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A Native American people that settled in the valley of Mexico in the 1200’s A.D. and later developed a powerful empire.
A Native American people of the Caribbean Islands—the first group encountered by Columbus and his men when they reached the Americas.
Of mixed Spanish + Native American ancestry.
a system in which Spanish authorities granted colonial
landlords the service of Native Americans as forced laborers.
One of the Spaniards who traveled to the Americas as an
explorer and conqueror in the 16th century.
The transfer—beginning with Columbus’s first voyage—of plants, animals, and diseases between the western Hemisphere and the Eastern
Conquered the Aztecs and captured Montezuma, he was in search of gold in
1519 in Mexico.
Ponce de Leon
puritan church dominated society
the 1494 treaty in which Spain and Portugal agreed to divide the lands
of the western Hemisphere and between them.
The Treaty of Tordesillas
Plymouth colony became part of this colony that was established
by the puritans.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
founded Rhode Island, went for religious freedom and
separation of church and state.
began the King Philip’s war, when the Natives complained
that they had food shortages, diseases and heavy casualties.
French Colonists and the Native American Relations
an economic system in which nations seek to increase their wealth and
power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by establishing a
favorable balance of trade.
a person who has contracted to work for another for a limited period,
often in return for travel expenses, shelter, and sustenance.
settled in a small, defensible peninsula 1st
English colony in N.A. named after the king.
was given land as a payment from King Charles II, later
a revival of religious feeling in the American colonies
during the 1730s and 1750s.
The Great Awakening
a law that established a procedure for the admission of new
states to the Union.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
an order in which Britain prohibited its American colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
The Proclamation of 1763
because of the Proclamation the colonists felt their govt. was limited. As a result of the French and Indian war, Britain’s financial crisis brought new laws that reinforced the colonists’ options.
the official approval of the Constitution by the states.
Ratification of the Constitution
first battle of the Revolutionary War, lasted only 15
Battle of Lexington
a pamphlet by Thomas Paine, published in 1776, that called for separation of the colonies from Britain
a document, adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1777 and finally approved by the states in 1781, that outlined the form of government of the new United States.
Articles of Confederation
the provisions in the U.S. Constitution that prevent any branch of the
U.S. government from dominating the other two branches.
Checks and Balances
support of the Constitution and of a strong national government.
an opponent of a strong central government.
a 1765 law in which Parliament established the first direct taxation of
goods and services within the British colonies in North America.
Marquis de Lafayette arrived to offer help with
French Support during the American Revolution
was sent by President Jefferson to explore the new territory of
Louisiana along with Meriwether Lewis.
helped as an interpreter and guide for the Lewis and Clark expedition.
established a western boundary for the United States that extended along the sabine river from the Gulf of Mexico north to the Arkansas River and its
the forcible seizure of men for military service
went with William Clark to explore the new territory of Louisiana.
president in 1800, was the first presidents to take office in the new federal capital, Washington D.C. Had his theory of government called
the 1803 purchase by the United States of France’s Louisiana Territory—extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains—for $15
federalist chief justice, declared that part of Congress’s Judiciary Act
of 1789, which would have forced Madison to hand over the papers, was
the Supreme Court’s power to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional.
an 1803 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that it had the power to abolish legislative acts by declaring them unconstitutional; this
power came to be known as judicial review.
Marbury v. Madison
president in 1808, part of the most important Supreme Court decisions.
Jefferson’s theory of government, which held that a simple government
best suited the needs of the people.
led one of the most prominent rebellions. August 1831, attacked four plantations and killed about 60 whites with the help of more than
Former slave, who refuted the arguments against her being
a black woman.
a philosophical and literal movement of the 1800s that emphasized living a simple life, and celebrated the truth found in nature and
in personal emotion and imagination.
member of a religious group that emphasizes reason and faith in the individual.
an antislavery paper
written by William Lloyd Garrison delivered an uncompromising demand: immediate
movement to end slavery.
ardent abolitionist held a women’s right convention in 1840.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
writer, philosopher, and former Unitarian minister, began an awakening
in New England.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
a widespread Christian movement to awaken religious
sentiments that lasted from the 1790s to the 1830s.
