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Spontaneous, intrinsically motivated, enjoyable activity resulting in learning; the child's work; a means of discover; practice for adulthood; an activity to reduce stress; a means of fostering development; a rout to self-discovery; a way of learning social skills; an activity for its own sake.
Different Types of Play
What are some ways to foster literacy in babies and toddlers?
- Talking to babies and toddlers with simple language, frequent eye contact, and responsiveness to children's cures and language attempts
- Frequently playing with, talking to, singing to, and doing finger-plays with young children;
- Sharing cardboard books with babies and frequently reading to toddlers on adults lap or together with one or two other children
- Providing simple art materials such as crayons, markers, and large paper for toddlers to explore and manipulate
What is the difference between guidance and discipline?
Guiding a child's behavior involves supporting the child's development in a positive and encouraging way. Discipline may use many of the same techniques as guidance, but it attempts to control and shape behaviors in accordance with the adult's perspective
What are some appropriate techniques for guidance at these ages?
- Try not to judge a child by her behavior
- Consider the child's age and stage of development
- Carefully examine the environment in your classroom
- Temperaments of children and caregivers have to be considered
- Remember each individual is unique and has individual needs and abilities
- Assess prior behaviors and experiences to see if it might be contributing to current behavior
- Never use timeout with infants and toddlers
What are the demographic factors related to spanking?
- Geographic location
What are the 11 negative outcomes that are increased by spanking, evidenced by the growing body of knowledge?
- Decreases in:
- -Internalization of moral values and prosocial behavior
- -Quality of relationship between parent and child
- -Child mental health
- -Adult mental health
- Increases in:
- -Child aggression
- -Child delinquent and antisocial behavior
- -Risk of being a victim of physical violence
- -Adult aggression
- -Adult criminal and antisocial behavior
- -Risk of abusing one's own child or spouse
What does spanking communicate to a child?
- Increases the probability of children assaulting the parent in retaliation, especially as they grow older
- Sends a message to the child that violence is a viable option for solving problems
- Contributes to feelings of helplessness and humiliation, robs a child of self-worth and self-respect, and can lead to withdrawal or aggression
- It can erode trust between parent and child and increases the risk of child abuse
- Has been associated with significant increases with aggression
What are the recommendations by the AAP related to spanking?
- Consistently enforcing firm, age-appropriate, and acceptable limits
- Teaching problem-solving skills such as listening, speaking clearly and giving age appropriate instructions, showing trust, being reliable and predictable, accepting difference, negotiating, and mediating conflicts
- Reasoning (talking) with children in age-appropriate ways to teach correct behavior and enhance children's language and cognitive ability
What were some recommendations for sleeping challenges?
- Keep it routine
- Read the signs
- Consider what's going on in your child's life
- Put the baby to sleep awake
- Take into account your child's temperament
- Plan for protests
- Be consistent
- Love the lovey
- Turn off t.v.
What are four principles Wellhousen recommends for appropriate play?
- Allow a wide range of movement
- Stimulate the senses
- Offer novelty, variety, and challenge
- Address safety and comfot
What are some reasons that children have challenges in physical activities?
- Lack of knowledge about appropriate physcial activities for indoor and outdoor settings
- Lack of funding to purchase appropriate equipment
- Lack of knowledge regarding adaptations for children with special needs
- A reluctance to take children outdoors because of temperature considerations of the preparation time required for dressing chidlren at this time
What does research tell us about fine motor development?
- Manipulative skills-learned behaviors invovling an increasing ability to handle materials and objects successfully
- Manual dexterity- the individual's ability to use the hands to achieve complext tasks
- Hand-Eye coordination- the skilled connection between seeing something, reaching or grasping it
- Self-help skills- further develop and should be fostered
What does research tell us about toilet learning?
- Individual's gradual maturational process of understanding and acquiring skills required to use the toilet for bowel movement and urination
- Never force toilet training
- Some children don't have control until 36 months
What are some common oral and taste issues at this age?
- Food jags are normal
- Children are neophobic
- 8-15 exposures needed to accept it
- Need fnger foods
What is the vision development like for children this age?
- Most children have reached 20/20 at this point
- Observational learning is key
What does research tell us about brain development at this age?
It continues at a rapid pace
What are the differences in learning styles?
What does research tell us about language at this age?
- Children understand about 70 words
- Follow simple instructions
- Familiar objects and body parts
What does research tell us about the social and emotional development of children at this age?
- Toddlers have little emotion regulation
- Shame and guild are new emotions
- Continue to foster attachment
What was the rouge and mirror test and what did it tell us about children's concept of self?
An informal test to determine the child's understanding of the self-concept (example a child notices a difference that there is paint on their nose). That the child recognizes that something is different about her face and knows how it ought to look
Locus of Control
The perception of control over one's own destiny or future; the belief that one's actions are controlled by the self.
What types of motivation are important for this age?
- Intrinsic motivation- coming from within- this is natural for toddlers
- Extrinsic- coming from the envrionment
What are different types of play and definitions related to play in the text?
