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what is the cognitive dissonance theory?
any compatibility or inconsistency between attitude or between behavior and attitude
a unique combination of emotional, thought, and behavioral patterns that affect how a person reacts to situations and interacts with others
what are the 4 different styles of leading people?
- 1. directing
- 2. coaching
- 3. supporting
- 4. delegating
what are the Myers Briggs instrument characteristics?
- a personality test assessment that uses four dichotomies of personality to identify different personality types
what was the impact of control on a company's goals?
what is a statistical report
what is feedforward
control that takes place before a work activity is done
what is concurrent
control that takes place while a work activity is in progress
what is feedback controls
Control that takes place after a work activity is done
what is the big 5 personality model
- another way of viewing persons personality.
- the 5 traits they are judged on are
- 2. Agreeableness
- 3. Conscientiousness
- 4. Emotional Stability
- 5. Openness to experience
what are internal and external locus of control
- locus of control- the degree to which people believe they control their own fate. some people believe that their lives are controlled by outside forces.
- internal- their own action
- external- someone else's action
what is the planning/controlling theory
A leadership theory that says the leader's job is to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide direction or support needed to ensure that their goals are compatible with the organization's or group's goals.
what are some of the main points in the Iowa studies on leadership?
what are the 3 types found in the study and what do they do?
autocratic- a leader who centralizes authority, dictates, work methods, makers unilateral decisions, and limits employee participation
democratic style- A leader who involves employees in decision making, delegates authority, encourages participation in decision work methods, and uses feedback to coach employees
laissez-faire style- a leader who generally gives employees complete freedom to make decisions and to complete their work however they see fit.
what is Fiedler's LPC model
it is a questinare that measueres weather a leader was task or relationship oriented. this test had 18 questions.
- 67=< relationship bound
- 57=> productivity bound
what are the 5 levels of leadership
- 1. Position - This is the most basic level of leadership. You have a title and that's it. You will only be able to lead based on what that title enables you to lead with. Your authority only goes as far as the title and people will only follow you as far as your title allows. An example of this would be a first level manager in a company. People that you are managing will do just enough to please you. You are only leading them in name and your leverage is only what authority has been given to you from above.
- 2. Permission - This is when people begin to follow you because they want to. This is the true beginning of influence. You can begin to really grow as a person and organization when people follow you voluntarily.
- 3. Production - People begin to produce and follow you because of what they see you doing for the organization. People like what you do and also contribute themselves.
- 4. People Development - At this point in leadership, you have others follow you because of what you've done for them personally. You've poured into other people and they are growing in leadership themselves.
- 5. Personhood - This is the pinnacle of leadership and occurs when people follow you based on who you are and what you represent or stand for. John Maxwell says that this level is reserved for people who have spent years growing others and their organization. Very few people make it to this level.
what is servant leadership
- Servant-leaders achieve results for their organizations by giving priority attention to the needs of their colleagues and those they serve.
- Servant-leaders are often seen as humble stewards of their organization's resources (human, financial and physical).
what are the contingency variables in the Hersey Blanchard model
- 1. Importance of the decision
- 2. Importance of obtaining follower commitment to the decision
- 3. Whether the leader has sufficient information to make a good decision
- 4. How well structured the problem is
- 5. Whether an autocratic decision would receive follower commitment
- 6. Whether followers "by into" the organization's goals
- 7. Whether there is likely to be conflict among followers over solution alternatives
- 8. Whether followers have the necessary information to make a good decision
- 9. Time constraints on the leader that may limit follower involvement
- 10. Whether costs to bring geographically dispersed members together are justified
- 11. Importance to the leader of minimizing the time it takes to make a decision
- 12. Importance of using participation as a tool for developing follower decision skills
what is a visionary Leader
the ability to create and articulate a realistic. credible, and attractive vision of the future that improves on the present situation
what is a Charismatic leader
a person that is, an enthusiastic, self-confident leader whose personality and actions influence people to behave in certain ways
Transformational vs transactional leaders
transactional leaders- leaders who lead primary by using social exchanges. Transactional leaders guide or motivate followers to work toward established goals by exchanging rewards for their productivity
transformational leaders- leaders who stimulate and inspire (transform) followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes