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2010-12-16 15:33:31
Final Exam

Ch 10 and 11 and key terms
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  1. achieved status
    status or social position based on one's accomplishments or activities
  2. adolescence
    term coined by psychologist Hall (1904) to name the years coinciding w/ puberty as a distinct- and perilous- life stage
  3. Adonis complex
    belief that men must look like Greek gods, w/ perfect chins, thick hair, rippling muscles, and a washboard abdominal muscles
  4. age cohort
    a group of ppl who are born w/in a specific time period and therefore assumed to share both chronological and functional characteristics, as well as life experiences
  5. age norms
    distinctive cultural values, pursuits, and pasttimes that are culturally prescribed for each age cohort
  6. ageism
    differential treatment based on age- usually the elderly rather than the young
  7. agents of socialization
    the ppl, groups, or institutions that teach ppl how to be functioning members of their society
  8. anomie
    (Durkheim) a state os disorientation and confusion that results from too little social regulation, in which institutional constraints fail to provide a coherent foundation for action
  9. anorexia nervosa
    a potentially fatal syndrome characterized by chronic and dangerous starvation dieting and obsessive exercise
  10. ascribed status
    status that is assigned to a person and over which he or she has no control
  11. asexual
    having no sexual desire for anyone
  12. assimilation
    occurs when two groups come into contact and the minority group abandons its traditional culture to embrace the dominant culture
  13. bilateral descent
    tracing one's ancestry through both parents, rather than only the mother or father
  14. bisexuality
    feeling attracted to sexual partners of both sexes
  15. bulimia
    a potentially fatal syndrome characterized by food "binging and purging"
  16. bureaucracy
    originally derived from the French word 'bureau', or office, a formal organization characterized by a division of labor, a hierarchy of authority, formal rules governing behavior, a logic of rationality, and an impersonality of criteria
  17. chronological age
    a person's age as determined by the actual date of his or her birth
  18. cohabitation
    ppl who are in a romantic relationship but not married living in the same residence
  19. companionate marriage
    the (comparatively recent) idea that ppl should select their own marriage partner based on compatibility and mutual attraction
  20. conflict theory
    theoretical approach that stresses the competition for scarce resources and unequal distribution of those resources based on social status (such as class, race, gender)
  21. cultural capital
    cultural articles _ideas, artistic expressions, forms of music or literature- that function as resources that ppl in the dominant class can use to justify their dominance
  22. cultural relativism
    a position that all cultures are equally valid in the experience of their own members
  23. culture of poverty
    poverty is not a result of individual inadequacies but larger social and cultural factors. Poor children are socialized into believeing that they have nothing to strive for, that there is no point in working to improve their conditions. As adults, they are resigned to a life of poverty, and they socialize their children the same way. Therefore poverty is transmitted from one generation to another
  24. culture
    both the material basis for social life and the sets of values and ideals that we understand to define morality, good and evil, appropriate and inappropriate
  25. deviance
    breaking or refusing to follow a social rule. the rule can be societywide or specific to a particular group or situation
  26. discrimination
    a set of actions based on prejudice and stereotypes
  27. dual labor markey
    a theory of economic inequality in the labor market between the 'primary' sector, characterized by high wage, high benefits jobs and the 'secondary' market, characterized by low wage, few benefits, and seasonal or marginal employment. A 'gendered' dual labor market indicates that the level of sex segregation in the labor force is high
  28. ethnicity
    social category that depends on an assumption of inherent cultural differences to rate and organize social groups
  29. ethnocentrism