- Associative play- spontaneous activity in which children play alongside each other and interact on a similar theme but remain focused on their play
- Socio-dramatic play- a fantasy-play scenario that involves at least one other individual
- Constructive play-spontaneous activity involving making, building, or creating; typically involving blocks or found materials; may involve imaginative aspects or make-believe; usually includes an end product
Speech sounds or letters of the alphabet that are not vowels
How are needs communicated?
Communicated through innate means
How are desires communicated
Via learned methods
Loss of control of emotions or the experiences of conflicted feelings resulting in anger, crying, stamping feet, kicking, screaming, or other extreme behaviors
Breathing is fast or uneven and thinking is impaired
What is self directed speech that children use to guide their own behaviors?
Love that exists without conditions or dependence on particular behaviors or situations.
What is an individual's perception of overall positive or negative self- worth?
According to Coleman, the amygdale deals with _________.
What are the central domains of emotional intelligence
- knowing of one's emotions
- managing emotions
- motivating oneself
- recognizing emotions in others
- handling relationships
The preoperational stage follows what stage?
What is the collection of ideas that make up the individuals understanding of time?
What are some examples of how a child's cognitive development is reflected?
The child's thinking is from his own perspective. Egocentricity does not allow him to know how another child thinks or feels. Cooperative activity is still limited.
How many intelligences are in Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences?
The ideal education system would be individualized
- Linguistic intelligence- word smart
- Logical- mathematical intelligence- number/reasoning smart
- Spatial intelligence- picture smart
- Body- kinesthetic intelligence- body smart
- Musical intelligence- music smart
- Interpersonal intelligence- people smart
- Intrapersonal intelligence- self smart
- Naturalist intelligence- nature smart
Interaction of two or more sensory processes in a manner that enhances the adaptiveness of the brain
What disorder is characterized by an infant's failure to attach?
What is the rate of diagnosis of ADHD in children?
Should not be diagnosed for 6 months to a year. It has increased
A language impairment that may have resulted from damage to the central nervous system
What are characteristics of sexual abuse?
- Behavioral changes
- Sleep problems
- Bdy flaunting
- Soreness around the mouth
- Bruises on the inside of the legs
- Hand marks on the legs
What ways can 2 year olds learn safety techniques?
- By framing the behavior in positive terms
- Telling them what they should do. Not what they shouldn't do-they can't remember rules that long
- Telling the children what they are able or should do- not what they cannot or shouldn't do
What does the research and text tell us about hyperactivity?
- It's where levels of physical activity are higher than normal, someimes associated with a disorder
- Term used to describe the child's inability to slow down or remain seated
- Hyperactive children move around a lot and tend to be excitable
Human-like figures in play and stories that have extraordinary powers; children involved in superhero play may feel especially empowered.
What is it called when we help children acquire a vocabulary related to their feelings and functions?
When should handwashing be done?
- Before and after meals, snack
- After using the bathroom
Sudden awakening from sleep, screaming, sweating, confusion, rapid heart rate, cannot explain what happened
Vivid or scary dream
Troubled feeling or state of emotional unrest
When are parents most likely to use spanking?
During the preschool years
When do parents usually stop using spanking?
About 8-10 years old
How many Americans report using physical punishment with their children?
More than 90%
What percent of mothers and fathers reported thay had spanked within the past week?
- 44% of mothers
- 31% of fathers
What percent of American parents report spanking their children by the time they are three to four year olds?
On aveage, how many times do parents spank toddlers per week?
How many countries have banned parents from using corporal punishment as a means of discipline?
Parents who are most likely to spank have:
- Experience with physical punishment as a child
- Lesser knowledge of child development
- Lower socioeconomic level
- Lower level of education
- Greater religiosity particularly conservative Protestants
- Positive attitude toward use of physical punishment
Factors that increase the likelihood that parents will use physical punishment include:
- Their culture
- Attitudes towards spanking, religion, income and education
More competent parents are less likely to spank
Warm, accepting, and sensitive toward children; who use firm, calm control, and nurturing communication; and who understand and respond to children's developmental capabilities
Over-reactive discipline is concerning because it has been linked with an _______ _____ ___ ______ ______?
Increased risk for child abuse
What influences how likley children are to be spanked?
- Childs gender,
What is a key factor for understanding the impact of spanking?
Parents are more likely to approve of the use of physical punishment for child behaviors such as:
- Self-endangerment such as running into the street
- Violating property rights of others
- Direct challenge of parental authority or disobedience
- Attributing the cause of the misbehavior as intentional
What is most parent's primary goal in using corporal punishment:
To gain immediate compliance
Parenting discipline strategies though to promote children's internalization of morals, a componenet of self-control, include:
- Limited use of power-assertive discipline
- Promotion of choice and autonomy
- Providing explanations for desirable behavior
When parents use corporal punishment to control antisocial behavior, children show more antisocial behavior over time, regardless of race and socioeconomic status, and regardless of whether the mother provides cognitive stimulation and emotional support
There is a pattern of physical abuse that generally starts as corporal and escalates into physical maltreatment
Adults who experienced corporal punishment as children are more likely to be depressed or violent themselves.
