TH 1501

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Author:
anime1003
ID:
56522
Filename:
TH 1501
Updated:
2010-12-16 21:40:44
Tags:
Lighting
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Description:
Final exam
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  1. Power formula
    W=V*A
  2. MF Equation
    S=MF*D
  3. Ohm's Law
    I=E/R

    • As electromotive force increases, current
    • increases.
    • As resistance increases, current
    • decreases.

    • I = quantity measured in amperes.
    • E = electrical pressure measured in voltage.
    • R = resistance measured in ohms.
  4. Direct current
    Batteries
  5. Alternating current
    Plug in (turbine)
  6. Edison (plug)
  7. Edison uses
    • Parallel blade
    • common household
    • with or without ground
    • 15 amp rating
  8. Stage pin (plug)
  9. Stage pin (uses)
    • Common theatre use
    • 20 amp rating
  10. Twistlock (plug)
  11. Twistlock (uses)
    Specific theatrical applications, 20 amp rating
  12. Connector configuration
    • White-Common, completes circuit after load
    • Green-Ground, safety circuit in case of electrical short
    • Black-Hot, power potential
  13. Resistance Dimmer Consoles
    • Dimmers use resistance to dim the lights.
    • Requires load of 100% of dimmer rating.
    • Ghost loads often required.
  14. Autotransformer Dimmer Consoles
    • Dimmers use electromagnets to dim the lights.
    • Dimmers can control any range of load.
    • Mechanical operation required.
  15. SCR Dimmers
    • Silicon controlled rectifier
    • Uses electronic switch (rectifier) to control alternating current.
    • Gating process can control any size of load.
    • Dimmers receive an electronic signal (12 volts) to determine gate speed.
    • Remote control dimmers now possible.
  16. Five things required to draft a light plot
    • 1. Accurate ground plan of venue including hanging positions and circuit locations
    • 2. Accurate vertical section of venue
    • 3. Accurate ground plan and section of scenic design
    • 4. Lighting inventory
    • 5. Size and number of dimmers available
  17. Instrument Information
    • Front: color and/or focus information
    • Inside: instrument number
    • Behind: circuit or channel number
  18. Title Block
    • Performance space
    • Title of production
    • Plate title
    • Scale
    • Date
    • Designer/Draftsperson
    • Plate number
  19. Legend
    • Silhouette of each instrument type
    • Written description
  20. Cut List
    ScheduleIf sorted by gel color
  21. Instrument Schedule
    Sorted by location
  22. Dimmer Schedule
    sorted by dimmer
  23. Information listed on the light plot
    • Type of Fixture
    • Location
    • Instrument Number
    • Focus
    • Circuit/Channel
  24. Information not listed on the light plot
    • Wattage
    • Lamp ANSI Code
    • Function/Purpose
    • Color
    • Frame Size
    • Circuit
    • Dimmer
    • Channel
    • Notes
  25. "Take it to hard focus"
    • ellipsoidals
    • Slide lens barrel forward or back to get sharp edged pool of light
    • Strand Ellipsoidals: Slide lamp housing forward or back to get brightest spot of light on stage
  26. "Take it to full spot"
    • Fresnels
    • Turn crank or slider on back or side of fixture, or slide thumb screw along bottom of the fixture,
    • so lamp/reflector assembly is as far away from lens as possible.
    • EC Fresnels: Do not keep cranking knob after slider indicator stops
    • moving
  27. "Center"
    • Shutters in elliposoidals pulled
    • light on designer's "face"
  28. "Lock it off."
    Bolts on C-clamp, set screw, and T-handles on instrument are tightened to set permanent position
  29. "Shutter to here."
    • ellipsoidal-Source 4
    • Designer refers to the light on stage. Focus crew uses opposite shutter to cut unwanted light.
  30. "Flood it"
    • EC- fresnels
    • Turn crank side of fixture, so lens/reflector assembly moves towards (F) the lens.
  31. "Soften the edges"
    ellipsoidals-Source 4
  32. Slide lens barrel forward or back to soften cut lines of pool of light.
  33. "Drop color"
    "This fixture takes _____ color."
    • Ellipsodial- Source 4
    • Insert color frame with appropriate color in slot provided in the front of the fixture.
  34. Information provided on a Magic Sheet
    • Area of stage being lit
    • Angle of light
    • Channel that controls the light
  35. Other options for Magic sheet
    • Color coded
    • Diagrams for patterns
    • Large arrows for washes
  36. Preprogramming (groups)
    • • Channels by function - used mainly to build cues
    • • Channels by area - used mainly to modify cues
    • • Groups can be programmed to control dimmers proportionately
  37. Preprogramming (submasters)
    • Pile-on
    • Inhibit
  38. Book Cues with Stage Manager and Director (Paper Tech)
    • Purpose - Assign cue numbers sequentially in Stage Manager's production book.
    • Personnel - lighting designer, stage manager, director
  39. Level Set (Dry Tech)
    • Purpose - Program lighting levels for each cue in the lighting control console.
    • Personnel - lighting designer, stage manager, light board operator
  40. Cue to Cue Without Actors
    • Purpose - Practice for light board operator (particularly for difficult manual cues).
    • Personnel - lighting designer, stage manager, director, light, sound, and shift crews
  41. Cue to Cue With Actors (Stop and Go)
    • Purpose - Stage Manager calls cues, adjusting timing as necessary.
    • Personnel - lighting designer, stage manager, director, cast, light, sound, and shift crews
  42. Tech Run
    • Purpose - Run entire show with lights, sound, and scenic shifts.
