Ag Biochem Final

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nels5160
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56601
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Ag Biochem Final
Updated:
2010-12-16 23:04:41
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Horticulture biochemistry
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Agricultural biochemistry final
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  1. In general, grasses are less sensitive to iron limitation. What is the general name for these chelating compounds?
    phytosiderophores
  2. What eight essential amino acids do adult humans need to obtain in their diets?
    • Phenylalanine
    • valine
    • threonine
    • tryptophan
    • isoleucine
    • methionine
    • leucine
    • lysene
  3. Name and describe two things that are present in seeds that make them less nutritious.
    • Lectins - bind sugars to make them hard to digest
    • Protease inhibitors - inhibit enzymatic digestion of protein
  4. List two vitamins not found in plants.
    • D
    • B12
  5. Deficiency - pellagra
    B3
  6. Deficiency: beriberi
    B1
  7. Deficiency: scurvy
    C
  8. Deficiency: rickets
    D
  9. Deficiency: night blindness
    A
  10. What is the compound found in red wine?
    resveratrol
  11. Once a signal is perceived by a receptor, the signal must be relayed to other parts of the cell. What are two common ways plants accomplish this signal transduction for many different receptors?
    • Increase in calcium ion concentration
    • Protein phosphorylation to relay signals
  12. Blue light is perceived by ( ) receptors. Red light is perceived by ( ) receptors. The chromophore of a phytochrome is a ( ) that undergoes a ( ) to ( ) isomerization.
    • cryptophore
    • phytochrome
    • tetra pyrole
    • trans to cys
  13. Indole acetic acid is moved through the plant through what?
    polar auxin transport
  14. Indole acetic acid can be synthesized from what amino acid?
    tryptophan
  15. What chemical core is common to all cytokinins?
    Adenine (think Adison!)
  16. The last enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis is called what?
    ACC synthase
  17. What two hormones protect agains herbivory?
    • Jasmonic acid
    • Salicylic acid
  18. What was the first plant to have its genome completely sequenced?
    Arabidopsis thaliana
  19. Plugs mad of ( ) are regularly deposited in the structure as the pollen intracellular contents stream toward the ovule.
    callose
  20. Phosphate is stored in many seed types in what chemical form?
    Phytate
  21. Cavities and oil glands (orange peels) can form in living plant tissue through the combination of what two processes?
    • lysigeny
    • schizogeny
  22. What hormone reverses senescence in a leaf even after a complete loss of chlorophyll?
    cytokinins
  23. What class of herbicides inhibits the first enzymatic step of lipid synthesis in grasses?
    ACCase inhibitors
  24. What class of herbicides inhibits the fist step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids?
    ALS inhibitors (think Tina!)
  25. Glyphosate is a member of which herbicide class?
    EPSP synthase inhibitors
  26. DDT is a member of what class of insecticide?
    Organochlorine insecticide
  27. The active ingredient in Raid is a member of which class of insecticides?
    Pyrethroid insecticides
  28. Organophosphate insecticides as well as many chemical warfare nerve agents inhibit what enzyme?
    Acetylcholine esterase
  29. List four different biocide resistance mechanisms that can develop over prolonged periods of time:
    • metabolize
    • the target mutates
    • exports the biocide
    • behavior modifies (animals)
  30. What are the 6 kinds of acute exposure?
    • oral
    • dermal
    • gas inhalation
    • vapor inhalation
    • dust inhalation
    • ocular
  31. What are the three legs of the plant disease triangle?
    • host susceptibility
    • presence of pathogen
    • favorable environment
  32. How do plant viruses spread inside a plant?
    Through plasmodesmata and phloem
  33. Which term of the water potential expression is affected by the synthesis of these compounds?
    solute potential (devil fork)
  34. The primary response to heat stress is to synthesize what class of proteins? what do these proteins do?
    Chaperones are synthesized to help keep proteins correctly folded under high temperatures
  35. What two dehydrogenase enzymes are activated under oxygen stress?
    • Lactate
    • alcohol
  36. Name three types of specialized plant structures in which secondary metabolites are stored.
    • Glandular trichomes
    • Secretory cavities
    • Resin ducts

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