World History LTM

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World History LTM
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  1. Highly orginized society
    Civilization
  2. Record of events since people first started writing
    history
  3. large, slow moving masses of snow and ice
    glacier
  4. Skilled craft worker
    artisan
  5. what a human group acquires through living together
    culture
  6. Five Characteristics of a civilization
    • advanced technical skills
    • form of goverment
    • division of labour
    • calendar
    • form of writing
  7. the spread of culture from one area to another
    cultural diffusion
  8. old stone age
    paleolithic
  9. Middle stone age
    Mesolithic
  10. New stone age
    Neolithic
  11. key to founding a civilization because it provides transportation, irrigation, and fertile soil to name a few
    water
  12. different people perform different tasks
    work distribution
  13. theories about who, what, when before writing
    pre-history
  14. individuals who travel in search of food
    nomads
  15. four periods of extreme cold weather, most of earth was engulfed in ice
    ice age
  16. evolutionary masterpieces, first human species well-adapted to survive in cold climates
    neanderthals
  17. Shift from food gathering to food production
    Neolithic Revolution
  18. produce food, demesticate animals, irrigation
    agriculture
  19. Four Great River Valley Civilizations
    • Nile River
    • Tigrus and Euphrates River
    • Indus River
    • Yellow River
  20. scientist who sudies skeletal remains in order to determine prehistory
    anthroplogist
  21. scientits who study manmade objects to determin pre history
    archeologists
  22. manmade objects like art, weapons, and tools
    artifacts
  23. System of writing developed by the Egyptians
    Heiroglyphs
  24. Form of goverment headed by a king or queen
    monarchy
  25. professional soldier paid to serve in a foreign army
    mercenary
  26. belief in one god
    monotheism
  27. belief in more than one god
    polytheism
  28. sumerain writing-stylus-clay tablets
    cuneiform
  29. a military unit of riders on horses developed by the Assyrians
    Calvary
  30. Best sea traders; alphabet; purple dye
    phoenicians
  31. large gropus of people traveling together for safety
    caravan
  32. important artifact where heiroglyhics were translated
    Rosetta Stone
  33. Hebrew most important contribution to Western Civilizations
    ethnicmonotheism
  34. other name for the ten commandments
    mosaic law
  35. city or town and its surrounding land
    city-state
  36. first five books of the old testament
    torah
  37. the process of preserving a body; Egyptians
    Mummification
  38. sumerian temple built in layers
    ziggurat
  39. the line of rule passed throught family; founded by the Egyptians, Menes
    Dynasty
  40. Tombs of Egyptians
    pyrimads
  41. form of goverment that unites different peoples and territories under one rule
    empire
  42. this group developed a $$ economy
    lydians
  43. "great house" "gods" to their people; high preist; general of army; judge; absoulte power
    pharoh
  44. reed plant used as paper
    papyrus
  45. 1st recorded female pharoah
    Hatshepsut
  46. Pharoah that died at the age of 16
    Tut
  47. led the hebrews out of slavery in Egypt
    Moses
  48. 282 laws
    hammurabi's code
  49. first five books of the old testament
    torah
  50. cuneiform writing, arch, sewers, ziggurat, numbers
    Summarians
  51. Hammurabi's Code
    Babylonians
  52. iron weapons, less brutal code of law
    Hittites
  53. Cruel warriors, calvary, roads, postal services
    Assyrians
  54. hanging gardens
    babylonians
  55. efficeint system of ruling an empire
    persians
  56. Murex
    Phoneicans
  57. exchange one good for another
    barter
  58. wise leader of the Chaldeans
    Nebachannezzer
  59. Pesia's three great leader
    • Cyrus
    • Darius
    • Xerxes
  60. Summarian structure, strongest form in building
    arch
  61. Inain civilization settled along this river
    Indus river
  62. form of socail caste system organization unique to india
