GOV'T EXAM

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benizzldashizzl
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56865
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GOV'T EXAM
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2010-12-19 18:52:18
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AP Government
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exam vocab
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  1. Block Grant
    • A grant given by the federal government to the
    • states for use in a particular area rather than for a specific program. Ex. –
    • Congress gives $50 million to Virginia
    • to use for education.
  2. –Categorical Grant –
    • A grant given by the federal government to the states for use on a
    • particular program. Ex. – Congress gives $50 million to Virginia
    • to build a rain forest in Suffolk.
  3. Cooperative (Marble Cake) Federalism
    • A doctrine in which the national and state governments
    • share responsibility and power on many issues. For example, states operate
    • Medicaid programs which provide health care for the poor, and the federal
    • government pays a percentage of the cost. This has been the operative model
    • during the 20th and 21st centuries.
  4. Devolution
    • – Shifting power and responsibility from the national government to the
    • states.
  5. –Dual (Layer Cake) Federalism
    • – A doctrine in which the national government is
    • supreme in its sphere, the states are supreme in their sphere, and the two
    • spheres should and could be kept separate. This model became outdated in the
    • 20th century.
  6. Enumerated / Express Power
    • – A power specifically granted to the United States
    • government by the United States Constitution. Ex. – Congress has the express power
    • to declare war.
  7. Implied power
    • – A power which – although not specifically
    • granted by the Constitution – is impliedly granted to the national government
    • because it is related to one of the specifically granted powers. Ex. – Congress
    • has the implied power to establish a national bank because it has the specific
    • power to borrow and spend money.
  8. Mandates
    • – Rules imposed by the federal government on the
    • states.
  9. Necessary and Proper / Elastic Clause -
    • The clause found in Article I section 8 that
    • grants Congress implied powers to execute its express powers. Ex. – Congress
    • has the implied power to establish a national bank because it has the specific
    • power to borrow and spend money.
  10. Reserved Power
    • - A power that is not mentioned in the Constitution and which, therefore,
    • belongs to the states.
  11. Revenue Sharing
    • – A grant given by the federal government to the states that the state
    • may spend on anything it chooses. Ex. – Congress gives $50 million to Virginia with no
    • restrictions on its use.
  12. Supremacy Clause
    • – A clause found in Article Six of the Constitution which states that
    • national law is supreme over state law, for so long as the national government
    • is acting within is sphere. Ex. – National law does not permit segregation.
    • Some states used to require segregation. Result? The national law is supreme
    • and segregation is not permitted.
  13. Unfunded Mandates
    • – Rules imposed by the federal government on the
    • states which require the state to pay the cost of compliance (no money
    • attached).
  14. Civil Service Reform Laws --
    • Laws that require government jobs and contract to be awarded based on
    • merit, not for political reasons. Civil Service Reform laws outlawed patronage
    • and were strongly supported by the Progressives in the late 1800s and early
    • 1900s.
  15. Critical Period
    • - Periods during which a sharp lasting shift
    • occurs in the popular coalition supporting one or both parties. The issues that
    • separate the two parties change, and so the kind of voters supporting each
    • party change.
  16. National Convention
    • -- A meeting of party members that takes place
    • every four years where the party selects presidential and vice-presidential
    • nominees and drafts a platform.
  17. Nomination
    • - A political party's official endorsement of a
    • candidate for office.
  18. Party Dealignment
    • - The increasing trend of the American people to
    • refuse to identify themselves with either the Democrat or Republican parties.
  19. Party Platform
    • - A complete statement of a party's beliefs on
    • all issues. Drafted every four years at the national convention.
  20. Patronage
    • - Giving out a government job or contract to a
    • political supporter instead of to the most qualified person or business.
    • Patronage was widespread in the 1800s but is generally illegal now because of
    • civil service reform laws first advocated by Progressives.
  21. Political Machine (Party Machine)
    • - A party
    • organization that recruits its members by dispensing patronage and that is
    • characterized by a high degree of leadership control over member activity.
  22. Primary
    • - An election in which voters decide who will be
    • a party's nominee for office
  23. Referendum
    • - The practice of submitting a law to a popular
    • vote at election time.
  24. Ticketsplitting
    • - Voting for one party's candidate for one
    • office and another party's candidate for another office.
  25. Civil Liberties
    • -- The personal rights and freedoms that the
    • government cannot violate. For example, the freedom of speech.
  26. Due Process Clause
    • – The part of the 14th amendment that
    • (among other things) requires states to guarantee most – but not all - of the
    • rights in the Bill of Rights.
  27. Exclusionary Rule
    • – Judicially created rule stating that evidence
    • obtained in violation of the Constitution may not be used in court.
  28. Selective Incorporation
    • - A judicial doctrine holding that the Due Process Clause of the 14th
    • Amendment requires states to guarantee most -- but not all – of the rights in
    • the Bill of Rights.
  29. Constitution
    • - The set of rules that the government has to
    • play by.
  30. Articles of Confederation
    • – The first constitution of the United States
    • (1776-1787). It greatly limited the power of the national government and gave
    • the states a great deal of power.
  31. Faction
    • – A group of people who seek to influence public
    • policy in ways contrary to the public good.
  32. Ratify
    – To approve
  33. Judicial Review
    • – The power of the courts to declare acts of the
    • legislature or the executive to be unconstitutional and hence null and void.
  34. Federalism
    • – A political system in which ultimate authority
    • is shared between a central government and state or local governments.
  35. Democracy
    • – A term used to describe a political system in
    • which the people rule or control the government, directly or indirectly.
  36. Elite Class Theory (Elitist theory)
    • – A theory that an upper class elite will always
    • control government, regardless of what form the government may take.
  37. Gender Gap
    • – Differences in the political views and voting
    • behavior of men and women. Women are more likely to be liberal than men.
  38. Hyperpluralist Theory
    • – A theory of government and politics that
    • interest groups become so strong that the government is unable to enact
    • meaningful, rational public policy
  39. Individualism
    • – The belief that governments should leave
    • people alone and that people should take careof themselves instead of relying on government
    • assistance.
  40. Linkage Institution
    • – Institutions such as polls, elections, media,
    • interest groups and political parties that link people and government
  41. Pluralism
    • – A theory of government and politics stressing
    • that politics is mainly a competition among groups, none of which dominates.
    • Public policy is the result of competition between and compromises made among
    • these groups
  42. Political Ideology
    • – A consistent set of views about the policies
    • the government should pursue.
  43. Political Socialization
    • – The process by which one forms his or her
    • political views.
  44. Republic
    • – A form of democracy in which power is vested in representatives
    • selected by means of popular competitive elections.

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