    the use of one's own culture as the reference point by which to evaluate other cultures; it often depends on or leads to the belief that one's own culture is superior to others
  30. exogamy
    the insistence that marriage to (or sex w/) members of your family unit is forbidden. This is the incest taboo, which Freud argured was the one single cultural universal
  31. extended family
    the most common model in the pre-modern era, the family model in which two or three generations lived under the same roof or at least in the same compound: grandparents, parents, unmarried uncles and aunts, married uncles and aunts, sisters, brothers, cousins, and all of their children
  32. family of origin
    a child's biological parents or others who are responsible for his or her upbringing
  33. family of procreation
    the family one creates through marriage or cohabitation w/ a romantic partner. today, we consider andy adults living together as a family of procreation even if none of them is actually doing any procreating
  34. family
    the basic unit in society, it traditionally consists of two parents rearing their children but may also be any of various social units
  35. folkway
    one of the relatively weak and informal norms that are the result of patterns of action. "manners"
  36. functional age
    a set of observable characteristics and attributes that are used to categorize ppl into different age cohorts
  37. functionalism
    sociological theory that stressed the interconnectedness of social institutions forming stable and orderly social systems
  38. gender socialization
    process by which males and females are taught the appropriate behaviors, attitudes, and traits for their biological sex. it begins at birth and continues throughout their lives
  39. generalized other
    the organized rules, judgements, and attitudes of an entire group. if you try to imagine what is expected of you, you are taking on the perspective of the generalized other
  40. gerontology
    scientific study of the biological, psychological, and sociological phenomena associated w/ old age and aging
  41. group marriage
    rare marriage arrangement in which two or more men marry two or more women w/ children born to anyone in the union 'belonging' to all of the partners equally
  42. groupthink
    social process in which members of a group attempt to conform their opinions to what they believe to be the consensus of the group, even if, as individuals, they may consider that opinon wrong or unwise
  43. heterosexism
    institutionally based inequalities that may derive from homophobia
  44. hooking up
    a sexual encounter that may or may not include sexual intercourse, usually occurring on only one occasion between two ppl who are strangers or brief acquaintances
  45. intimate partner violence (IPV)
    violence, lethal or nonlethal, experienced by a spouse, ex-spouce, or cohabiting partner; boyfriend or girlfriend; or ex-boyfriend or ex-girlfriend. It is commonly called 'domestic violence' but b/c some does not occur in the home, IPV is the preferred term
  46. kinship systems
    social systems that locate individuals by reference to their families, that is, by common biological ancestry, legal marriage, or adoption
  47. law
    a norm that has been organized and written down. breaking this norm involves the disapproval not only of immediate community members but also of the agents of the state, who are charged w/ punishing such norm-breaking behavior
  48. legitimacy
    social arrangements taht ensure men know what children they have produced (women usually know). Families them bear the economic and emotional burden of raising only the children that belong to them
  49. life chances
    a person's abilities to have access to material goods (food and shelter) and social resources (health care, education) that together control the quality of life
  50. life expectancy
    the average number of years a person can expect to live; varies greatly by country and region
  51. life span
    the average or the maximum amount of time an organism or object can be expected to live or last
  52. looking-glass self
    Cooley's term for the process of how identity is formed through social interaction. We imagine how we appear to others and thus develop our sense of self based on the others' reactions, imagined or otherwise
  53. masculinization of sex
    the pursuit of sexual pleasure for its own sake, increased attention to orgasm, increased numvers of sexual partners, interest in sexual experimentation, and seperation of sexual behavior from love.