    • Personnel - lighting designer, stage manager, director, cast, light, sound, and shift crews
  43. Overhead Projectors (pros)
    • Common in academic settings.
    • Can project any image transferred to a plastic transparency
  44. Overhead Projectors (cons)
    • Noisy fan.
    • Images must be changed manually.
    • Difficult to mask from the audience.
    • Relatively dim images
  45. Linnebach Projectors (pros)
    • Custom made projections using paint on acetate sheets of plastic.
    • Color
  46. Linnebach Projectors (cons)
    • Soft focus projections only.
    • Large piece of equipment, difficult to hide at times.
    • Fairly dim.
    • Largely replaced by glass gobo technology.
  47. 35mm Slide Projectors (pros)
    • Projectors are inexpensive since they use outmoded technology.
    • Images can be in full color.
    • Eighty images per slide tray.
  48. 35mm Slide Projection (cons)
    • Limited transition features - dissolve only.
    • Lamp is only 300 watts - dim by theatrical standards.
    • Noisy fan and mechanical tray advancement mechanism
  49. Gobo (Glass, Pro)
    • Easy to install in any standard ellipsoidal.
    • multiple colors
  50. Gobo (Glass, con)
    • Expensive
    • Fragile
  51. Gobo (metal, pro)
    • Steel gobos are fairly inexpensive.
    • Can have multiple/overlaping patterns
    • Moving projections (rotators)
  52. Gobo (metal, cons)
    • Low quality material
    • few colors
  53. Large Format Glass Slide Projectors (pro)
    • Very bright images in full color.
    • Large slides for large detailed images
  54. Large Format Glass Slide Projectors (cons)
    • Expensive.
    • Large piece of equipment, takes up a great deal of back stage real estate
  55. Video Projectors (Pros)
    • Bright image in compact appliance.
    • Quiet operation.
    • Projects digital images such as PowerPoint.
    • Can be run from lighting console using KeyStroke technology
  56. Video Projectors (cons)
    Expensive, but fairly common in academic setting
  57. Candles and other open-flame devices
    are allowed in religious ceremonies and theatrical performances when
    adequate safeguards have been taken, such as...
    • Lighted candles should only be used by persons 15 years of age and older.
    • A device should be provided to protect hands from melting wax.
    • Lighted candles should not be tilted to light another candle.
    • Lighted candles should be kept away from easily ignited materials.
    • Particular attention should be paid to clothing that could be easily ignited.
    • Persons should remain stationary with lighted candles.
    • Other reasonable safeguards deemed necessary by the code official
  58. Fire on stage
    • Visible flames in fireplace -gelled MR16s, flamed-shaped colored silk, fans
    • Projections with gobo rotators
    • Stylized, comical - rolling log
    • Standard lighting equipment out of audience's view with random chase effect
  59. Storyboards (Pros)
    • Quick to create (and redraw if necessary).
    • Inexpensive.
    • Easy to transport.
  60. Storyboards (cons)
    • Difficult to render in color.
    • Drawings can render the impossible.
  61. Story Boards
    Black & white sketches of lighting scene by scene
  62. Graphics (pros)
    • Easy to find.
    • Photography can vividly capture realistic images.
    • Paintings can demonstrate historic style.
    • Easy to transport.
  63. Graphics (cons)
    Abstract in that images are not of actual theatre space
  64. Graphics
    Photos or paintings demonstrating lighting effects
  65. Light Lab (cons)
    • Expensive.
    • Requires a sizable amount of space.
    • Difficult to transport.
  66. Light Lab (Pros)
    • Accurate color rendering.
    • Capable of demonstrating lighting transitions.
  67. Light Lab
    Miniature lighting set-up to light scenic model and/or costume swatches
  68. Automated Fixture: Controllable Properties
    • Intensity
    • Color - dialable dichroic color wheel, or color scroller
    • Distribution - iris, pattern wheel, auto shutters
    • Angle - 540 degrees pan, 270 degrees tilt
    • Movement - coarse and fine
    • Focus - soft or sharp
  69. Automated Fixture: Intensity
    • Incandescent - controlled by dimmers
    • Enclosed arc - always on, irised out
  70. Automated Fixture: Color
    • Scrollers - moving gel strings in front of unit
    • Internal Pattern Wheel - up to 13 dichroic filters to choose from,Subtractive mixing with multiple dichroic filters
  71. Automated Fixture: Distribution
    • Internal Iris
    • Pattern Wheels - up to 13 patterns in each
    • Rotating Patterns - 3 patterns
  72. Automated Fixture: Angle
    • Size and weight dictate where fixtures can be hung
    • Smaller units can be placed in more places, but have less functionality
    • 540 degrees pan, 270 degrees tilt
  73. Automated Fixture: Movement
    • Moving Mirror
    • Moving Yoke-Separate motors for coarse movements and fine tuned motion control.Speed often creates more noise.
  74. Automated Fixture: Types
    • Hubbell HX Series
    • Source 4 Revolution
    • Martin Mac TW-1
  75. Automated fixture: Control Boards
    • WholeHog III
    • ETC Exprssion III
    • ETC Ion
  76. Universal lighting cable
    DMX 512
  77. Define Conductor
    • Gives up an electron easy
    • copper
    • Substance that have electrons move easily through it.
  78. Define Insulator
    Substance that does not have electrons move easily through it.
  79. Common wire gauges
    • 16 Gauge Wire: 6 amps x 120 volts = 720 watts
    • 14 Gauge Wire: 15 amps x 120 volts = 1,680 watts
    • 12 Gauge Wire: 20 amps x 120 volts = 2,400 watts
  80. Lighting areas
    • Typically 6’-8’
    • Not on the floor

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