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df: higher order conditioning
Pain at the doctors office (UCS) makes a lab coat the (CS). However, after seeing a pharmacist at a drug store in a lab coat, makes the once neutral drug store into a CS for fear.
law of effect
When a response made to a particular stimulus is followed by a reward, that response is more likely to occur when the stimulus is encountered again.
A process in which behavior is changed by its consequences - by rewards and punishments.
Has some effect on the world. When a child says "I'm hungry," the child has made an operant response that influences when food will appear.
A stimulus that increases the probability that the operant behavior with occur again.
Will strengthen a response if they are presented after that response occurs. Ex: food given to a hungry pigeon after it pecks a key.
The removal of unpleasant stimuli, such as pain or noise. Ex: disappearance of a headache after Advil is taken. This increases your likelihood to take Advil in the future.
The process of learning responses that stop an averse stimulus. Ex: hitting mute when a loud commercial comes on.
The process of learning particular responses that avoid an averse stimulus. Ex: a horn sounds so a dog jumps away as he knows a shock is about to occur.
discriminative conditioned stimuli
Know flirtatious comments are welcomed on a date, but not at the office.
Primary reinforcers vs. secondar reinforcers
- primary - food, water (instinctual)
- secondary - praise, cash money
- FR - rat receives food after 10 lever presses
- VR - rat receives food after an average of 10 lever presses
- FI - one reward ever 30 seconds, no matter how many responses
- VI - rewards to children who are in their sets when a chime sounds at variable intervals
positive vs. negative punishemnt
- positive punshihment - you burn yourself on a iron. you no longer touch hot irons
- negative punishment - you drop your ice cream cone. you are more careful.