Analogies

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Anonymous
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56570
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Analogies
Updated:
2010-12-16 19:59:18
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phi
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phi 120 Final
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  1. Analogies
    the reasoning is that if two or more things are alike in some respects, they are alike in some other respects
  2. Argument Form
    • A and B are both f, g, and h
    • A is also J
    • Therefore, probably B is j
  3. subject
    • the thing, event, or practice at issue in the argument
    • the person, things or event, represented by B, about which a conclusion is drawn
  4. analogue
    • that to which the analogy is drawn; that person, things, or event represented by A to which B is claimed to be analogous
    • j possessed by A
  5. inferred feature
    the feature, j, present with A and concluded as belonging as well to B
  6. common feature
    similarites that form the basis of the analogy
  7. Strength of analogical Arguments
    • strong if the common feature are relevant to the inferred feature and there are no relevant dissimilarities
    • weakend by showing that a relevant difference exists btw the cases and if the relevant negative feature is present it makes the inferred feature less probable
  8. The similarities are extensive
    • if the features two things have in common are NOT relevant to the inferred feature, the number of common features does not matter
    • two things may have few,observable similarities yet still we alike in possessing the inferred feature
    • greater the points of similarity btw the two things, the more likely a relevant similiarity will appear in the set of common features
    • a number of similiarties are less important than the kinds
  9. Similarities are Relevant to the Inferred Feature
    • a common feature is relevant to the presence of the inferred feature if it increases the likelihood of the presence of the inferred feature
    • feature the subject and analogue have in common may be relevant to the inference in different ways: causally, statistically, morally, and aesthetically
  10. There Are No Relevant Dissimilarities
    • there is some feature possessed by one and not the other
    • difference does not create a disanalogy-differences are to be expected
    • when a differnence bears negatively on the possession on the inferred feature, a disanalogy exists

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