Second Great Awakening
an eager reader of Garrisons paper. Escaped from Bondage to become and eloquent and outspoken critic of slavery.
pitted Thomas Jefferson (republican) against John Adams (federalist). Jefferson Won.
Election of 1800
the marches in which the Cherokee people were forcibly removed from Georgia to the Indian Territory in 1838-1840, with thousands of
the Cherokee dying on the way.
Trail of Tears
to give common people the chance to participate in government. New
administrations hire their own supporters.
Jackson's Spoils System
used by settlers and Mormon Missionaries to
escape religious persecution.
a route from independence, Missouri, to Santa
Fe, New Mexico, used by traders in the early and mid-1800s.
Santa Fe Trail
a route from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon, used by
pioneers traveling to the Oregon Territory
a series of agreements passed by Congress in 1820-1821 to
maintain the balance of power between slave states and free states.
party that began in 1846 with 87 members who wanted to go from
Independence, Missouri to California.
James Marshall discovered Gold on John Sutter’s sawmill.
patented by Samuel F. B. Morse
the major change in the U.S. economy produced by people’s
beginning to buy and sell goods rather than make them for themselves.
19th century mills for the manufacture of cloth, located in
Lowell, Massachusetts, that mainly employed young woman.
brings CA as a free state. Utah and New Mexico would be left
to popular sovereignty. Fugitive slave act would be revised, would be tougher
on runaway slaves. BAN slave auctions in Washington D.C.
The Compromise of 1850
a system in which the residents vote to decide an issue
a debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas on the issues of
slavery and how to keep it out. Douglas won the senate seat, but Lincoln caught
people’s attention for candidate for presidency in 1860.
Lincoln Douglas Debate
24 states, 22 million people, Industrialization, Supplies (Wagons,
horses, ships, food and railroads)
North (UNION) Advantages for Civil War
Military, Geography, More
South (CONFEDERATES) Advantages for Civil War
Universities founded for African Americans
Atlanta, Fisk, and Howard
Southern states divided into military districts. Southern states had to pass 14th Amendment. Southern states had to give African Americans the right to vote.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
(1) The navy would blockade Southern ports, so they could neither export cotton nor import much-needed manufactured goods.
(2) Union riverboats and armies would move down the Mississippi River and split the
Confederacy in two.
(3) Union armies would capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia.
North's 3-Part Plan
an executive order issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, freeing
the slaves in all regions behind the confederate lines.
in Southern Pennsylvania, the most decisive battle of the war was fought. Began on July 1st. 28,000 confederates died and 23,000 Union men.
Battle of Gettysburg
a Northerner who moved to the south after the Civil War.
a white southerner who joined the Republican Party after the Civil War.
adopted in 1865, that has abolished slavery and involuntary
adopted in 1868, that makes all persons born or naturalized in the
U.S.—including former slaves—citizens of the country and guarantees equal
protection of the laws.
adopted in 1870, that prohibits the denial of voting rights to people because of their race or color or because they have previously been
the first bloodshed on the battlefield occurred about three
months after Fort Sumter fell, near the little creek of Bull Run. The battle
was a seesaw affair.
Battle of Bull Run
the bloodiest single-day battle in American History with more than
Battle of Antietam
2 day total, of 20.000 casualties
Battle of Shiloh
union army won, cut confederacy in half.
Battle of Vicksburg
Union army burned everything from or belonging to the Confederacy.
260,000 confederates died, 360,000 union soldiers died.
Civil War Deaths
town near Appotamoy, Virginia, where Lee surrendered to
Grant on April 9th, 1865.
John Wilkes Booth killed him while Lincoln was in a theatre.
led the Cigar Makers’ International Union to join with
other craft unions in 1886.
one of the first industrial moguls to make his own fortune, his rise
from rags to riches, along with his passion for supporting charities, made him
a model of the American success story
built a factory for manufacturing sleepers and other
railroad cars on Illinois prairie. Began to build a whole city around his factory for his workers.
George M. Pullman
became a pioneer on the new industrial frontier when he established the world’s first research lab in Menlo Park. Invented the electrical vote recorder, improved the light bulb, electric lamp, motion
picture camera, and the alkaline battery.
