The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Analogies
    the reasoning is that if two or more things are alike in some respects, they are alike in some other respects
  2. Argument Form
    • A and B are both f, g, and h
    • A is also J
    • Therefore, probably B is j
  3. subject
    • the thing, event, or practice at issue in the argument
    • the person, things or event, represented by B, about which a conclusion is drawn
  4. analogue
    • that to which the analogy is drawn; that person, things, or event represented by A to which B is claimed to be analogous
    • j possessed by A
  5. inferred feature
    the feature, j, present with A and concluded as belonging as well to B
  6. common feature
    similarites that form the basis of the analogy
  7. Strength of analogical Arguments
    • strong if the common feature are relevant to the inferred feature and there are no relevant dissimilarities
    • weakend by showing that a relevant difference exists btw the cases and if the relevant negative feature is present it makes the inferred feature less probable
  8. The similarities are extensive
    • if the features two things have in common are NOT relevant to the inferred feature, the number of common features does not matter
    • two things may have few,observable similarities yet still we alike in possessing the inferred feature
    • greater the points of similarity btw the two things, the more likely a relevant similiarity will appear in the set of common features
    • a number of similiarties are less important than the kinds
  9. Similarities are Relevant to the Inferred Feature
    • a common feature is relevant to the presence of the inferred feature if it increases the likelihood of the presence of the inferred feature
    • feature the subject and analogue have in common may be relevant to the inference in different ways: causally, statistically, morally, and aesthetically
  10. There Are No Relevant Dissimilarities
    • there is some feature possessed by one and not the other
    • difference does not create a disanalogy-differences are to be expected
    • when a differnence bears negatively on the possession on the inferred feature, a disanalogy exists
Card Set
phi 120 Final
Show Answers