisting of a 5point bipolar response schemefor each item ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree.

Metaanalysis:
Statistical analysis of data from many different studies dealing with the sameresearch questions to determine general findings.

Measures of Central Tendency:
Summary statistics that describe the typical, middle oraverage of a distribution of scores (mode, median, mean).

Multivariate Analysis:
Use of statistical techniques to control for other variables (e.g.,rival causes, a third variable introduced to assess the relationship betweenthe independent and dependent variables).

Nominal Level Measurement:
Measurement that places responses in mutually exclusivecategories; categorical data.

Normal Distribution:
Bellshaped curve that describes a variety of phenomena.

Ordinal Level Measurement:
Placement ofitems into ranks, for example 1st, 2nd and 3rd.

Physical Trace Analysis:
Type of unobtrusive measure that involves the analysis ofdeposits, accretion of matter and other indirect evidence produced byprevious human interaction (e.g., graffiti).

Pragmatic Validity:
Accuracy of the measuring instrument in predicting the currentstatus (concurrent validity) or future status(predictive validity). .

Prediction Scales:
Scales developed to forecast behavior (e.g., crime commission orsuccess or failure on probation).

Ratio Level or Measurement:
Variables that assume equal interval quality of dataand they also have a fixed zero point.

Relationship:
If one variable enables the prediction of the values of a second variable,the variables are related.

Reliability:
Reliability means that an instrument yields stable and uniform results overtime.

Replication:
Repetition of experimentsor studies using the same methodology to confirm results.

Scales:
Attempts to increase the complexity of the level of measurement of variablesfrom nominal to at least ordinal and interval level.

SellinWolfgang Index:
a scale that tries to account for both the quality of data(seriousness) and the quantity of the act using three dimensions (a magnitude scale).

Simulation:
Use of gaming strategies that attempt to imitate a more complex socialreality (e.g., mock trials).

SPSS:
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences is a prewritten computer programfor statistical analysis.

Tests of Significance:
Determination of whether the findings are due to chance(sampling error) or are statistica1ly significant at a given probabilitylevel.

Unobtrusive Measures:
Ways of studying groups so that subjects are unaware of beingstudied, thus eliminating reactivity.

Validity:
The measuring instrument in fact measures what it claims to measure; it anaccurate or true measure of the phenomenon under study.

