Anatomy & physiology

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Anatomy & physiology
2010-12-18 22:24:36
Anatomic Definitions

Anatomy & Physiology Ch 1 TERMS
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  1. Abduction
    Movement of a body part away from the midline.
  2. Adduction
    Movement of a body part toward the midline.
  3. Anatomic Position
    The universal position of the human body from which all body positions are described. In this position, the subject stands facing the observer, with the arms at the side and palms facing forward.
  4. Anatomy
    The study of the structure and parts of an organism.
  5. Anterior
    toward the front of the body.
  6. Cuadad
    toward the feet.
  7. Cephalad
    situated toward the head.
  8. Cranial
    related to or toward the skull.
  9. Distal
    located away from the trunk of the body and toward the free end of an extremity.
  10. Dorsal
    located posteriorly on the body relative to the coronal plane.
  11. extension
    return of a joint froma flexed position to an anatomic position.
  12. external rotation
    rotating an extremity at its joint away from the midline.
  13. flexion
    moving an extremity at its joint closer to the trunk.
  14. fowlers position
    seated position with the upper body straight up or erect.
  15. frontal plane
    the plane parallel to the anterior surface of the body.
  16. gross anatomy
    the study of body parts that are visible to the naked eye, such as bones, muscles, and organs.
  17. homeostasis
    the maintenance of a stable internal physiologic environment.
  18. hyperextension
    extension of a body part to a maximum level or past the position of normal extension.
  19. hyperflexion
    flexion of a body part to a maximum level or past the position of normal flexion.
  20. inferior
    toward the feet or one structure that is situated lower than another.
  21. internal rotation
    rotating an extremity medially toward the midline.
  22. lateral
    farther from the median plane; lying or extending away from the midline of a body part.
  23. medial
    closer to the median plane.
  24. median plane
    an imaginary longitudinal line that divides the human body into left and right parts; also called the midsagittal plane or the midline.
  25. microscopic anatomy
    the study of tissue structure and/or cellular structure or organization, often visible only through a microscope.
  26. midaxillary line
    an imaginary line drawn through the midportion of the axilla to the waist that is parallel to the midline.
  27. midclavicular line
    an imaginary line drawn through the midpoint of the clavicle that is parallel to the midline.
  28. midline
    an imaginary line drawn through the center of the body.
  29. pathophysiology
    the study of body functions of a living organism in an abnormal state.
  30. physiology
    the study of the body functions of the living organism.
  31. planes
    imaginary surfaces used as references to identify parts of the body.
  32. posterior
    situated toward the back of the body.
  33. prone
    lying face down.
  34. pronation
    when the palm faces downward.
  35. proximal
    located nearer to or toward the trunk of the body.
  36. range of motion (ROM)
    the arc of movement of an extremity at joint in a particular direction.
  37. recovery position
    placing a patient on the side to allow the easy drainage of fluids from the mouth; also called the left lateral recumbent position.
  38. recumbent
    any position in which the patient is lying down or leaning back.
  39. regional anatomy
    study of anatomy associated with a paricular body region; also called topographic anatomy.
  40. sagittal plane
    a verticle plane that is parallel to the midline and divides the body into unequal left and right parts.
  41. superior
    situated toward the head or one structure that is situated higher than another.
  42. supination
    when the palm faces upward.
  43. supine
    lying face up.
  44. systemic anatomy
    study of anatomy associated with a particular organ system.
  45. topographic anatomy
    study of anatomy associated with a particular body region; also called regional anatomy.
  46. transverse plane
    a cross-horizontal sectioning that divides the body into the upper and lower parts.
  47. trendelenburg's position
    placing a patient supine with the legs elevated approximately 12" and head down.
  48. ventral
    pertaining to the front of a part, organ, or structure.
  49. Case Study
    part 1

    Your medic unit is responding to an assault that has accured at a local bar. Upon arrival near the scene, you see the police already there; they signal it is safe for you to proceed directly to the scene. after you completed the scene size-up, you begin an initial assesment. Your general impression indicates a young man who has numerouse cuts and bruises on his torso and extremities. He is in the fowler's position. As you begin your initial assesment, you find no immediate life threats. Upon completion of your rapid trauma exam, your partner tells you that the patient's baseline vital signs are all within normal limits. Most of the bleeding has subsided. Your partner quicly obtains a set of basline vital signs while you begin your rapid trauma exam. During your evaluation you realize that your ability to communicate with medical control and document the patient's injuries on the prehospital care report is greately enhanced by your knowledge of anatomic terms.
  50. Question 1

    On the basis of the mechanism of injury and your findings in the initial assesment, how should you position the patient?
    On the basis of a potentially significant MOI and the discovery of no immediate life threats during the initial assesment, you should manualy stabilize the patient's head and neck while the patient remains in fowler's position, until you are able to determine that there is no possibilty of spinal injury.
  51. Question 2

    What body regions are assesed during the rapid trauma examination?
    The rapid trauma examination is a quick head-to-toe physical examination to determine whether injuries have occured to the head, neck, and anterior chest, abdomen, pelvis, extremities, and posterior surface of the body.
  52. After making sure that the patient had not sustained any back or neck injury and learning that the patient was feeling a little dizzy. you laid him down on his back with his legs elevated approximately 12" for your examination.

    The injuries you found included the following.
    -A deep laceration to the medial aspect of the right forearm.

    -A superficial laceration to the right anterior chest extending from the midclavicular line to the anterior axxilary line at the nipple level.

    -A contusion to the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.

    -A contusion to the lateral aspect of the left midshaft thigh (femur)
  53. Question 3

    Why were the patient's legs elevated?
    Trendelenburg's position, in which the patient is supine with the lower extremities elevated and the head down, should be used when a patient has symptoms of hypoperfusion, such as dizzines, anxiety, tachycardia, pallor, thirst, delayed capillary refill, and hypotension in the late phase.
  54. Question 4

    What area of the body do you think would be most commonly overlooked for injuries?
    The posterior surface of the body frequently is overlooked for injuries. Often, the patient is secured on a long backboard and treatment is begun with out any inspection of the back for injury.
  55. Question 5

    On the basis of the location of the injuries discovered, which injury has the potential for being the most serious?
    The contusion in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen inicates the potential for significant internal hemorrhage. (the presence of facial injuries could indicate a possible head injury)
  56. To prepare for transport, you decide to place the patient in the left lateral recumbent position because he is nauseated but is no longer complaining of dizzines. Being comfortable using anatomic terms will help you when you describe the patient's injuries to hospital personnel and complete the PCR.
  57. Question 6

    What should be assesed in an injured extremity?
    Asses the injured extremity for DCAP-BTLS; distal pulse, motor and sensation(PMS) functions; and range of motion.
  58. Question 7

    What knowledge is necessary to describe the location of a patient's pain or injury?
    The health care provider must understand topographic anatomy, which refers to terms that uniformly describe the position and movement of the body.