  54. matrilineal descent
    tracing one's ancestry through the mother, her mother and so on
  55. matrix of domination
    an interlocking system of control in which each type of inequality reinforces the others, so that the impact of one cannot be fully understood without also considering the others
  56. meritocracy
    social system in which the greater the functional importance of the job, the more rewards it brings in salary, perks, power, and prestige
  57. modernism
    in sociology, a belief in progress that challenged traditoin, religion, and aristocracies as remnants of the past and saw industry, democracy, and science as the wave of the future
  58. monogamy
    the most common arrangement; marriage btwn 2 ppl. most monogamous societies allow men and women to marry each other b/c it takes one of each to make a baby, but same -sex monogamy is surprisingly common
  59. multigenerational households
    adults of more than one generation sharing a domestic space
  60. muscle dysmorphia
    a belief that one is insufficiently muscular
  61. nonmarital sex
    sexual relations outside marriage
  62. norm
    one of the rules a culture develops that defines how ppl should act and the consequences of failure to act in the specified ways
  63. patriarchy
    literally, 'the rule of the fathers'; a name given to the social order in which men hold power over women
  64. patrilineal descent
    tracing one's ancestry through the father, his father, and so on
  65. polyandry
    rare form of polygamy in which one woman marries two or more men
  66. polygyny
    the most common form of polygamy, a marriage between one man and two or more women
  67. prejudice
    a set of beliefs and attitudes that cause us to negatively prejudge ppl based on their social location
  68. primary group
    one such as friends and family, which comes together for expressive reasons, providing emotional support, love, companionship, and security
  69. race
    social category, still poorly defined, that depends on an assumption of biological distinction to rate and organize social groups
  70. reference group
    a group toward which one is so strongly committed, or one that commands so much prestige, that we orient our actions around what we perceive that group's pperceptions would be
  71. role
    behavior expected of ppl who have a particular status
  72. sandwich generation
    popular term for middle-aged adults who are caring for both their young children and their aging parents
  73. second shift
    the term coined by sociologist Hochschild to describe how working women typically must work both outside the home for wages and inside the home doing domestic management and child care
  74. secondary group
    co-workers, club members, or another group that comes together for instrumental reasons, such as wanting to work together to meet common goals. Secondary groups make less of an emotional claim on one's identity than do primary groups
  75. sex tourism
    effectively the globalization of prostitution, a well-organized business whereby the flow of 'consumers' (wealthy men) is directed to the 'commodities' (poor men, women, and children). Like prostitution, there si far less 'choice' on the part of the locals and far more coercion than typically meets the eye. The tourists seem to be men and women who are being friendly and flirtatious, but the locals are usually victims of kidnapping and violence
  76. sex
    a biological distinction; the chromosomal, chemical, and anatomical organization of males and females
  77. sexual behavior
    any behavior that brings sexual pleasure or release
  78. sexual identity
    refers to an identity that is organized by the gender of the person (or persons) to whom you are sexually attracted
  79. sexual script
    set of ideas and practices that answer basic questions about sexual identity and practices: whith whom do we have sex? What do we do? How often? Why?
  80. sexual socialization
    the process by which your sexual scripts begin to cohere into a preference and sexual identity
  81. sexuality
    identiey we construct that is often based on our sexual conduct and often intersects w/ other sources of identity, such as race, class, ethnicity, age, or gender
  82. social construction of gender
    the sociological idea that gender is something we construct all through our lives, using the cultural materials we find around us. Our gender identities are simultaneously voluntary, based on choices, and coerced by social pressures, sometimes including physical threats, to conform to certain rules
  83. social mobility
    the movement from one class to another, it can occur in two forms: intergenerational- that is, your parents are working class, but you became lower; and intragenerational- that is, you move from working to upper class all w/in your lifetime
  84. Social Security
    the US government program wherein citizens contribute a small portion of their earnings while working and then collect a cash supplement after retirement. The program has been credited w/ preventing tens of millions of elderly from living in poverty and hunger
  85. social stratification
    taken from the geological term for layers of rock, or 'strata', the ranking of ppl into defined layers. exists in all societies and is based on things like wealth, race, and gender
  86. socialization
    the process by which we become aware of ourselves as part of a group, learn to communicate w/ others, and learn how to behave as expected
  87. sociological imagination
    the ability to see the connection btwn our individual identities and the social contexts (family, friends, and institution) in which we find ourselves
  88. sociology
    the study of human behavior in society
  89. stereotype
    generalization about a group that is oversimplified, selective, exaggerated and usually pejorative, which fails to acknowledge the individual differences in the group
  90. stigma
    an attribute that changes you 'from a whole and usual person to a tainted and discounted one,' discredits a person's claim to be normal
  91. symbolic interactionism
    sociological perspective that examines how individuals and groups interact, focusing on the creation of personal identity through interaction w/ others. of particular interest is the relationship between individual action and group pressures
  92. total institution
    an institution that completely circumscribes your everyday life, cutting you off from life before you entered and seeking to regulate every part of your behavior