microbiology Epidemiology

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ankurkum
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microbiology Epidemiology
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2010-12-17 21:31:44
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  1. Epidemiology
    • Basic science concerned with the patterns
    • of disease frequency in human population
    • • Distribution of disease by person, place,
    • time
  2. Definition of Epidemiology
    • epi = upon
    • – demos = the people
    • – ology = study of
    • • Literally - “study of epidemics”
  3. Definition of Epidemiology
    • The study of the distribution and
    • determinants of health-related states or
    • events in specified population, and the
    • application of this study to control of health
    • problems.
  4. Epidemiology Study
    • surveillance, observation, hypothesis testing,
    • analytic research, and experiments.
  5. Epidemiology Distribution:
    analysis by time, place, and person
  6. Epidemiology Determinants
    • physical, biological, social, cultural,
    • and behavioral factors that influence health.
  7. Epidemiology Health-related states or events
    • diseases,
    • causes of death, behavior, reactions to preventive
    • regimens, and provision and use of health services.
  8. A disease is an___when it occurs in an unusually
    large number of people in a population at the same time
    epidemic
  9. A___is widespread, usually worldwide
    pandemic
  10. An___disease is constantly present in a population,
    usually at low incidences
    endemic
  11. The___of a particular disease is the number of new
    cases of the disease in a given period of time
    incidence
  12. The____of a disease is the total number of new and
    existing cases in a population in a given time
    prevalence
  13. A disease___occurs when a number of cases of a
    disease are reported in a short period of time
    outbreak
  14. Diseased individuals who show no or mild symptoms
    have____
    subclinical infections
  15. Subclinical individuals are called___
    carriers
  16. ____is the incidence of death in a population
    Mortality
  17. ------of a disease refers to the incidence of disease including fatal and nonfatal diseases
    Morbidity
  18. Infection
    • the organism invades and colonizes the
    • host
  19. Incubation period
    • the period of time between
    • infection and onset of symptoms
  20. Acute period
    the disease is at its height
  21. Decline period
    disease symptoms are subsiding
  22. Convalescent period
    • patient regains strength and
    • returns to norma
  23. Epi
    population
  24. Medicine
    individual
  25. Preventable Causes of Disease
    BEINGS
    • Biological factors and Behavioral Factors
    • • Environmental factors
    • • Immunologic factors
    • • Nutritional factors
    • • Genetic factors
    • • Services, Social factors, and Spiritual factors
  26. Epidemiology is used in clinical medicine to:
    • describe the natural history of diseases
    • • discuss disease causality
  27. proximate
    biological mechanisms of disease
  28. distal
    social and environmental causes of disease
  29. The Black Plague
    • • 1330’s, outbreak of plague in China.
    • • Spread to Italy and the rest of Europe
  30. Edward Jenner
    • developed a vaccine against smallpox using cow
    • pox
  31. John Snow
    • described the association between dirty water and
    • cholera
  32. Ignaz Semmelweis
    • described the association between childbed fever
    • and physician’s unclean hands
  33. James Lind
    • conducted an experiment which showed that
    • scurvy could be treated and prevented with limes,
    • lemons, and oranges
  34. Joseph Goldberger
    • identified that pellagra was not infectious but
    • nutritional in origin and could be prevented by
    • increasing the amount of animal products in the
    • diet and substituting oatmeal for corn grits
  35. Reservoirs
    Pools of infectious agents
  36. Saprophytic pathogens
    reservoir is inanimate (e.g., Tetanus)
  37. Living reservoirs (animate
    • disease can be eradicated
    • (human-human vs. human-animal-human)
  38. Zoonosis:
    • A disease that occurs primarily in animals but can
    • be transferred to human (e.g., Plague [Yersinia pestis], bird
    • flu, prions)
  39. Indirect transmission:Vectors:
    • live organisms (e.g., arthropods, rodents); alternate
    • hosts
  40. Indirect transmission Fomites:
    inanimate objects (toys, contaminated needles)
  41. Pathogen eradication
    • Efficient approach when the reservoir is infected
    • hosts and when a highly efficient vaccine or
    • drugs are available
  42. What Is Bioterrorism?
    • The intentional use of micro-organisms or
    • toxins derived from living organisms to
    • produce death or disease in humans,
    • animals, or plants
  43. Bacillus anthracis
    • Easy to produce and deliver
    • • Safe to the deploying party
    • • Consistent killers i.e., efficient and predictable

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