Corporal punishment increases the probabiilty of children assaulting the parent in retaliation, especially as they grow older
Corporal punishment is degrading, contributes to feelins of helplessness and humiliation, robs a child of self-worth and self-respect, and can lead to withdrawal or aggression
Corporal punishment erodes trust between a parent and a child and increases the risk of child abuse. As a long-tem discipline measure, it does not decrease children's aggressive or delinquent behaviors.
Children who get spanked regularly are more likely over time to cheat or lie, be disobedient at school, bully others, adnd show less remorse for wrongdoing
Physical punishment has been associated with significant increases in aggression in children and adults and to criminal and antisocial behavior.
Regardless of family income or family history of psychiatric illness, harsh physical punishment during childhood has been found to increase the likeliehood of depressoin, externalizing behavior, suicidal ideation, alcoholism, child abuse, wife abuse, and problmes with autonomy and relationships.
For young children, physical punishment has been found to contribute to negative behavioral adjustment in children at 36 months and first grade
with the effects more pronounced in children with difficult temperaments.
When mothers display angry and punitive behaviors (physical punishment and/or threatening), children are likely to become angry and non-compliant and distant themselves from their parent.
Alternatives to physical punishment for preventing and responding to misbehavior include:
- Consistently enforcing firm, age-appropriate, and acceptable limits
- Teaching problem-solving skills such as listening, speakin clearly and giving age appropriate instructions, showing trust, being reliable and predictable, accepting differences, negotiating, and mediating conflicts.
- Reasoning (talking) with children in age-appropriate ways to teach correct behavior and enhance children's language and cognitive ability.
- Modeling desired characteristics such as patience, kindness, empathy, and cooperation
- Providing daily opportunities for children to practice problem solving by brainstorming solutions, discussing the effect of each alternative, choosing the best solution, trying it out, and then evaluating if it worked.
- Encouraging and praising children using verbal and nonverbal responses (smile or a nod) to motivate children and build children's confidence
- Allowing child to participate in setting rules and identifying consequences for breaking them to hlep them learn to understand the relatinship between their actions and consequences and to learn to manage their own behavior
- Providing consistency, structure, and continuity, and predictability in children's lives.
- Encouraging children's autonomy (thinking for themselves, monitoring their own behavior, letting their conscience guide them).
At the community level, recommendations include:
- Provide parents access to information on child development and behavior management through workshops, parenting classes, mentoring, conferences, books, newsletters, brochures, flyers, and bulletin board materials
- Improve pre-service and in-service programs for teachers, principals, and other school staff that teach techniques for developing children's social-emotional skills and providing positive guidance in the classroom
- Develop linkages between the school and community through mental health and family counseling programs to support families in stres
- Develop linkages with community programs serving young children and their families
Prevention misbehavior, it is recommended parents:
- Child-proof the home to prevent dangerous situations that may result from children's natural curiosity and exploration
- Provide predictable routines, schedules, and rule and limits to help children manage their own behavior
- Give advance warning before changing activities
- Recognize children's positive behaviors ("catch them being good")
- Model self-control and use of positive strategies such as problem-solving and prosocial skills (sharing, caring, turn-taking, problem-solving, etc.)
Respond to Misbehavior Using Non-Physical Strategies
- Monitor children closely and, in event of trouble, use distractoin (offering something else to do or refocusing attention to another interesting activity) or redirection (teach a new way to play) early
- When stopping misbehavior, offer an explanation for stopping the behavior (harm to self, environment, or others), interpret and validate emotions, and teach an acceptable behavior
- Focus on the actions (what to do and what not to do) and avoid making negative statements about the child to protect a child's self-esteem
- Use age-appropriate logical and natural consequences to help children understand the consequences of their actions
5 Easy Steps for Sharing Books with your Baby
- Pick the best time to read- a time when you and your baby are rested and in a good mood. Stop if your baby gets restless or upset. Try again later when you and your baby are ready
- Show your baby the book- point to the pictures and talk in an excited voice
- Let you baby play with the book if he wants. Holding, chewing, and even throwing books indicate that your baby is comfortable with books
- Have fun! Remember to touch and hug hour baby the entire time and make reading an experience your child wants to repeat often
- Share a book with your baby everyday. Just a few minutes will make a difference in how soon your child learns language.
Newborns to 6 months
- Look for books with simple geometric images that are easy for a newborn to focus on.
- For newborns- look for rhythmic, patterned language, patterns of sound will encourage language development even when the infant doesn't yet understand words
6 to 12 Months
- Able to control their movements and interact with their environment. Choose lift-the-flap books.
- Choose sturdy board books who bright images and simple text that can withstand chewing, tearing, and drooling.
12 to 24 Months
- Children this age enjoy books that are repetitive and predictable. They will begin to anticipate what comes next in a book, even inserting words or phrases from the story. This reinforces the connection between spoken language and written words a critical reading skill. Read lots of nursery rhyme and poetry books to reinfoce your child's phonemic awareness
- Look for repetition and appealing illustrations, as well as sturdy format