    caste system
  63. "enlightened one"; founder of Buddhism
    Gamma
  64. sacred to hinduism b/c of food, fuel, power
    reincarnation
  65. right views, right speech, & right living are just 3 of the 8 premises for Buddhists
    Eightfold Path
  66. small group like peasants in the overall social stratification of india
    caste
  67. Name, in order, the four officail and fifth unoffical classes of india's socail structure
    • Kshatriyas
    • Brahmans
    • Vaisyas
    • Sudras
    • Untouchables
  68. mental and physical discipline body and soul in Hinduism
    yoga
  69. "perfect peace" n hinduism and Buddhism-strive to attain
    nirvana
  70. refers to the self or essence of the individual in Hinduism and Buddhism
    atman
  71. Buddhism; all life contains sorrow and three other premises
    four noble truths
  72. important Chinese method of stabiliizing the economy & lifestyle of their civilization; save surplus for drought years
    leveling
  73. First four chinese dynasty's along the Yellow River
    • Zhou Dynasty
    • Qin Dynasty
    • Han Dyansty
    • Shang Dyansty
  74. "Chinese Peace" a time of peace and prosperity for China
    Pax Sinica
  75. Chinese philosophy; respect elders gov. be honeset; gov. set example for people; people accept and fulfill societal roles
    Confuciansism
  76. cynical chinese philosophy; people were inherently selfish; bring conformity w/ punishment and the threat of punishment
    legalism
  77. Chinese philosophy that was contemplative of the essence of the universe; be quiet, humble, and contemplative
    Daoism
  78. Yin & Yang; dualism in nature; strike a balance within the universe; chinese philosophy
    Naturalism
  79. through distance, desert, mountains led the chinese to develope a unique civilization
    isolation
  80. chinese writing; top to bottom; right to left
    cilligraphy
  81. four stages of the dynamic cycle
    • Defeat military Rival
    • Internal Peace
    • Decline in great power
    • Dynasty collapses
  82. Chinese civilization was founded along this river
    Yellow River
  83. Chinese "right to Rule" appointed by god; loses position with natural disaters-sign of god
    Mandate of Heaven
  84. One of the classic and most important civilization because they had the best ideas and thinkers that shaped Western Civilization
    Greece
  85. Existed theoretically on the island of Crete-Minotaur, know for Frescoes
    Minoans
  86. 4 physical features of a Greek City State
    • Small Size
    • Small population
    • polis Fort on acropolis
    • Public meeting place
  87. long peoms describing heroes and adventurtes
    epic
  88. three characteristics of greek reiligion
    • Explains mysteries of the physical world
    • explains the passions
    • how to achieve a good life, future, and abundant harvests
  89. military ideal; developed culture around militaristic attitude; didn't contriute to lit., art, etc.
    Sparta
  90. Greek City-state
    Athens
  91. Three reasons for Greek unity
    • Non-greeks=barbarians
    • same religion
    • common language
  92. Three reasons for Greek disunity
    • mountain ranges
    • city-state had strong sense of identity
    • developed own laws, money, calendar
  93. author of the Iliad & Odyssey
    Homer
  94. Paintings on wet plaster walls
    frescoes
  95. stories about the deeds and misdeeds of greek gods
    myths
  96. Homers epic about the 10th year of the Trojan War
    Iliad
  97. Direct Democracy; magnificent temples and buildings; emphisized sound body and mind
    athens
  98. long series of wars between Greek city-states and Persia
    Persian wars
  99. All citizens particiapte in decision making directly; Athens
    Direct Democracy
  100. Concept of governing that the people can and should rule themselves
    popular goverment
  101. citizens elect people to make decisions for themselves; United States
    Representative Democracy
  102. a goverment in which all citizens participate
    democracy
  103. war between Sparta and Athens, cultural Rivaly, athens surrendered to Sparta
    Peloponnesian war
  104. greatest leader of Athens for 30 years-Age named after him; democary reached its height;Delian League
