CJ 540 Final

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CJ 540 Final
2010-12-16 02:51:11
CJ Final Terms

Final Terms
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  1. Bivariate Tables:
    a table, which examines the relationship between two variables (cross­tabulation).
  2. Coding:
    The assignment of numerical values to responses/information gathered using a research instrument.
  3. Components of Reliability: Consistency:
    Consistency of measurement is determined by whether the set of items used to measure a phenomenon are highly related (associated with each other) and measuring the same concept.
  4. Components of Reliability: Stability:
    Stability of measurement is determined by whether, assuming that conditions(rival causal factors) have not changed, a respondent will give the sameanswer to the question on a second testing.
  5. Construct (Concept) Validity:
    Accuracy ofthe instrument in measuring the concept it was designed to measure (e.g., thefit between the theory and the operational or working definition of terms).
  6. Content Analysis:
    Systematic classificationand study of the content of mass media, such as newspapers and television.
  7. Content Validity:
    Accuracy of individual itemsin a scale in measuring the concept being measured.
  8. Convergent-discriminant Validity:
    Different measures of the same concept should yield similar results (convergence).Whereas the same measure of different concepts should yield different results(discrimination).
  9. Crime Seriousness Scales:
    Procedures thatassign weights or ratings to various crimes to measure severity.
  10. Data Archives:
    Data libraries ororganizations that store date resources (raw data) from pervious researchstudies.
  11. Data Verification:
    double-checking a datafile to find and correct errors.
  12. Descriptive statistics:
    statistics intended to summarize or describe data.
  13. Face Validity:
    Accuracy of the instrument in measuring (on face value) that whichis intended.
  14. Focus Groups:
    Purposively selected groups-brought together to measure theirreactions to some stimuli (for example, a commercial).
  15. Frequency Distribution:
    procedure to display a single variable in a summary table,which shows the number of cases within each category.
  16. Geographic Information Systems (GIS):
    the analytical mapping of incidents, such ascrimes and arrest, showing the extent and type of a crime problem withrespect to location.
  17. Hot Spots:
    The use of GIS computer software to identify clusters of crime (hotspots).
  18. Inferential Statistics:
    statistics that enable generalization or inference of samplefindings to a larger population.
  19. Interval Level Measurement:
    Variables that contain all the elements of nominal andordinal data and also assume equal distance between items on a scale.
  20. Likert Scales:
    Simple attitude scale consisting of a 5-point bipolar response schemefor each item ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree.
  21. Meta-analysis:
    Statistical analysis of data from many different studies dealing with the sameresearch questions to determine general findings.
  22. Measures of Central Tendency:
    Summary statistics that describe the typical, middle oraverage of a distribution of scores (mode, median, mean).
  23. Multivariate Analysis:
    Use of statistical techniques to control for other variables (e.g.,rival causes, a third variable introduced to assess the relationship betweenthe independent and dependent variables).
  24. Nominal Level Measurement:
    Measurement that places responses in mutually exclusivecategories; categorical data.
  25. Normal Distribution:
    Bell-shaped curve that describes a variety of phenomena.
  26. Ordinal Level Measurement:
    Placement ofitems into ranks, for example 1st, 2nd and 3rd.
  27. Physical Trace Analysis:
    Type of unobtrusive measure that involves the analysis ofdeposits, accretion of matter and other indirect evidence produced byprevious human interaction (e.g., graffiti).
  28. Pragmatic Validity:
    Accuracy of the measuring instrument in predicting the currentstatus (concurrent validity) or future status(predictive validity). .
  29. Prediction Scales:
    Scales developed to forecast behavior (e.g., crime commission orsuccess or failure on probation).
  30. Ratio Level or Measurement:
    Variables that assume equal interval quality of dataand they also have a fixed zero point.
  31. Relationship:
    If one variable enables the prediction of the values of a second variable,the variables are related.
  32. Reliability:
    Reliability means that an instrument yields stable and uniform results overtime.
  33. Replication:
    Repetition of experimentsor studies using the same methodology to confirm results.
  34. Scales:
    Attempts to increase the complexity of the level of measurement of variablesfrom nominal to at least ordinal and interval level.
  35. Sellin-Wolfgang Index:
    a scale that tries to account for both the quality of data(seriousness) and the quantity of the act using three dimensions (a magnitude scale).
  36. Simulation:
    Use of gaming strategies that attempt to imitate a more complex socialreality (e.g., mock trials).
  37. SPSS:
    Statistical Package for the Social Sciences is a pre-written computer programfor statistical analysis.
  38. Tests of Significance:
    Determination of whether the findings are due to chance(sampling error) or are statistica1ly significant at a given probabilitylevel.
  39. Unobtrusive Measures:
    Ways of studying groups so that subjects are unaware of beingstudied, thus eliminating reactivity.
  40. Validity:
    The measuring instrument in fact measures what it claims to measure; it anaccurate or true measure of the phenomenon under study.

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