The first forensic laboratory in the U.S. was created in 1923 by the _________ Police Department.
The application of chemistry, physics, and geology to the identification and comparison of crime-scene evidence is the function of the _________ unit of a crime lab.
The Italian scientist ________ devised the first workable procedure for typing dried blood stains.
The examination of blood, hairs, fibers, and vegetative materials is conducted by the _______ unit of the crime lab.
Four important agencies offering forensic service at the federal level are:
FBI, DEA, The U.S. Postal service, and BATFE
The application of science to law describes _________.
The application of science to criminal investigation was advocated by the Austrian magistrate __________
The comparison microscope became an indispensable tool of firearm investigation through the efforts of ____________
A system of personal identification using a series of body measurements was first devised by ___________
What is the name of the ID system using body measurements?
An _________ is one who can demonstrate a particular skill or has knowledge in a trade or profession that will assist the court in determining the truth of the matter at issue.
A decentralized system of crime labs currently exists in the U.S. under auspices of various government agencies at what 4 levels?
federal, state, county, municipal
Early efforts at applying scientific principles to document examination were associated with ___________.
The ______________ unit dispatches trained personnel to the scene of the crime to retrieve evidence for lab examination.
In contrast to the U.S., Britain's crime lab system is characterized by a nation system of _________ labs.
The examination of bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells, and ammunition of all types is the responsibility of the _________ unit.
The fictional exploits of ______________ excited the imagination of an emerging generation of forensic scientists and criminal investigators.
Who was the British author who wrote the exploits of Sherlock Holmes?
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
The examination of body fluids and organs for drugs and poisons is the function of the ___________ unit.
____________ is responsible for developing the first statistical study proving the uniqueness of fingerprints.
One of the first functional crime labs to be formed existed in Lyons, France, under the direction of ________
The state of ___________ is an excellent example of a geographical area in the U.S. that has created a system of integrated regional and satellite labs.
The "general acceptance" principle, which serves as a criterion for the judicial admissibility of scientific evidence, was set forth in the case of _____________.
Frye vs. United States
The FBI, the world's largest forensic lab, was established in 1932 under the leadership of ____________.
The name of Albert Osborn's text of 1910 was ______________
The ___________ of death relates to the circumstances in which the cause of death occurred.
The physical or biochemical abnormality incompatible with life is considered to be the _______________
mechanism of death
The _______ _________ __________ states that exchange of materials between two objects occurs whenever two objects come into contact with each other.
Locard Exchange Principle
The _____________ unit applies science to law to perform failure analysis, accident reconstruction, and design review.
If you were in the field of __________ __________, you would identify body tissues and fluids, perform immunoassays, and perform DNA analysis.
If you were a __________ _________ you would work part time identifying deceased persons using dental records.
If you had a career as a ___________ ______________ you would recover and identify skeletal remains.
If you were a ___________ ____________ then you would perform autopsies and determine cause and manner of death.
______________ was the world's preeminent microscopist who educated thousands of forensic scientists.
_____________ recognized that blood could be grouped as A, B, AB, and O in 1901.
The term ______________ encompasses all objects that can be used to establish whether a crime has been committed or can provide a link between a crime and the victom or perpetrator.
Evidence that can be traced to a common source with an extremely high degree of probability is said to possess ___________ characteristics.
In the case of Michigan vs. Tyler , the Supreme Court dealt with search and seizure procedures at an ___________ scene.
The techniques of physical evidence collection require a highly skilled individual who must specialize in this area of investigation. (T/F)
The process of _____________ determines the substance's physical or chemical identity with as near absolute certainty as existing analytical techniques will permit.
Most physical evidence collected at a crime scene will require the accompanying submission of __________ material for comparison purposes.
All unauthorized persons must be ___________ from the crime scene.
Evidence associated with a group and not to a single source is said to possess ______ characteristics.
In the case of Mincey vs. Arizona, the Supreme Court restricted the practice of conducting an ___________ search at a homicide scene.
