Forensics Exam Questions

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jdbeck
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56840
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Forensics Exam Questions
Updated:
2010-12-19 16:06:30
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New Century Forensics Exam
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Compilation of all Test answers Ch. 1, 2, and 3
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  1. The first forensic laboratory in the U.S. was created in 1923 by the _________ Police Department.
    Los Angeles
  2. The application of chemistry, physics, and geology to the identification and comparison of crime-scene evidence is the function of the _________ unit of a crime lab.
    Physical Science
  3. The Italian scientist ________ devised the first workable procedure for typing dried blood stains.
    Lattes
  4. The examination of blood, hairs, fibers, and vegetative materials is conducted by the _______ unit of the crime lab.
    biology
  5. Four important agencies offering forensic service at the federal level are:
    FBI, DEA, The U.S. Postal service, and BATFE
  6. The application of science to law describes _________.
    Forensics
  7. The application of science to criminal investigation was advocated by the Austrian magistrate __________
    Hans Gross
  8. The comparison microscope became an indispensable tool of firearm investigation through the efforts of ____________
    Calvin Goddard
  9. A system of personal identification using a series of body measurements was first devised by ___________
    Alfonse Bertillon
  10. What is the name of the ID system using body measurements?
    anthropometry
  11. An _________ is one who can demonstrate a particular skill or has knowledge in a trade or profession that will assist the court in determining the truth of the matter at issue.
    expert witness
  12. A decentralized system of crime labs currently exists in the U.S. under auspices of various government agencies at what 4 levels?
    federal, state, county, municipal
  13. Early efforts at applying scientific principles to document examination were associated with ___________.
    Albert Osborn
  14. The ______________ unit dispatches trained personnel to the scene of the crime to retrieve evidence for lab examination.
    evidence collection
  15. In contrast to the U.S., Britain's crime lab system is characterized by a nation system of _________ labs.
    regional
  16. The examination of bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells, and ammunition of all types is the responsibility of the _________ unit.
    firearms
  17. The fictional exploits of ______________ excited the imagination of an emerging generation of forensic scientists and criminal investigators.
    Sherlock Holmes
  18. Who was the British author who wrote the exploits of Sherlock Holmes?
    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
  19. The examination of body fluids and organs for drugs and poisons is the function of the ___________ unit.
    toxicology
  20. ____________ is responsible for developing the first statistical study proving the uniqueness of fingerprints.
    Francis Galton
  21. One of the first functional crime labs to be formed existed in Lyons, France, under the direction of ________
    Locard
  22. The state of ___________ is an excellent example of a geographical area in the U.S. that has created a system of integrated regional and satellite labs.
    California
  23. The "general acceptance" principle, which serves as a criterion for the judicial admissibility of scientific evidence, was set forth in the case of _____________.
    Frye vs. United States
  24. The FBI, the world's largest forensic lab, was established in 1932 under the leadership of ____________.
    Edgar Hoover
  25. The name of Albert Osborn's text of 1910 was ______________
    Questioned Documents
  26. The ___________ of death relates to the circumstances in which the cause of death occurred.
    manner
  27. The physical or biochemical abnormality incompatible with life is considered to be the _______________
    mechanism of death
  28. The _______ _________ __________ states that exchange of materials between two objects occurs whenever two objects come into contact with each other.
    Locard Exchange Principle
  29. The _____________ unit applies science to law to perform failure analysis, accident reconstruction, and design review.
    forensic engineering
  30. If you were in the field of __________ __________, you would identify body tissues and fluids, perform immunoassays, and perform DNA analysis.
    forensic serology
  31. If you were a __________ _________ you would work part time identifying deceased persons using dental records.
    forensic odontologist
  32. If you had a career as a ___________ ______________ you would recover and identify skeletal remains.
    forensic anthropologist
  33. If you were a ___________ ____________ then you would perform autopsies and determine cause and manner of death.
    forensic pathologist
  34. ______________ was the world's preeminent microscopist who educated thousands of forensic scientists.
    Walter McCrone
  35. _____________ recognized that blood could be grouped as A, B, AB, and O in 1901.
    Landsteiner
  36. The term ______________ encompasses all objects that can be used to establish whether a crime has been committed or can provide a link between a crime and the victom or perpetrator.
    physical evidence
  37. Evidence that can be traced to a common source with an extremely high degree of probability is said to possess ___________ characteristics.
    individual
  38. In the case of Michigan vs. Tyler , the Supreme Court dealt with search and seizure procedures at an ___________ scene.
    arson
  39. The techniques of physical evidence collection require a highly skilled individual who must specialize in this area of investigation. (T/F)
    False
  40. The process of _____________ determines the substance's physical or chemical identity with as near absolute certainty as existing analytical techniques will permit.
    identification
  41. Most physical evidence collected at a crime scene will require the accompanying submission of __________ material for comparison purposes.
    exemplar
  42. All unauthorized persons must be ___________ from the crime scene.
    excluded
  43. Evidence associated with a group and not to a single source is said to possess ______ characteristics.
    class
  44. In the case of Mincey vs. Arizona, the Supreme Court restricted the practice of conducting an ___________ search at a homicide scene.
    unwarranted
  45. A crime can accurately be reconstructed solely on the presence or absence of physical evidence. (T/F)
    False
  46. Three methods of recording the crime scene are:
    Photography, sketches, and notes
  47. The number and type of tests needed to identify a substance must be sufficient to ___________ all other substances from consideration.
    eliminate
  48. The most important prerequisite for photographing a crime scene is to have it in an __________ condition.
    unaltered
  49. The possibility of future legal proceedings requires that a _________________ be established with respect to the possession and location of physical evidence.
    chain of custody
  50. __________ is the frequency of occurrence of an event.
