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live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host.
Probiotics – requirements
Probiotics must be alive.• Probiotics must be safe.• Probiotics must deliver a measured physiologicalbenefit, substantiated by studies conducted in thetarget host.• Probiotics needn’t be restricted to food applicationsProbiotics – requirementsppor oral delivery.• Probiotics used as pharmaceuticals or as topicalagents are not excluded from this definition.• A definition of probiotics shouldn’t limit themechanism of action.• Survival of gastrointestinal tract transit or impact onnormal flora shouldn’t be required.
Expected Benefits Associated withConsumption of Probiotics
Increased tolerance to infections•Control of diarrhea•Reduction of blood pressure•Cholesterol reduction•Allergy control•Immunomodulation•Cancer reduction
Human probiotics can be grouped according tothe ecological niches of the human body theyoccupy (or the part of the body they deliver theirhealth-promoting action to),
Human probioticsbody they deliver theirhealth-promoting action to),
Gastro-intestinal probiotics• Skin probiotics• Scalp probiotics• Probiotics of the oral cavity• Probiotics of the underarm and feet• Urogenital (including vaginal) probiotics
when food is eaten whichlooks normal, smells normal and tastes normal:you eat enough to make you ill from the ingestedpathogens or toxins
does not normally cause foodpoisoning because it is rejected by theconsumer before ingestion
Microbial Food Spoilage
Microbial growth in a food - faster•Release of enzymes - slower•extracellular•intracellular (lysis)
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