A crime can accurately be reconstructed solely on the presence or absence of physical evidence. (T/F)
Three methods of recording the crime scene are:
Photography, sketches, and notes
The number and type of tests needed to identify a substance must be sufficient to ___________ all other substances from consideration.
The most important prerequisite for photographing a crime scene is to have it in an __________ condition.
The possibility of future legal proceedings requires that a _________________ be established with respect to the possession and location of physical evidence.
chain of custody
__________ is the frequency of occurrence of an event.
Photographs of physical evidence must include overviews as well as _________ to record details of the objects.
One of the major deficiencies of forensic science is the inability of an examiner to assign exact or approximate probability values to the comparison of most class physical evidence. (T/F)
Charred debris recovered from the scene of an arson is best placed in an ___________ container.
The two types of sketches to be made of a crime scene are:
rough and scaled
A _________ analysis subjects a suspect and standard/reference specimen to the same tests and examination for the ultimate purpose of determining if they have a common origin.
As a matter of routine, all items of clothing are to be _________ before packaging.
A search for physical evidence can be done by these methods:
quadrant, grid, spiral, or line
Modern analytical techniques have become so sensitive that the forensic examiner must be aware of the _________________ that exists among materials when interpreting the significance of comparative data.
limit of natural variation
Besides the more obvious items of physical evidence, possible __________ of trace evidence must be collected for detailed examination in the lab.
The Latin term for "is there a crime" is:
The value of class physical evidence lies in its ability to provide _____________ of events that is as nearly as possible free from human error.
Each item collected at a crime scene must be placed in a __________ and the __________ container.
A voice recording or a videotape of the crime scene must later be ___________.
Three types of non-airtight packaging used for bloodstained evidence:
a manilla folder, a paper bag, and a cardboard box
The distinction between individual and class characteristics is always easy to make. (T/F)
Chain of custody should at a minimum contain:
finder's initials, location, and recipient's signature
The ___________ accorded to physical evidence during a trial is left entirely to the trier of fact.
Physical evidence who's origin is known is called
Uncontaminated surface material close to the area of physical evidence is called:
Physical evidence cannot be sued to exclude or exonerate a person from the suspicion of committing a crime. (T/F)
When submitting evidence to the crime lab the submission form should include the following:
a case summary, type of tests desired, and an inventory of items to be tested.
The technical term for where the crime took place is:
__________ ___________ _______________ is the method used to support a likely sequence of events by the observation and evaluation of physical evidence.
Crime scene reconstruction
Multiplying together the frequencies of independently occurring genetic markers to obtain an overall frequency of occurrence for a genetic profile is known as the ______________.
[Open Ended] List at least 10 types of physical evidence.
hair, glass, fibers, firearms, explosives, traces of fuel, body fluids, fingerprints, impressions, and soil or vegetation.
[Open Ended] Draw a diagram that shows the relationship between personnel and crime scene reconstruction.
Draw a bubble diagram with "Crime scene reconstruction" in the middle, then connect medical examiner, criminalists, and law enforcement to crime scene reconstruction in the middle.
[Open Ended] State the eight universal rules of crime scene investigation.
1.Close off the crime scene
2. Create a log of all persons leaving the crime scene
3. Take photographs
4. Sketch crime scene? (I cannot read Mrs Donnely's correction on my test)
5. Photograph recovery process
6. Retrieve victim and evidence
7. Create chain of custody
8. Generate Report
[Open Ended] What are the four allowances to justify a warrantless search?
1. Lawful arrest for another offense.
2. With permission of the parties involved
3. The destruction of evidence is suspected.
4. In the case of an emergency
[Open Ended] Briefly describe the eight rules for safety put forth by the International Association for the Identification Safety Committee.
1. Wear gloves at all times.
2. Take care when handling sharp objects.
3. Place all infectious materials in a red biohazard bag
4. Wear protective masks.
5. Take notes with uncontaminated gloves.
6. No eating, drinking or smoking
7. Non-disposable items in yellow laundry bag
8. If protective item is compromised, remove immediately and decontaminate.
[Open Ended] List at least five items that are collected at autopsy and sent to the Crime Lab.