microbiology

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Anonymous
ID:
56563
Filename:
microbiology
Updated:
2010-12-16 19:10:54
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water purification
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water purification
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  1. indicator organisms
  2. indicating fecal
    contamination
  3. Direct tests for pathogens
  4. • Involve selective cultivation to large
    • numbers
    • personnel
    • • Molecular tests
  5. Bacterial-indicator organisms
    COLIFORM GROUP

    STREPTOCOCCI

    SPORE FORMERS
  6. COLIFORM GROUP
  7. total coliforms
    • –fecal coliforms
    • –Escherichia coli
  8. STREPTOCOCCI
  9. –fecal streptococci
    –enterococci
  10. SPORE FORMERS
  11. –Clostridium perfringens
  12. Primary treatment
  13. the
    • removal of large objects -
    • screening and
    • sedimentation
    • • Resulting effluents have
    • a high BOD values
  14. Secondary treatment - anaerobic
  15. Anoxic digester:
    • Removal of high
    • molecular weight
    • material; industrial
    • wastewater
    • • Low production of
    • biomass; most C is
    • converted to CO2 and
    • CH4
  16. Trickling filter
  17. a bed of rocks
    • (10-15 cm in diameter) at a 2
    • m depth. The thick biofilm that
    • forms on the rocks oxidizes
    • organic matte
  18. Activated sludge
  19. 5 -10 hours
    • retention; flocs consisting of
    • bacteria (Zoogloea ramigera -
    • Fig. 28.7) embedded in EPS
    • (slime) and eukaryotic
    • microbes
  20. Tertiary treatment
  21. Removal of inorganic nutrients
    • • Most treatment facilities carry out only
    • primary and secondary treatment
    • • Release of nitrate and phosphate -
    • eutrophication of receiving water bodies
    • • Physical chemical processes:
    • precipitation, filtration, chlorination
  22. Potable water:
  23. water safe for human
    • consumption
    • – Pathogens removed
    • – Turbidity (suspended particles) decrease
    • – Taste improved and odors removed
    • – Nuisance chemicals removed
  24. Sedimentation tank
  25. Large
    • particles and objects removed
    • • Coagulation basin (clarifier) -
    • Raw water mixed with anionic
    • polymers, alum, chlorine; floc
    • formation by coagulation and
    • flocculation; settling of large
    • flocs
  26. Filtration
  27. remaining
    • suspended matter including
    • microbes removed
  28. Disinfection
  29. Chlorine kills
    • most microbes in 30 min but
    • Protozoa (e.g.,
    • Cryptosporidium) may survive
  30. Vibrio cholerae
  31. Descriptions of epidemics on the Indian
    • subcontinent in the 1400s but it did not spread to
    • Europe and the Americas until 1800s
  32. Cholera - Vibrio cholerae
    • Transmitted through raw water and food that is
    • contaminated by water (vegetables, shellfish)

    • Diagnosis- presence of curved rod in water stool
    • • Treatment - hydration with electrolytes
  33. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are
  34. protozoans
  35. G. lamblia cys symptoms
  36. ingested and trophozoite develop, attach
    • to intestine wall leading to diarrhea, foul smell, stomach
    • cramps
  37. Cryptosporidiosis
  38. Tiny protozoan (2-5 μm) with highly chlorine
    • tolerant cysts; mild diarrhea but groups at
    • risk.
    • • Transmission from animal carriers via water
    • distribution systems
  39. Legionellosis
    (Legionnaire’s disease)
  40. a waterborne pathogen transmitted via aerosols
    • – Found in water and soil but grows to high numbers in warm
    • waters (air conditioning cooling systems, hot pools)
  41. alveolar macrophage and
    monocytes
  42. Pontiac fever - mild headaches, sore throat, fever, that
    • disappears after a few days
    • – Pneumonia that follows flu-like symptoms in the elderly; 10%
    • death
    • • Treated with erythromycin
  43. Typhoid fever-Salmonella typhi
  44. Diarrhea
    • – Transmitted by contaminated food, direct contact,
    • and drinking water
  45. Viruses
  46. polio and hepatitis A
    • – Maintaining of 0.6 μg/ml residual chlorine assures
    • elimination
    • • Both diseases are transmitted from infected
    • individuals and in the developed world are
    • associated with the breakdown of water
    • treatment practices
  47. Naegleria fowleri
  48. a free-living ameba
    • • Transmission from recreational waters (warm
    • soil contaminated hot springs, rivers and
    • ponds)
    • • Through nose and subsequent passage to
    • the brain where propagation occurs
    • • Hemorrhage and brain damage and death
  49. Hepatitis A:
  50. readily transmitted via water;
    causes inflammation and necrosis of liver
  51. Norwalk-type viruses:
  52. cause acute
    gastroenteritis
  53. Rotavirus
  54. causes acute gastroenteritis,
    especially in children
  55. Enteroviruses:
  56. many types can infect both the
    intestines and the upper respiratory tract
  57. Reoviruses
  58. infect the intestines and upper
    • respiratory tract (usually without disease
    • symptoms)
  59. Methods used to detect viruses
  60. Electron microscopy
    • • Immunoassays
    • • Cell culture
    • • Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain
    • reaction (RT-PCR)
  61. RT-PCR
  62. Reverse transcriptase (RT) uses RNA as a
    • template to make a DNA copy
    • • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
    • enzymatically amplifies specific DNA
    • sequences
  63. Gel electrophoresis
  64. Size separation of PCR products
    • –charged DNA molecules migrate through a gel
    • in an electric field
    • –small molecules migrate more rapidly than
    • larger molecules

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