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arguments with the conclusion that something is the case about all or many things on the basis of what is observed about some of them
Basic Features of Generalization
- target characteristic
- group for which the conclusion is allegedy true
- usually in the conclusion
- a premise or premises describing a subset of that population
- group being studied
- main issue
- the characterisitc observed in the sample and concluded to be true of the population
- link btw population and sample
- observed in the sample and inferred of population
critical analysis takes place
give the generalization a grade
Evaluating Criteria: Representativeness
- better representation of a sample, the stronger the generalizations
- sample occur with the same frequency or in the same proportion as they occur in the population
- implies a current knowledge-character and relevance
- randomness is important
- each member of the population has an equal chance of occurring in sample to not create a biased sample
- mathematically defined
Sampling Methodologies/Sample Selection and Constuction
- Simple Random: fairly homogenous; TC presumed to be evenly distributed throughout the population
- Stratified Random: heterogeneous groupings; TC not evenly distributed throughout the population
- sample to be constucted
Issues Affecting Strength of a Generalization
- Representativeness of Sample
- - Is it a biased sample?
- - Sample size too small?
- - Sample fails to reflect the diversity of the population
- Inverview Bias
- - Do questions skew the results?
- - TC not clearly definded
- - survey method skews results in a particular direction
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