    Percile
  105. Homer's Epic of A journey
    Odyssey
  106. Athletic contests held in honor of the gods every four years.
    Olympics
  107. a midpoing between two extremes; nothing in excess, and everything in proportion
    golden mean
  108. study of the most fundamentalquestions of reality and human existance
    Philiosphy
  109. student of Plato; accomplished scientist and philosopher; Ethics, Poetics, logic
    Aristotle
  110. 1st regularly paid army- foot soldiers; 16 rows of soldiers with 21 foot spears
    Macedonains
  111. three schools of Philiosphy Post-Alex Era
    • Cynic
    • Stoic
    • Epicurean
  112. goal-helleninistic Empire; connect East and West; blending best of both cultures; a man of men, educated by aristotle
    Alexander the Great
  113. father of modern medicine; disease comes from natural causes, not punishments for the gods.
    Hippocrates
  114. peak of cultural activiy in athens during the 400 bc
    Golden Age
  115. Republic; aristocracy of intellects; dialogues
    Plato
  116. Father of History
    Herodotus
  117. culture founded on Greek ideas blended with features from other culutres of the Mediterranean
    Hellenistic Culture
  118. One of histories greates thinkers and teachers; hemlock; "know thyself"; ____ Method
    Socrates
  119. everything could be explained or expressed through numbers
    Pythagras
  120. value of Pi
    Archemedes
  121. seek pleasure and avoid pain; pleasure-intellectual
    Epicurean
  122. world is directed by divine reason; accept fate; indifferent to fear, pain, grief, etc.
    stoic
  123. seek virtue; scroned pleasure, wealth and social position
    Cynic
  124. Romes and ours; a form of goverment where entitled voters elect representation
    Republic
  125. Roman commoner
    plebian
  126. most important military unit of Roman army consisting of 4500-6000 men
    legion
  127. River along which Rome was built
    Tiber River
  128. Rome vs. Carthage; three phases; Carthage destroyed and Rome victorious
    Punic wars
  129. powerful aristocratic class of Rome; gained control of the goverment
    patricians
  130. legendary founder of Rome
    Romulus
  131. Three reasons why Christianity flourished in Rome in the face of persecution
    • Constantine supported it
    • civil wars
    • grew too big
  132. famous leader of a large slave revolt in Rome
    Spartacus
  133. a large and powerful commercial city on the north coast of Africa; Rome Defeated
    Carthage
  134. Christian Roman Emepror; Deathbed conversion
    Constantine
  135. Last of the good emperors; philosopher king; Meditations
    Marcus Aurelis
  136. Cruel and unpredictable Roman emperor; stared the fire?; commited suicide
    Nero
  137. Period from the reign of Augustus through the death of marcus Aurelius in Rome
    Pax Romana
  138. Roman tenant farmer
    colonus
  139. small elite military force stationed in Rome to protect the emperor
    Pratorian Guard
  140. Scholars learned in the scriptures and religious law; Judaism; replace priests
    Rabbis
  141. title given to patriarch of Rome; Supreme head of Catholic church
    Pope
  142. jew; crusified; mission was to connect God to man
    Jesus
  143. the absence of goverment
    anarchy
  144. three reasons why Rome Fell
    • slavery
    • poor leaders
    • barbarian invaders
  145. popular with people; wanted to be supreme ruler; restriced senate; murdereed by conspiritors; Rome
    Ceaser
  146. crazy Roman Ruler who appointed his horse as counsel
    Caligula
  147. Smarter that Julius; Supreme ruler of Rome; Manipulated the senate and the masses
    Octavian Augustus
  148. terrible Roman Ruler rumored to have murdered his father; killed by an athlete- a hired hit
    Commodus
  149. New capital created by Constantine, today called istanbul
    Constantipole
  150. created sevret police for Russia; ruled with murder and terror
    Ivan the Terrible
  151. Christian missonary brothers; Cyrillic alphabet; conversion of the Slavs
    Cyril & Methodius
