Generalizations
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Generalizations
arguments with the conclusion that something is the case about all or many things on the basis of what is observed about some of them

Basic Features of Generalization
 Population
 sample
 target characteristic
 representation
 strength

Population
(Generalizations)
 group for which the conclusion is allegedy true
 usually in the conclusion

Sample
(generalizations)
 a premise or premises describing a subset of that population
 group being studied

Target Characteristic
(Generalization)
 main issue
 the characterisitc observed in the sample and concluded to be true of the population
 link btw population and sample
 observed in the sample and inferred of population

Representation
(Generalizations)
critical analysis takes place

Strength
(Generalization)
give the generalization a grade

Evaluating Criteria: Representativeness
 better representation of a sample, the stronger the generalizations
 sample occur with the same frequency or in the same proportion as they occur in the population
 implies a current knowledgecharacter and relevance
 randomness is important

Randomness
(Representativesness)
 each member of the population has an equal chance of occurring in sample to not create a biased sample
 mathematically defined

Sampling Methodologies/Sample Selection and Constuction
 Simple Random: fairly homogenous; TC presumed to be evenly distributed throughout the population
 Stratified Random: heterogeneous groupings; TC not evenly distributed throughout the population
 sample to be constucted

Issues Affecting Strength of a Generalization
 Representativeness of Sample
  Is it a biased sample?
  Sample size too small?
  Sample fails to reflect the diversity of the population
 Inverview Bias
  Do questions skew the results?
  TC not clearly definded
  survey method skews results in a particular direction