Endocrine System

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Endocrine System
2010-12-18 23:50:31

test of 12/20/10
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  1. Compare and contrast the endocrine and nervous systems
    • the nervous system is fast acting over a short amount of time while the endocrine system is slow reacting over a long period of time
    • the nervous system controls the body through electrical messages while the endocrine system controls the body through chemical messages or hormones
    • the nervous system is directly connected to the affected organ or nerve while the endocrine system while the endocrine system is ductless. hormones travel through your blood to the organs
  2. What are the funcitons of the endocrine system?
    • regulates metabolic processes such as the fates of reactions
    • transports substances through the membranes
    • regulates the water concentration in the body
    • growth and development
  3. What is the endocrine system controlled by?
  4. What are hormones?
    chemicals secreted by the cell that have and effect on other cells or tissues
  5. What does each hormone have when it comes to binding?
    each hormone has a specific shape that can only bind to target cells
  6. How do hormones often combine?
    in antagonistic pairs
  7. how do hormones work?
    through feedback loops
  8. What are feedback loops usually?
    negative, meaning antagonistic pairs that regulate reactions, one goes up, one goes down
  9. What is one of the few hormone pairs that works through a positive feedback loop?
    the uterus during birth, keeps dialating
  10. What are the three types of hormones?
    • Steroid hormones
    • Amino Acid Derivatives
    • Peptides
  11. What are steroids also known as?
  12. Explain steriods/prostaglandins
    the sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone)
  13. What are steroids made from?
    lipids of cholesterol
  14. What do steroids cause?
    • PMS
    • cramps
  15. How are steroids inhibited?
    by aspirin
  16. What are amino acid derivatives also known as?
    epinephrine or adrenaline
  17. What are amino acid derivatives or epinepherine made from?
    amino acids
  18. What are peptides made up of?
    protiens or amino acids combined together
  19. Peptides are the ____ group of hormones in the body
  20. What are the 11 endocrine glands?
    • Pituitary Gland
    • Thymus
    • Thyroid Gland
    • Hypothalmus
    • Parathyroid Gland
    • Heart
    • Pancreas
    • Pineal Gland
    • Adrenal Gland
    • Ovaries
    • Testis
  21. What is the pituitary gland also known as?
    the master gland
  22. Where is the pituitary gland?
    In the brain
  23. What does the pituitary gland do?
    secrets hormones that go to other endocrine glands that cause them to secrete their hormones
  24. What are the two parts of the pituitary gland?
    • anterior pituitary
    • posterior pitutiary
  25. What are the hromones of the anterior pituitary gland?
    • Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)
    • Growth Hormone (GH)
    • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
    • Gonadotrophins
    • Prolactin
    • Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
  26. What is the adrenocorticotrophic hormone?
    • it acts on the adrenal gland (the adrenal gland is its target in other words)
    • it causes the adrenal glands to inhibit glucocorticoids
  27. What is the Growth Hormone?
    • affects or targets all cells of the body
    • causes protien synthesis and growth
  28. What is the Thyroid Stimulate Hormone?
    • stimulates the thyroid gland-its target
    • causes the thyroid gland to release thyroid hormones
  29. What are Gonadotropins?
    • Two types:
    • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH): goes to ovary, causes follicle to develope
    • Lutenizing Hormone (LH): Goes to the ovary and causes ovulation
  30. What is Prolactin?
    stimulates the mamorary glands to produce milk
  31. What is the melanocyte stimulating hormone? (MSH)
    • causes the melanocytes to produce melanin
    • causes a tan (protection from sun)
