Brady Ch 8 Part 1

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Brady Ch 8 Part 1
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2010-01-31 20:44:17
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  1. What is cytoplasm?
    A thick fluid that fills a cell, also know as protoplasm.
  2. Name six of the most important organelles.
    • Nucleus
    • Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Golgi apparatus
    • Mitochondria
    • Lysosomes
    • Peroxisomes
  3. What is the nucleus and what does it contain?
    The nucleus is an organelle that contains DNA and the enzymes necessary for replication of the DNA.
  4. What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
    The endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle that has a network of small channels that are rough or smooth. The rough functions in the synthesis of proteins and the smooth the synthesis of lipids.
  5. What is the golgi apparatus?
    The golgi apparatus is an organelle that is usually located near the nucleus and performs many functions including the packaging of secretions such as mucus and enzymes.
  6. What is DNA?
    DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid and determines our inherited traits. DNA also plays a critical ongoing role within our bodies.
  7. What is mitochondria?
    Mitochondria is an organelle that is known as the "power house" of the cell. It converts nutrients into energy, usually adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
  8. What is ATP?
    ATP is adeosine triphosphate, which is a high energy compound that is present in all cells, especially muscles. When split by enzymes energy is given off.
  9. What are lysosomes?
    Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes and function to protect against disease, produce nutrients, break down bacteria and organic debris, and relaease usable substances like sugars and amino acids.
  10. What are peroxisomes?
    Peroxisomes absorb and nutralize toxins.
  11. What is the cell membrane?
    The cell membrane is a semipermeable outer layer of the cell.
  12. What are the seven major functions of the cell?
    • Movement
    • Conductivity
    • Metabolic absorbtion
    • Secretion
    • Excretion
    • Respiration
    • Reproduction
  13. What is anabolism?
    Anabolism is the constructive phase of metabolism in which cells convert nonliving things into cytoplasm.
  14. What is catabolism?
    Catabolism is the destructive phase of metabolism in which cells break down complex substances into simpler substances with release of energy.
  15. What is homeostatis?
    Homeostatis is the natural tendency of the body to maintain a steady and normal internal environment.
  16. What is the structural hierarchy of the body?
    • Cells
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ systems
    • Organism
  17. What kind of tissues are present in the human body?
    • Epithelial
    • Muscle
    • Connective
    • Nerve
  18. What is epithelial tissue and what are some of its functions?
    Epithelial tissue lines the internal and external surfaces of the body and provides protection. It also can perform specialized functions such as secretion, absorbtion, diffusion, and filtration.
  19. What are the three type of muscle tissue?
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
    • Skeletal
  20. What is unique about cardiac muscle?
    Cardiac muscle is only found in the heart and can contract without any external stimulus.
  21. Where is smooth muscle found and what controls it?
    Smooth muscle is found generally in the intestines and encirculating blood vessels. It is generally under the control of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system.
  22. What is skeletal muscle?
    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant type of muscle and allows for movement mostly under voluntary control.
  23. What is connective tissue?
    Connective tissue is the most abundant type of tissue in the body and provides support, connection and insulation. Some examples are bones, cartilage, fat and sometimes blood.
  24. What does nerve tissue do?
    Nerve tissue sends electrical impulses throughout the body. Some examples are the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
  25. What are some of the important organ systems?
    • Cardiovascular
    • Respiratory
    • Gastrointestinal
    • Genitourinary
    • Reproductive
    • Nervous
    • Endocrine
    • Lymphatic
    • Muscular
    • Skeletal
  26. Describe the lymphatic system.
    The lymphatic system is often considered part of the cardiac system. It consists of the spleen, lymph nodes, lymphatic channels, thoracic duct, and lymph fluid. It helps fight disease, in filtration, and removing waste products created during cellular metabolism.
  27. Describe the endocrine system.
    The endocrine system functions closely with the nervous system. It consists of the pituitary gland, pineal gland, pancreas, testes or ovaries, adreneal glands, thyroid gland, and parathyroid gland. Other organs that may be associated are the heart, kidneys, and intestines.

