Neurological Diseases

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Neurological Diseases
2010-01-30 14:56:12
Neurological Diseases

Neurological Diseases
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  1. Transient Ichemic Attack TIA
    • temporary episode duration less than 24 hours
    • impaired neuro functioning
    • inadequite flow to a portion brain
  2. Epidural Hematomas
    • blood b/t skull and dura matter
    • dura matter-outermost layer of meingi
  3. Subdural Hematoma
    blood collection b/t dura and the arachnoid membrane the second meningeal membrane
  4. Craniotomy
    a hole made in the skull to relieve pressure by draining accumulated blood
  5. Cerebral concussion
    • -bruising of tissue from back and forthe movement of head insult
    • -or impact blunt object
    • disruption of normal electric activity but brain is not perm injured
  6. Cerebral Contusion
    • more serious than concusion
    • bruising of tissue along or just underneath brain surface
    • perm damage may result
    • may be associated with skull fracture
    • CT Dx
  7. Depressed Skull Fracture
    • break in cranium
    • can cause quadriplegia hemi or para
  8. Hemiplegia
    • partial paralysis of half of body
    • casue can be fracture causeing pressure on motor area of brain
  9. Paraplegia
    • loss of nerve function below waist
    • paralysis of lower trunk and legs
  10. Quadriplegia
    • C5 damage
    • paralysis arms hands etc
  11. Degenerative Disk Disease
    • deterioration of intervertbral disk
    • intractable pain may result in some loss of motor function
    • misalignment of vertebrae cause spinal nerve root scarring
    • may cause spinal stenosis
  12. spinal stenosis
    nerve roots become trapped in the foramen as they leave the spinal canal
  13. Herniated/ Bulging Disk
    • -ruptured slipped
    • -result from accumulated trama
  14. nucleus pulposus
    • gelatinous center inside of vertebral disks that is surrounded by a circular wall structure
    • an annulus
  15. Sciatic Nerve injury
    rupture of nucleus pulposus in disks L4- S3
  16. Spinal Stenosis
    • narrowing of the spinal canal or nerve root foramen
    • -siatica
  17. Cephalgia
    • headache
    • -physiological factors
    • 1-strain on muscles of face neck scale - tension headache
    • 2- edema within the bv of head which changed arterial size- vascualr headache
  18. Migraine
    • periodic severe headaches
    • nausea vomiting anorexia visual symp
    • factors
    • heredity
    • changes in cerebral blood flow
  19. Epilepsy
    chronic abnormal intense episodes of increased elecritcal activity in brain
  20. cyanotic
    prolonged contraction of resp system that causes loos of 02 on extremeties
  21. Parkinsons
    • progressive
    • deficiency of dopamine
    • other factors- injestion poision, encephalitis, major tranquilizers, antihypertensive drugs
  22. Huntingtons Chorea
    • hereditary degeneration of cerebral cortex and basal ganglia
    • progressive atrophy
    • chorea
    • autosomal dominant trait -unsexl linked
  23. Chorea
    ceaseless uncontrolled involuntary movements
  24. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
    • fasiculations and atrophy of forearms and hands
    • speech etc affecte but mind not affected
  25. Transient Global Amnesia
    • temporary memory loss
    • 1-6 hours
  26. Pheripheral neuritis/ neuropathy
    • degeneration of peripheral nerves
    • factors:
    • alcholism
    • infectious diseases
    • metabolic or inflammatory disorders
  27. Trigeminal Neuralgia
    • Pain of the area innervated 5th cranial nerve
    • some connection to tumor or MS, shingles
  28. Bells Palsy
    • disorder facial nerve -7th cranial
    • sudden onset weakness paralysis face
  29. Meningitis
    • inflammatin meningies
    • baacterial or viral
  30. Encephalitis
    • inflammation brain tissue
    • inflammation leads to edema and cell lysis
    • cause: herpes viruses or MMR
    • mostly misquito related onset
  31. Guillain-Barre Syndrom
    • acute rapid preogression of spinal nerves
    • numbness/ pain in hands feet
    • demyelination occurs
    • autoimmune basis
    • factors: resp infection, gastroenterisits
  32. Demyelination
    Loss of myelin sheath of nerve
  33. Poliomyelitis / Postpolio syn
    viral infectio of the anterior horn cells of hte gray matter of the spinal crod and causes selective destruction of motor neurons
  34. aphasia
    nerve defect that results in loss of speech
  35. diplopia
    double vision
  36. fasciculation
    involuntary contraction or twitching of muscles