History Test set 2

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History Test set 2
2010-12-15 23:27:28
Western Church Medieval Ages

Western Church in the Medieval Ages set 2
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  1. Cluny
    Center of Reformation in the 900s

    Abbot Berno made his monks follow the complete order of the rule of St. Benedict

    emphasis on liturgical prayer

    monks rights to elect their own Abbot

    *cluny epitomized the high point of liturgical monasticism

    *cluny created the first international religious orders
  2. Canon Law
    key to enhanced practical powers of the Pope

    major force for the 11th century reform movement because it contradicted what was actually happening

    Reorganized in Bologna in 1140 and called the Concordance of the Discordant Canons or Decretum

    regulated all aspects of church life as well as wills, marriage, divorce, and legitimacy of children

    Also contained decretals

    *brought all laws and disputes back to Pope
  3. Humiliati
    Group of people known as the humble ones found in North Italian towns

    Manual labor in cloth industry and gave away any income that they did not need to meet basic needs

    refused oaths and litigation--were on the fringes of church authority

    wanted to preach but church refused them

    rocky relationship with church

    grey area between monks and laity

    *emphasized apostalic poverty and preaching
  4. Concordat of Worms 1122
    The treaty was a compromise between Pope Calixtus II and Henry V

    The church had gotten out from under Lay control and Henry V's elections were no longer recognized

    This created struggle that lasted for 50 years

    compromise was that King would cease to investiture and canonical election took place

    King could be present and investure after election

    *limited rights of the lay ruler's power and gave the Pope the last say in the election
  5. Purgatory
    Official teaching on purgatory at the Council of Florence (1438-45) and reinforced at the council of Trent

    most assumed Christians would not go to hell, but did not assume all would go to heaven

    purgatory was seen as an in between place where through suffering they could settle their account

    penance could be made on behalf of deceased loved ones

    *The care of the dead shaped both personal piety and church organization
  6. Waldensians
    started by Valdes who was a rich man and abandoned all for apostolic life

    wanted to preach but was uneducated and refused by the Pope

    broke away from the church and continued to preach without authority

    not a heretic and beliefs did not differ except on the issue of preaching

    *embodied the apostolic life in a concrete and literal way creating a new form of Christianity
  7. Benefice
    Appointed lower positions in the church were endowed income

    included rectorship of parishes and membership in cathedral chapters

    used to be chosen by bishops but precedent by precedent Popes began to choose

    *gave Popes power in appointing offices
  8. Absolute Poverty
    Franciscan Friars

    No owned residence, no books, no extra cloths, no reserve cash

    personal and group poverty

    *not only abandoned possessions but also an emptying of self
  9. Regular Canon
    secular canon (serving in rural churches, chapels of kings, etc.) who agreed to live under the rule of St. Augustine

    some lived in cloistered communities while others attended to the world in teaching, missions, and serving as confessors

    *led to reform that somewhat monasticized secular clergy
  10. Beguines
    unofficial communities of religious women due to lack of nunneries in 1200

    not bound by oath and could leave to get married

    sought spiritual guidance from sympathetic priests

    church suspected them of sexual disorder

    *provided an outlet for female piety that more conventional convents could not meet
  11. Cathars
    Heretics also known as the Albigensians that were a counter church to the Catholic church

    highly organized with own diocese, clergy, ascetic, theology, and rituals

    believed in dualism and that the material world (including sex) was evil

    Heresy spread and persuasion couldn't stop them

    * resulted in the Albigensian crusade
  12. Bernard of Clairvaux
    Abbot of Clairvaux

    great preacher and debater, becoming a critic of contemporary society

    made famous when in 1130 he stood up for Pope Innocent II as disputed Pope and traveled around campaigning for him

    *Height of Cistercian influence

    *major force in the life of the church