  32. What are the hormones of the Posterior Pituitary Gland?
    • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    • Oxytocin
  33. What is the Antidiuretic Hormone?
    • target is kidneys
    • causes the kidneys to reabsorb/release water
  34. What is Oxytocin?
    causes the muscles of the uterus to contract and push out the baby
  35. What is the Hypothalmus?
    the portion of the brain that controls the master (pituitary) gland
  36. The Hypothalmus has...
    nerve cells that signal to release or not release the hormone
  37. What does the Hypothalmus do?
    synthesizes/makes the hormones that are stored in the posterior pituitary
  38. What is the Pineal Gland?
    small oval shaped gland
  39. Where is the pineal gland located?
    deep in the cerevral hemispheres of the brain
  40. What does the Pineal Gland do?
    secretes melatonin
  41. What is melatonin?
    • goes to melanocytes
    • makes you tan
  42. Where is the thyroid gland?
    located on the sides and just below your larynx and in front of the trachea
  43. What shape does the thyroid gland have?
    a shielded shape
  44. What does the thyroid gland do?
    secretes many hormones
  45. What do the hormones secreted by the thyroid gland control?
    • your metabolic rates
    • your body temperature
    • promotes growth of body cells (how large they get, weight)
  46. What hormones are secreted by the thryroid gland?
    • Calcitonin
    • Thyroxin
  47. What does Calcitonin?
    • hormone that decreases the calcium levels in your blood
    • increases the calcium levels stored in your bones
  48. What is Thyroxin?
    controls metabolic rates
  49. What do you need in your diet for thyroid hormones to work?
  50. What will form if there is not enough iodine in your diet for your thyroid hormones?
  51. What is a goiter?
    a swelling in the neck due to a lack of iodine
  52. What are the Parathyroid glands?
    four tiny, oval shaped glands
  53. Where are the Parathyroid Glands located?
    on the dorsal side of the thyroid glands
  54. What do the parathyroid glands do?
    regulate calcium metabolism in the body
  55. What hormone does the parathyroid glands secrete?
    PTH: Parathyroid Hormone
  56. What does the parathyroid hormone do?
    • increases the level of calcium in the blood
    • works against calcitonin
    • decreases the level of calcium stored in the bones
  57. What does the thymus gland secrete?
    secretes hormones called thymosins
  58. What do Thymosins do?
    cause the T-cells of the immune system to mature and develop
  59. What hormone does the heart secrete?
    secretes atrial natriuretic peptide
  60. What does atrial natriuretic peptide do?
    regulates water balance in your body
  61. What hormones does the pancrease secrete?
    • insulin
    • glucogon
  62. What are the Islets of Langerhans?
    • cells in the pancreas that secrete the hormones
    • see picture
    • broken up into three types of cells
  63. What are the three types of cells that the Islets of Langerhans are broken up into?
    • Alpha Cells
    • Beta Cells
    • Delta Cells
  64. What do the alpha cells secrete? what does this hormone do?
    • secrete glucagon
    • --->converts glycogen into glucose
  65. What hormone do beta cells secrete? What does this hormone do?
    • secrete insulin
    • --->converts glucose to glycogen
  66. What horome do Delta Cells secrete? What does this hormone do?
    • secretes/produces somatostatin
    • --->inhibits the secretion of glucagon and insulin
    • --->keeps blood sugar level as is
  67. What are the Adrenal Glands?
    • pyramid shaped organs that are located on the top of the kidneys
    • secretes 2 hormones
  68. What hormones do the aderenal glands secrete?
    • Erythropotin
    • Renin
  69. What do erythropotinand renin do?
    regulate water balance in the body
  70. What are the two layers of the adrenal glands?
    • Cortex layer: outer layer
    • Medulla layer: inner layer
  71. What does the cortex layer of the adrenal glands contain?
    3 sublayers
  72. What are the three sublayers of the cortex layer of the adrenal glands?
    • Zona Glomenulosa: top layer
    • Zona Fasciculata: middle layer
    • Zona Reticularis: bottom layer
  73. What do the sublayers of the cortex layer of the adrenal glands make?
    • corticosteroid hormones
    • --->corticosteroids are anti-inflammatory
  74. What does Zona Glomenulosa (top layer) do?
    secretes aldosterone
  75. What does aldosterone do?
    controls the reabsorption of sodium (Na+) ions in water in the kidneys
  76. What does Zona Fasciculata (middle layer) do?
    secretes glucocortiocoids
  77. What do glucocorticoids do?
    affects clucose, fatty acids, and protien metabolism
  78. What does Zona Reticularis (bottom layer) do?
    secretes androgens
  79. What do androgens do?
    • male hormones
    • stimulate the development of the reproductive organs
  80. What does the medulla layer secrete?
  81. What are the hormones of catecholamines?
    • epinepherine
    • norepinepherine
  82. What is epinepherine also known as?
  83. What is norepinpherine?
    causes your body to prepare for the fight or flight response
  84. What causes the medulla layer to secrete the hormones epinepherine and norepinepherine?
    • stress
    • caffine
    • anger
    • low blood sugar
  85. What hormone does the testis produce
  86. What does Testosterone do?
    • regulates sperm production
    • regulates general male growth stuff (facial hair, etc)
  87. What hormone do the ovaries produce?
    • Estrogen
    • Progesterone
  88. What does estrogen do?
    controls the development of the ova
  89. What does Progesterone do?
    promotes the growth of the uterus lining