Earth Science Review 1

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Earth Science Review 1
2010-12-15 23:06:22
earth science

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  1. Earth Science
    • is the name for the group of sciences that deals with earth
    • "geology" means study of the earth, is divided into two sections : physical geology and historical geology
  2. Meteorology
    the study of the atmosphere to produce different weather conditions
  3. Astronomy
    the study of all the universe
  4. Nebular Hypothesis
    suggests that the bodies of our solar system evolved from an enormous rotating cloud called the solar nebula, it was made up mostly of hydrogen and helium, with a small percentage of heavier elements
  5. Layers form on Earth
    shortly after Earth formed, the decay of radioactive elements, combined with heat released by colliding particles; this allowed the denser elements to sink to the Earths center caused by gravity
  6. Earths major spheres
    hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere
  7. Hydrosphere
    • 1)
    • all the water on the earth
    • 2)
    • 71% of earth’s surface is water
    • 3)
    • 97% of earth’s water is in the oceans
    • 4)
    • Fresh water can be found in streams, lakes, and
    • glaciers
  8. Atmosphere
    • 1) thin blanket of air-stays close to the earth (not lost
    • in space)

    2)One half of the atmosphere lies below 5.6km (3.5 miles)
  9. Geosphere
    *Because the geosphere is not uniform, it is divided into three main parts based on differences in composition- the core, the mantle, and the crust *

    • 1)
    • based on compositional differences, it contains three
    • layers

    • a) Crust- the thin, rocky outer
    • layer of earth.

    • b) Mantle (liquid)- the 2890 km
    • (2,000 miles) thick layer of earth located below the crust.

    • c) Core- the innermost layer of earth, located beneath
    • the mantle
  10. Biosphere
    • 1)
    • Includes all life

    • 2)
    • Concentrated near the surface

    • 3)
    • Extends from the ocean floor
  11. Plate Tectonics
    the theory that finally emerged, called Plate Tectonics, provided geologists with a model to explain how earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur and how continents move
  12. Global Grid
    Latitude is the distance north or south of the equator, measured in degrees. Longitude is the distance east or west of the prime meridian, measured in degrees
  13. Maps and Mapping
    No matter what kind of map is made, some portion of the surface will always look either too small, too big, or out of place, mapmakers have, however, found ways to limit the distortion of shape, size, distance, and direction
  14. The Mercator Projection
    in 1569, a mapmaker named Gerardus Mercator created a map to help sailors navigate around Earth
  15. Different Project Maps for different Purposes
    Each map is projected to show something different and to serve its purpose different
  16. Topographic Maps
    differ from the other maps discussed so far because topographic maps show elevation using contour lines (for elevation)
  17. Contour Lines
    tells you the difference in the elevation when examining a map
  18. Scale
    gives you a key to go off of to measure a distance on the map or the certain amount of area on a specific part of the map
  19. Geologic Maps
    a map that shows the type and age of exposed rocks
  20. Satellites and Information Technology
    Todays technology provides us with the ability to more precisely analyze Earths physical properties
  21. Earth System Science
    aim to understand Earth as a system made up of numerous interacting parts, or subsystems
  22. System
    can be any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole
  23. Earth AS a System
    • one source is the sun, which drives external processes that occur in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and at Earths surface.
    • Earths interior is the second source of energy
    • our actions produce changes in all of the other parts of the Earth system
  24. People and the Enviornment
    Environment refers to everything that surrounds and influences an organism; some of these things are biological and social
  25. Resources
    • are an important focus of the Earth sciences; they include water, soil, metallic, and nonmetallic minerals, and energy
    • RENEWABLE resources can be replenished over relatively short time spans
    • although these other resources continue to form, the processes that create them are so slow that it takes millions of years for significant deposits to accumulate
  26. Environmental Problems
    Significant threats to the environment include air pollution, acid rain, ozone depletion, and global warming
  27. Scientific Hypothesis
    once data have been gathered, scientists try to explain how or why things happen in the manner observed; scientists do this by stating a possible explanation
  28. Theory
    is well tested and widely accepted by the scientific, community and best explains certain observable facts
  29. Scientific Method
    the process of gathering facts through observations and formulating scientific hypothesis and theories is called the scientific method
  30. Dew Point
    the temperature to which a parcel of air would nee to be cooled to reach saturation; if the same air was cooled further, the airs excess water vapor would condense, typically as dew, fog or clouds
  31. Measuring Relative Humidity
  32. Saturation
    • the number of vapor molecules returning to the surface will balance the number leaving which the air can now be called saturated
    • warm air contains more water vapor than saturated cold air
  33. Relative Humidity
    • moister content of air
    • is a ratio of the airs actual water-vapor content compared with the amount of water vapor air can hold at that temperature and pressure
    • when the water vapor content of air remains constant, lowering air temperature causes an increase in r.humidity, and raising air temperature causes a decrease in relative humidity
  34. Solar Energy can...
    reflect, scatter, or absorb
  35. Convection
    is the transfer of heat by mass movement or circulation within a substance
  36. Conduction
    is the heat transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity
  37. The 3 types of Energy Transfer as Heat are...
    conduction, convection, and radiation
  38. Summer and Winter Solstice
    • Summer: June 21 or 22, 23.5 degrees toward the sun (N.Hemisphere)
    • Winter: December 21 or 22, 23.5 degrees away from the sun
  39. Fall and Spring Equinox
    • Spring: March 21 or 22, 0 degrees latitude
    • Fall: September 22 or 23, 0 degrees latitude
  40. Four layers of Earths atmosphere
    Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere
  41. Land and Water
    Land heats more rapidly and to higher temperature that water; Land also cools more rapidly and to lower temperatures that water
  42. Isotherms
    are the lines that connect points that have the same temperature.
  43. Localized Convective Lifting
    on warm summer days, unequal heating of Earths surface may cause pockets of air to be warmed more than the surrounding air.
  44. Convergence
    the collision of contrasting air mass forces air to rise
  45. Degrees of Stability
    • air is stable when the temperature decreases gradually with increasing altitude;
    • the most stable conditions happen when air temperature actually increases with height called TEMPERATURE INVERSION