    *The endocrine system exert its effects through the release of hormones.*
  28. Describe the nervous system.
    The nervous system is made of the brain, spinal cord, and all peripheral nerves. It controls virtually all bodily functions and is the seat of intellect, awareness and personality.
  29. What is the positive feedback loop?
    The positive feedback loop enhances the effects of an input.
  30. What is the negative feedback loop?
    The negative feedback loop employs mechanisms to reverse or compensate for changes within the body whether the change is caused by disease or someother factor.
  31. What are the classifications of cellular adaptation?
    • Atrophy
    • Hypertrophy
    • Hyperplasia
    • Metaplasia
    • Dysplasia
  32. Define cellular atrophy.
    Atrophy is a decrease in cell size as a result of decreased workload.
  33. Define cellular hypertrophy.
    Hypertrophy is an increase in size as a result of increased workload.
  34. Define hyperplasia.
    Hyperplasia is and increase in the number of cells as a result of increased workload.
  35. Define cellular dysplasia.
    Dysplasia is an abnormal change in cell size, shape or appearance caused by an external stressor.
  36. Define metaplasia.
    Metaplasia is the replacement of one type of cell by another type of cell that is not normal for that tissue.
  37. Describe dilation in reference to cellular adaptation.
    Dilation is enlargement of the cells after a pathological event.
  38. Define cellular necrosis.
    Necrosis is death of a cell and is always pathological. There are four types; coagulative, liquefactive, caseous, and fatty. There is also gagrenous necrosis - over a wide area.
  39. What is "TBW"?
    TBW is Total Body Water which is the total amount of water in the body at any given time. This amount of water accounts for approximately 60% of the bodies weight.
  40. What is the intracellular fluid?
    Intracellular fluid (ICF) is the fluid inside of the cells and accounts for approximately 45% of the bodies weight.
  41. Define extracellular fluid.
    The extracellular fluid (ECF) is all the fluid outside of the body cells accounting for about 15% of the bodies weight. ECF is comprised of intravascular and interstitial fluids.
  42. Define intravascular fluid.
    The intravascular fluid is within the circulatory system; blood plasma. It accounts for 4.5% of the bodies weight and is part of the extracellular fluid.
  43. Define interstitial fluid.
    The interstitial fluid is in the bodies tissues that are outside of the cells and outside of the vascular system. It accounts for about 10.5% of the bodies weight and is part of the extracellular fluid.
  44. Define turgor.
    Turgor is the cells normal tension and its resistance to deformation. Dehydration is one cause of poor skin turgor.
  45. Explain internal losses relating to dehydration.
    Commonly called third space losses since the intravascular or intracellular fluids shifts to the interstitial space. Can occur with pancreatitus, peritonitis, bowel obstruction or cases of malnurishment.
  46. Define edema.
    Edema is the accumulation of water in the interstitial space.
  47. Define ischemia.
    Ischemia is a blockage or reduction in the delivery of oxygenated blood to the cells.
  48. Define hypoxia.
    Hypoxia is oxygen deficiency.
  49. Define infarction.
    An infarct is cellular death caused by continued lack of oxygen.
  50. Define pathogen.
    A pathogen is a microorganism capable of producing infection or disease.
  51. What are the two main components of blood?
    • Plasma (liquid portion)
    • Blood cells (formed elements)
  52. What is blood plasma?
    Blood plasma is the liquid portion of the blood and is approximately 92% water, 6-7% proteins and a small portion of other dissolved substances like electolytes, lipids, enzymes, clotting factors and glucose.
  53. What is a leukocyte?
    A leukocyte is a white blood cell and plays a key role in the immune system and inflammatory response.
  54. What is a thrombocyte?
    A thrombocyte is a platelet for clotting.
  55. What is an erythrocyte?
    Erythrocytes are red blood cells and make up more than 99% of all blood cells. They contain hemoglobin that transport oxygen to the cells.
  56. Define hemoglobin.
    Hemoglobin is an iron based compound that binds with oxygen and transports it to the cells.
  57. What are crystalloid fluids?
    Crystalloids are the primary compounds used in prehospital IV therapy. They are capable of crystallization and in a solution can diffuse through a membrane such as a capillary wall.
  58. What are colloids?
    Colloid substances have high molecular weight molecules like proteins or starches that tend to remain in the intravascular space for an extended period of time. They also disperse evenly within a liquid without forming a solution.
  59. What is normal saline?
    Normal saline is an electrolyte solution of sodium chloride in water that is isotonic with the extracellular fluid.
  60. What is lactated ringers?
    Lactated ringers is an isotonic electrolyte solution of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, and sodium lactate in water.
  61. What are the four major elements in the body?
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
  62. What is an electrolyte?
    An electrolyte is a solution that when placed in water separates into electrically charged particles.
  63. What is an ion?
    An ion is a charged particle.
  64. What is a cation?
    A cation is an ion with a positive charge.
  65. What is an anion?
    An anion is an ion with a negative charge.
  66. What is Na+?
    Na+ is sodium and is the most prevelent cation in the extracellular fluid and plays a major role in regulating the distribution of water.
  67. What is H2CO3?
    H2CO3 is carbonic acid and is the combination of water H2O and carbon dioxide CO2.
  68. What is Ca++?
    Ca++ is calcium. It plays a major role in muscle contraction and nerve impulse delivery.
  69. Define osmosis.
    Osmosis is the passage of a solvent like water through a membrane.
  70. Define osmotic gradient.
    Osmotic gradient is the difference in concentration between solutions on opposite sides of a semi permeable membrane.
  71. What is oncotic force?
    Oncotic force is a form of osmotic pressure exerted by the large protein particles or colloids in the blood plasma. In the plasma the colloids tend to pull the water from the interstitial space into the capillary.
  72. Define osmolarity.
    Osmolarity is the concentration of solute per liter of water.
  73. What is a hypertonic solution?
    A hypertonic solution has a greater concentration of solute molecules than does another fluid.
  74. What is a hypotonic solution?
    A hypotonic solution has a lesser concentration of solute molecules than does another solution.
  75. What is an isotonic solution?
    An isotonic solution has an equal amount of solute molecules as another fluid.
  76. What is bicarbonate?
    Bicarbonate (HCO-) is in a 20:1 balance with carbonic acid to maintain the blood's pH.
  77. Describe acidosis.
    Acidosis is a high concentration on H+ giving a blood pH of less than 7.35. It can be either respiratory or metabolic.
  78. Describe alkalosis.
    Alkalosis is a low concentration of H+ resulting in a pH level higher than 7.45. Alkalosis can either be respiratory or metabolic.
  79. What is an acid?
    An acid is any solution that has a pH lower than 7.
  80. What is a base?
    A base is any solution that has a pH higher than 7.

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