Psych Test 1

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Psych Test 1
2010-12-17 00:31:38

CFI Psych Test 1
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  1. What is introspection?
    A method of exploring conscious mental processes by asking subjects to look inward and report their sensations and perceptions
  2. What is an independent variable?
    A treatment or something that the researcher controls or manipulates
  3. What is the goal of Psychology?
    Describe, Explain, Predict, and Control
  4. What is the control group?
    Composed of participants who undergo all the same procedures as the experiment participants except that the control participants do not receive treatment.
  5. What is cognitive psychology?
    Involves how we process, store, and retrieve information and how cognitive processes influence our behavior.
  6. What is psychometrics?
    focuses on the measurement of people's abilities, skills, intelligence, personality, and abnormal behaviors.
  7. Explain positive and negative correlations.
  8. Be able to name 5 of the 6 modern approaches to psychology listed in your textbook
    • Biological
    • Cognitive
    • Behavioral
    • Psychoanalytic
    • Humanistic
    • Cross-Cultural
    • Evolutionary
  9. What is text anxiety?
    Refers to a combination of psychological, emotional, and cognitive components that interfere with one's concentration, planning, and academic performance.
  10. Who was Freud?
  11. What is a placebo?
    some intervention, such as taking a pill, receiving an injection, or undergoing an operation, that resembles medical therapy but that, in fact, has no medical effects.
  12. What do end bulbs do?
    look like tiny bubbles that are located at the extreme ends of the axon's branches. Each end bulb is like a miniature container that stores chemicals called neurotransmitters, which are used to communicate with neighboring cells.
  13. What are glial cells?
    have at least three functions: providing scaffolding to guide the growth of developing neurons and support mature neurons; wrapping around neurons to form insulation to prevent interference from other electrical signals; and releasing chemicals that influence a neuron's growth and function
  14. What is the double blind method?
    means neither participants nor researchers know which group is receiving which treatment.
  15. What is an axon?
    is a single threadlike structure that extends from, and carries signals away from, the cell body to neighboring neurons, organs or muscles.
  16. What is a synapse?
    is an infinitely small space (20-30 billionths of a meter) that exists between an end bulb and its adjacent body organ (heart) muscles (head), or cell body.
  17. What is the central nervous system and what are the parts?
    is made up of neurons located in the brain and spinal cord
  18. What are stem cells and how could they be useful for conquering disease?
    have the amazing capacity to change into and become any one of the 220 types of cells that make up a human body, including skin, heart, liver, bones, and neurons. Stem cells have been used in animals and have helped replace parts of the body that have lost function. However it can be seen as controversial because they come from embryos.
  19. What is autism?
    marked by especially abnormal or impaired development in social interactions, such as hiding to avoiding people, not making eye contact, not wanting to be touched. Autism is marked by difficulties in communicating, such as grave problems in developing spoken language or in initiating conversations.
  20. What is a lobotomy?
    a surgical procedure in which about one third of the front part of the frontal lobe was cut away from the rest of the brain.
  21. What is homeostasis?
    means the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems work together to keep the body's level of arousal in balance for optimum functioning.
  22. What is a gene?
    a specific segment on the long strand of DNA that contains instructions for making proteins. Proteins are chemical building blocks from which the parts of the brain and body are constructed.
  23. Explain an MRI.
    involves passing non-harmful radio frequencies through the brain. A computer measures how these signals interact with brain cells and transform this interaction into an incredibly detailed image of the brain (or body). Used to study structure of the brain.
  24. Explain the Theory of Evolution.
    says that different species arose from a common ancestor and that those species that survived were best adapted to meet the demands of their environments.
  25. What are endorphins?
  26. What is the "all or none" law?
    says that if an action potential starts with the beginning of an axon, the action potential will continue at the same speed, segment by segment, to the very end of the axon.
  27. What does Broca's area do?
    usually located in the front left frontal lobe, is necessary for combining sounds into words and arranging words into meaningful sentences.
  28. What is the reticular formation?
  29. What new techniques are being used to help with the treatment of Alzheimer's disease?
  30. What does corpus collosum do?
  31. Explain the parasympathetic nervous system.
    returns the body to a calmer, relaxed state and is involved in digestion
  32. Explain the sympathetic nervous system.
    triggered by threatening or challenging physical or psychological stimuli, increases physiological arousal and prepares body for action.
  33. What do pons do?
    function as a bridge to transmit messages between the spinal cord and brain. The pons also makes the chemicals involved in sleep.
  34. What is Fragile X?
    an inherited development disability, is due to a defect in the X chromosome (the pinched end of X chromosome). It can result in physical changes, such as relatively large head with protruding ears, as well as mild profound mental retardation.
  35. What does amygdale do?
    located in the tip of the temporal lobe, receives input from all the senses. It plays a major role in evaluating the emotional significance of stimuli and facial expressions, especially those involving fear, distress, or threat.
  36. What do we mean by "Fight or Flight" response?
    is a state of increased physiological arousal caused by activation of the sympathetic division, helps the body cope with and survive threatening situations.
  37. What does the thyroid do?
    located in the neck, regulates metabolism through the secretion of hormones.
  38. What is anencephaly?
    refers to the condition of being born with little or no brain, if some brain or nervous tissue is present, it is totally exposed and often damaged because the top of the skull is missing. Survival is usually limited to days; the longest has been two months.