    Probability
  51. Photographs of physical evidence must include overviews as well as _________ to record details of the objects.
    close ups
  52. One of the major deficiencies of forensic science is the inability of an examiner to assign exact or approximate probability values to the comparison of most class physical evidence. (T/F)
    True
  53. Charred debris recovered from the scene of an arson is best placed in an ___________ container.
    air tight
  54. The two types of sketches to be made of a crime scene are:
    rough and scaled
  55. A _________ analysis subjects a suspect and standard/reference specimen to the same tests and examination for the ultimate purpose of determining if they have a common origin.
    comparison
  56. As a matter of routine, all items of clothing are to be _________ before packaging.
    air-dried
  57. A search for physical evidence can be done by these methods:
    quadrant, grid, spiral, or line
  58. Modern analytical techniques have become so sensitive that the forensic examiner must be aware of the _________________ that exists among materials when interpreting the significance of comparative data.
    limit of natural variation
  59. Besides the more obvious items of physical evidence, possible __________ of trace evidence must be collected for detailed examination in the lab.
    carriers
  60. The Latin term for "is there a crime" is:
    corpus delecti
  61. The value of class physical evidence lies in its ability to provide _____________ of events that is as nearly as possible free from human error.
    corroboration
  62. Each item collected at a crime scene must be placed in a __________ and the __________ container.
    separate, proper
  63. A voice recording or a videotape of the crime scene must later be ___________.
    transcribed
  64. Three types of non-airtight packaging used for bloodstained evidence:
    a manilla folder, a paper bag, and a cardboard box
  65. The distinction between individual and class characteristics is always easy to make. (T/F)
    False
  66. Chain of custody should at a minimum contain:
    finder's initials, location, and recipient's signature
  67. The ___________ accorded to physical evidence during a trial is left entirely to the trier of fact.
    weight
  68. Physical evidence who's origin is known is called
    standard.
  69. Uncontaminated surface material close to the area of physical evidence is called:
    substrate control
  70. Physical evidence cannot be sued to exclude or exonerate a person from the suspicion of committing a crime. (T/F)
    False
  71. When submitting evidence to the crime lab the submission form should include the following:
    a case summary, type of tests desired, and an inventory of items to be tested.
  72. The technical term for where the crime took place is:
    venule
  73. __________ ___________ _______________ is the method used to support a likely sequence of events by the observation and evaluation of physical evidence.
    Crime scene reconstruction
  74. Multiplying together the frequencies of independently occurring genetic markers to obtain an overall frequency of occurrence for a genetic profile is known as the ______________.
    product rule
  75. [Open Ended] List at least 10 types of physical evidence.
    hair, glass, fibers, firearms, explosives, traces of fuel, body fluids, fingerprints, impressions, and soil or vegetation.
  76. [Open Ended] Draw a diagram that shows the relationship between personnel and crime scene reconstruction.
    Draw a bubble diagram with "Crime scene reconstruction" in the middle, then connect medical examiner, criminalists, and law enforcement to crime scene reconstruction in the middle.
  77. [Open Ended] State the eight universal rules of crime scene investigation.
    • 1.Close off the crime scene
    • 2. Create a log of all persons leaving the crime scene
    • 3. Take photographs
    • 4. Sketch crime scene? (I cannot read Mrs Donnely's correction on my test)
    • 5. Photograph recovery process
    • 6. Retrieve victim and evidence
    • 7. Create chain of custody
    • 8. Generate Report
  78. [Open Ended] What are the four allowances to justify a warrantless search?
    • 1. Lawful arrest for another offense.
    • 2. With permission of the parties involved
    • 3. The destruction of evidence is suspected.
    • 4. In the case of an emergency
  79. [Open Ended] Briefly describe the eight rules for safety put forth by the International Association for the Identification Safety Committee.
    • 1. Wear gloves at all times.
    • 2. Take care when handling sharp objects.
    • 3. Place all infectious materials in a red biohazard bag
    • 4. Wear protective masks.
    • 5. Take notes with uncontaminated gloves.
    • 6. No eating, drinking or smoking
    • 7. Non-disposable items in yellow laundry bag
    • 8. If protective item is compromised, remove immediately and decontaminate.
  80. [Open Ended] List at least five items that are collected at autopsy and sent to the Crime Lab.
    • 1. hair sample
    • 2. nail scrapings
    • 3. clothing
    • 4. blood sample
    • 5. Swabs (hand, oral, anal, vaginal)
    • 6. Recovered bullets

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