Thomas A. Edison
a labor leader who felt that unions should include all
laborers—skilled and unskilled—in a specific industry. He attempted to form
such an industrial union—the American Railway Union (ARU).
Eugene V. Debs
invented the typewriter in 1868 with the QWERTY keyboard. Sold the
rights in 1872 for $12,000.
proposed that the earth’s surface be divided into 24 time zones, one for each hour of the day. Created the Time Zones and the Railroad
Professor C.F. Dowd
developed the first process for producing steel inexpensively.
investment firms who reorganized railroads
established the corporation of Standard Oil Company, he joined with competing companies in trust agreements. Participants in a trust
turned their stock over to a group of trustees--people who ran the separate companies as one large corporation.
John D. Rockefeller
successfully used a steam engine to drill for oil near
Titusville, Pennsylvania, that removing oil from beneath the earth’s surface became practical.
Edwin L. Drake
invented the Electric Speech Machine, and the telephone, had
the first telephone exchange in New Haven, CT. and was part of the first long
distance connection between Boston and New York.
Alexander Graham Bell
John Augustus Roebling built the longest suspension bridge in 1883
a railroad line linking the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United
States, completed in 1869.
Professor C.F. Dowd proposed that the earth’s surface be divided into 24
time zones, one for each hour of the day. The U.S. would have four, Eastern,
Central, Mountain, Pacific.
one of the inspection immigration stations, stationed in New
York Harbor, 20% of the immigrants were detained and 2% were denied entering.
all the Asian immigrants arriving to the U.S. arrived to
Angel Island in San Francisco. About 50,000 Chinese immigrants entered through
here, though immigrants endured harsh questioning and a long detention in
filthy buildings while they waited to know if they were admitted or denied.
a law, enacted in 1882,
that prohibited all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and
government officials from entering the United States.
Chinese Exclusion Act
education program designed to help immigrants assimilate to
a multifamily urban dwelling, usually overcrowded and unsanitary
an officeholder’s power to appoint people—usually those who
have helped him or her get elected—to positions in government
a law, enacted in 1883, that established a bipartisan civil
service commission to make appointments to government jobs by means of the
Pendleton Civil Service Act
a 1907-1908 agreement by the government of Japan to limit Japanese
emigration to the United States
an organized group that controls a political party in a city
and offers services to voters and businesses in exchange for political and
the first African
American to receive a doctorate from Harvard in 1895, he strongly disagreed
with Washington’s gradual approach
W. E. B. Du Bois
an African American educator who believed that racism would end once blacks
acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society.
Booker T. Washington
the right to vote
the National American Woman Suffrage Association—an
organization founded in 1890 to gain voting rights for women.
one of the magazine journalists who exposed the corrupt side of business
and public life in the early 1900’s
a law enacted in 1906 to halt the sale of contaminated foods
and drugs and to ensure truth in labeling.
Pure Food and Drug Act
the National Association for the Advancement of Colored
People—an organization founded in 1909 to promote full racial equality.
Democratic Party for Election of 1912, who won election
Republican Party in election 1912
Bull Moose Party in election 1912
Socialist Party in election 1912
urged the U.S. to purchase the territory of Alaska in 1867,
became known as Seward’s folly.
the treaty ending the Spanish-America War, in which Spain
freed Cuba, turned over the islands of Guam and Puerto Rico to the United
States, and sold the Philippines to the United States for $20 million.
Treaty of Paris
the use of sensationalized and exaggerated reporting by newspaper or
magazines to attract readers.
a U.S. warship that mysteriously exploded and sank in the harbor of
Havana, Cuba, on February 15, 1898
Upton Sinclair's book
-burned over 24 hours
-300 ppl died
-100,000 left homeless
-3 square miles of the city center were destroyed.
-property loss was estimated $200 million
-17,500 buildings destroyed
Chicago Fire 1871
-28 seconds, fire burned 4 days
-1,000 ppl died
-200,000 left homeless
-5 square miles of the city destroyed
-property loss estimated at $500 million
-28,000 buildings destroyed
San Francisco Earthquake 1906