Final exam

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scharmch
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56594
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Final exam
Updated:
2010-12-16 22:15:13
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health
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review
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  1. The reason of formation of belmont report was:
    Protection of human right subjects of biomedical research
  2. The purpose of the belmont report is to:
    • ID the basic ethical principles
    • Develop guidlines
  3. The 3 principles of the belmont report are:
    • Respect for others ( informed consent)
    • Justice ( fair distribution)
    • Beneficience ( Do no harm, increase benefit)
  4. What is research?
    Test hypothesis and develope generalized knowledge, it is required to be reviewed.
  5. Practice is:
    Interventions that are intended to increase individual well being and reasonable expectation of success
  6. When is research and practice done together?
    When it is needed to evaluate efficacy of therapy
  7. What does respect for others entail?
    • People are autonomous and can make their own decision
    • People with diminished autonomy are entitled to protection
    • ***Informed consent ( Process)
  8. What are the three categories of informed consent?
    • Comprehension
    • Information
    • Voluntary ( consent free of coercion, undue influence)
  9. Incompelete disclousure is only justified when:
    • it is necessary to accomplish research goals
    • there are no undisclose risks that are more than minimal
    • there are adequate plans for debriefing
  10. Comprehension can be comprimised when:
    • document is legal
    • language/ cultural issues
    • presenting information to quickly
    • no opportunity for questions
  11. Undue influance means:
    improper incentives and reward for participation
  12. The two characters of risk are:
    • Chance
    • Severety
  13. What are types of risk:
    • Psychological
    • Physical
    • Legal
    • Social
    • Economic
  14. After Tuskegee there was a settlement in 1973 what did it include:
    • Life time medical benefits
    • Extend it to families
    • Widow , children and grandchildren still get benefit
  15. Health locus of control was developed based on :
    Rotter locus of control concept.
  16. Expectancy life value theory states that:
    People learn expectancy through reinforcement . Behavior result in an outcome. The higher the value of behavior higher enclanation to engage in the behavior.
  17. Internal locus of control:
    • Outcome results of one's actions
    • These people are more likely to engage in health behavior
  18. External locus of control:
    Outcome is result of chance, luck or powerful others
  19. Health locus of control began as :
    Unidimensional construct ( Internal- external)
  20. Multidimensional health locus of control is :
    • Internal
    • External chance
    • External power of others
  21. The advantages of MHLC include:
    • Multidimensional ( better able to predict health behavior)
    • Parrallel forms
    • Better reliability
    • Developed with real people
  22. What are the 2 dimensions of SHLC:
    • Active ( Higher powers , empower people to take care of themselves)
    • Passive ( because of beliefes people don't feel they need to take care of themselves)
  23. What was the method used in gathering data for SLC:
    self administered questionnare
  24. What was the characteristic of the sample:
    • African. American woman
    • Church going
    • Educated
    • Middle age
    • Middle SES
    • *** AA Church going and income was limitation to this sample
  25. What were the factors included in the SHLC:
    • Active
    • Passive
    • God's grace
  26. Attitude is:
    General enduring +/- feelings about person, subject or issue
  27. Belief are:
    Ideas and actions
  28. Functions of attitude are:
    • Ego defensive ( protect one self)
    • Value expressive ( express values)
    • Knowledge ( understand)
    • Utilitarian ( avoid punishment)
  29. The two points of the centeral route are:
    • Motivation
    • Ability
  30. Centeral route:
    • Consider argument
    • Issue relevant
    • Thought/ processing
    • Used when issue is important
  31. Peripheral:
    • Issue is not as important
    • Attitue change when cue goes away
  32. Where High argument quality is important:
    peripheral cues are less important
  33. What does socioecological model entail:
    Change is public health does not happen in one level
  34. What are the levels of SEM?
    • Individual level ( change in attitude/ beliefs)
    • Interpersonal ( impact on health due to relationships)
    • Community ( impact on health due to community, social environment)
    • Social level ( impact to health due to macro level factors)
  35. What are the interventions that can be done for each of the categories:
    Intrapersonal
    Interpersonal
    Community
    Social level
    • change attitude and behavior
    • peer education, community health advisor, partner education
    • impact climate, process, policy in these environment , social norms and marketing campagins
    • collaborations, partners,promote social norms, policy, law
  36. American's do not reach the guidlines of physical activity in:
    • Intensity
    • Frequancy
    • Duration
  37. Inactivity rate is lower in:
    • Lower SES
    • Older
    • Woman
    • Minority
  38. Intrapersonal resources:
    • SES
    • Education
    • Knowledge
    • Motivation
  39. Interpersonal resources:
    • Social support
    • Social norms
  40. Community resources:
    • Safe and affordable facilities
    • Design of heighborhoods
    • Safety
    • Community capacity
  41. Societal resources:
    • Partnership
    • Policy
    • Cost
    • Utilization of work place
  42. Limitation of socioecological model is :
    • Hard to design
    • Hard to test
    • Lack of capacity
  43. Transtheoratical model is :
    Stages of change
  44. TTM is developed out of : ( Intrapersonal theory)
    Addiction behavior smoking
  45. Behavioral change is a :
    Proccess
  46. Stages of change are:
    • 1.Precontemplation
    • 2.Contemplation
    • 3.Prepration
    • 4.Action
    • 5.Maintnance
  47. What are the educational strategies for steps 1/5
    • 1. increase awareness
    • 2. motivate them, encourage specific plans
    • 3. help them develop action plans
    • 4. help them with feedback, social support
    • 5. help them with coping and avoid relapse
  48. Social cognetive theory is a ... theory:
    Interpersonal
  49. Recipricol determinisim :
    Interaction of person, behavior and environment
  50. Environment :
    Factors that can impact person's behavior ( social/physical)
  51. Situation is :
    one's perception of place, time and physical features
  52. Expectation:
    Anticipated outcome of behavior
  53. Self efficacy:
    Confidance in ability to perform behavior
  54. Behavioral capacity:
    knowledge and skill to perform behavior
  55. Driving to far distance :
    Environment
  56. Classes in healthy cooking:
    skills and behavioral capacity
  57. Learn how healthy diet benefits:
    Expectation
  58. Setting goals:
    self efficacy
  59. Some members serve as role models:
    Observational learning
  60. Members recieve incentive:
    Reinforcement
  61. Members learn about healthy life style:
    Recipricol determinism
  62. The difference between TPB and TRA is the
    PBC
  63. Mean level predictor variable is used when :
    there is no room change to another
  64. Relative weights:
    If one more is important then other , target that important one

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