Exam 2 Flashcards.txt
Card Set Information
Exam 2 Flashcards.txt
Cells that take up DNA through their outer membranes are called _____ cells.
Competence is influenced by _____.
Growth stage, concentration of available DNA, and composition of medium; heat shock, chemical treatment
The cell that receives DNA in a transformation is called the _______.
When genes are transformed together, they are ______.
The rate of cotransformation is _______ proportional to the distances between the genes which is useful for gene mapping.
Sometimes bacteria acquire DNA from eukaryotes in a process called ___________.
horizontal gene transfer
The process of passing passing genetic information through reproduction is called ____________.
vertical gene transfer
A simple replicating structure made up of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat is called a _____.
__________ are viruses that infect bacteria, and have been used extensively for genetic studies.
Virulent phages reproduce only through the _____ cycle and always kill their host.
_________ phages can undergo either the lytic or the lysogenic cycle.
Phage DNA integrates into the bacterial chromosome and becomes a ________.
When a bacteria lyses, the adjacent bacteria are infected which also lyse resulting in a clear patch called a _____.
If a phage containing bacterial DNA transfers genes to another bacterium, recombination may take place and produce a _______.
The rate of transduction is ___.
The rate of cotransduction is _____ proportional ot the distances between genes.
_____ transduction can only occur near an att site.
In specialized transduction, a phage called ________ can be produced resulting in either an unstable transductant or a stable transductant with a gal+ allele.
lambda gal defective
_______ used the awesome power of phage genetics to make inferences about gene structure.
The sites of different mutations in the same gene can be mapped, referred to as _______.
A _______ test indicates whether two mutations occur in the same or different genes.
A _______ is a functional gene defined by a complementation test.
_______ occurs when there is at least one wild-type copy of each gene, i.e. the mutations are in different genes.
What are the four basic types of chromosomes?
metacentric, submetacentric, acrocentric, telocentric
A complete set of chromosomes possessed by an organism presented as an ordered image is called a _____.
What are three types of chromosome mutations?
rearrangements, aneuploids, and polyploids
What are four types of chromosomes rearrangements?
duplications, deletions, inversions, and translocations
When a single copy of a gene is not suf?cient to produce a wild-type phenotype, it is said to be a ______ gene.
______ inversions do not include the centromere, while ______ do.
______ genes are nonviable in both peri and paracentric inversions.
A _______ involves the movement of genetic material between nonhomologous chromosomes.
In a _______ translocation, there is a two-way exchange of segments between two chromosomes.
In a _______ translocation, two long arms of chromosomes are combined creating a large metacentric chromosome.
In homologous pairing in translocation heterozygotes, the best option is ______ segregation.
________ is an increase of a decrease in the number of individual chromosomes.
Aneuploidy in meiosis ___ (I or II) results in 2 trisomic and two monosomic zygotes.
Aneuploidy in meiosis ___ (I or II) results in 1 trisomic, 1 monosomic, and 2 normal (diploid) zygotes.
In humans, ______ results in 44 chromosomes.
In humans, monosomy results in how many chromosomes?
In humans, trisomy results in how many chromosomes?
In humans, ______ results in 48 chromosomes.
What mechanism for controlling gene dosage could account for viability of XXX females?
What creates a carrier in familial Down syndrome?
____ is the presence of more than two sets of chromosomes.
____ are 5n in chromosome number.
_____ is a type of polyploidy where chromosome sets are from a single species.
_____ is a type of polyploidy where chromosome sets are from different species.
The primary structure of DNA is the _____.
Secondary structure of DNA is the _____.
One type of tertiary structure in DNA is ______, which takes place when the DNA helix is subjected to strain by being overwound or underwound.
Supercoiling is controlled by _______, enzymes that add or remove rotations from the DNA helix.
Two types of eukaryotic chromatin are the more common one, ____, and ____, which is present near centromeres and telomeres and along X-inactivated chromosomes.
Most abundant proteins in chromatin are ____ - small, positively charge proteins of 5 major types.
____ consist of DNA wrapped about 4 pairs of histones.
A _____ consists of a nucleosome plus the ____ histone acting as a clamp.
_____ chromosomes arise when repeated rounds of DNA replication take place without cell divisions in certain tissues in Drosophila.
Acetylation occurs when enzymes called _____ attach acetyl groups to lysine amino acids on the histone tails.
Centromeric sequences Serve as binding sites for _____ proteins that provide anchor sites for spindle fibers.
____ was awarded the nobel prize for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase.
_____ are stabilizing sequences at the ends of chromosomes.
______ proteins bind to the G-rich single-stranded sequence of telomeres.
POT (Protection Of Telomere)
A structure called the _____ also functions in protecting the telomere from degradation.
Artificial chromosomes such as the YAC or BAC contain what there essential elements?
Centromere, pair of telomeres, origin of replication
Sequences present at one or a few times in the genome are called ___.
Groups of related genes arising from duplication of unique-sequence DNA are called ___.
The two types of repititive DNA are called ___ and ___ DNA.
moderately repetitive and highly repetitive
Two types of moderately repetitive DNA are called ____ and ___ .
tandem repeat sequences and interspersed sequences
_____ DNA sequences are sometimes called lite DNA and are often found at ___ and ___.
Highly repetitive, centromeres, telomeres
____ are mobile DNA sequences.
______ result from staggered cuts made in the target DNA when a transposable element is inserted.
Flanking direct repeats
____ are present in many TEs are recognized by enzymes that catalyze the transposition.
Terminal inverted repeats
Terminal inverted repeats are ____ and ____ .
inverted and complementary
What are two classes/mechanisms of transposition?
Class I/DNA transposons, and Class II/Retrotransposons
What are two kinds of Class I/DNA transposons?
non-replicative and replicative
Class II/retrotransposons are always ____.
DNA transposons require an enzyme called ____ which is usually encoded by the TE.
In replicative transposition, two DNA molecules are joined and the TE is replicated, producing a ____.
Retrotransposons use an ____ intermediate used to reverse transcribe back into DNA.
An enzyme called ____ is usually encoded by retrotransposons.
Transposable elements were discovered in eukaryotes by _____.
Ds in maize was able to transpose nonautonomously using transposase from Ac elements. What is a possible reason Sleeping Beauty wasn't able to do this?
The inverted repeats were also mutated. Transposase REQUIRES inverted repeats.
What are three types of TEs in bacteria?
Insertion sequences, composite transposons, and noncomposite transposons
The simplest types of transposons in bacteria are the ___ and have 1-2 genes which encode ___.
insertion sequences, transposes(s)
A segment of DNA flanked by insertion sequences can transpose and is called a ____.
____ transposons do not have insertion sequences.
___ found in fruit flies have both a transposase and a repressor of transposition.
What were three models of proposed DNA replication?
conservative, dispersive, and semiconservative
____ performed an experiment to determine which of three models of DNA replication applied to E. col.
Meselson and Stahl
____ replication of DNA takes place in circular DNA in bacteria.
_____ replication of DNA takes place in some viruses and in the F factor of E. coli.
Eukaryotic genomes require multiple ____.
origins of replication
The process of DNA replicaiton includes many componets including (3):
a template, substrates (dNTPs), and enzymes
DNA synthesis always goes in the ____ direction.
Short fragments of DNA produced by discontinuous synthesis on the _____ strand are called ____.
Which mode/l of DNA replication does not have a lagging strand?