  152. Kieven Ruler who rejected Islam, Western Christianity, and Judaism-liked Byzantine Christianity
    Vladimir I
  153. Great Byzantine emperor who established Constantinople as the capital of the Byzantine Empire; paved & lighted streets, libraries, churches, homes museums, best medieval city
    Justantine
  154. Cyril and Methodus develpoed this for the illiterate Slavs in order to convert them to Christianity
    Cryillic Alphabet
  155. Russain "ceaser" or emperor
    czar
  156. opinion that conflicts with the church doctrine
    heresey
  157. Byzantine picrute or design fromed by inlaid pieces of glass, stone, or enamel
    mosaic
  158. person who believed that the presence of icons constutied idol worship
    iconoclast
  159. offical act the bars a person from church membership or ceremony
    excommunication
  160. byantine picture of Jesus, Mary or the saints
    icons
  161. money or goods a wife brings to a marrage
    dowry
  162. flammable liquid used by Byzantine catherdral built by Justinians
    Greek Fire
  163. Beautiful Byzantine cathedral built by Justantin
    Hagia Sophia
  164. Scandinavians who were traders and Raiders that swept throught Europe
    Vikings
  165. LEader of the MOngols; fierce; Successful
    Ghagus Khan
  166. the word Russia derived from this word
    Rus
  167. Capital of Russia; also known as the third Rome
    Moscow
  168. person learned in the Islamic law and Faith
    mullahs
  169. Muslim Temple
    Mosque
  170. Holy war to defend or spread Islam
    Jihad
  171. Groom's marriage gift to bride
    dower
  172. Turkish ruler
    Sultans
  173. foudner of Islam
    Muhammad
  174. the one Islamic God
    Allah
  175. Muslims of Spain
    Moors
  176. peninsula b/t the persian Gulf and the Red Sea, & home to Islam
    Arabia
  177. Holy city of Muhammad in Arabia
    Mecca
  178. city in Arabia that was Muhammad's refuge and where he first established
    Median
  179. battle in France where Franks defeated the Moors
    Tours
  180. Muslim Pillars of Faith
    • Recite words of Wisdom
    • Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca
    • pilgramage to Mecca
    • give alms
    • fast during ramadam
  181. Muslims who believed that only intercessor b/t belivers and Allah was the Koran
    Sunnis
  182. Muslims who belived that a person-imam, spiritual and secular authority-rather that the Koran was the intermediary b/t Allah and believers
    Shittes
  183. Holy book of Islam that presents Muhammad's most important teachings; includes teachings from Bible & Torah
    Koran
  184. archbishop of Canterbury; took on Henry II regarding transfer of clergy from chruch to royal courts
    Thomas Beckett
  185. imported feudalsim from France to England; created a strong central goverment and the doomsday Book
    ????????????????
  186. warrior King of Wessex; paid the Danes to leave at firsts, then crushed them militaryily once he had the strength; educated man who established great schools and libraries; claimed absolute supremeacy; all secular or spritual were servants to the church
    Alfred the Great
  187. brought the papal power to its greatees height dominating almost all of Europe; skilled diplomat; best in Church history
    Innocent III
  188. crowned "Emperor of the Romans" by Pope Leo III in St. Peter's Rome; united most all of Europe for the first time in almost 400 years
    Charlemange
  189. defeated the Moors which halted Muslim advance into Europe
    Chalres Mortals Calvary
  190. Identify, in order, the four stages of knighthood
    • Page
    • Squire
    • Accompany Knight into battle
    • Ceremony to become Knight
  191. code of conduct for knights; civilize the crude, uncouth medieval Nobilities
    chivalry
  192. Name in decending order the the heirarchy of the medieval Church
    • Pope and his Curia
    • the archbishop
    • the Bishop
    • Parish priest
  193. govermental and militaristic medieval system whereby nobels rule themselves in the absence of a king or centralized gov.;lord; vassal; relationships; justice by ordeal
    feudlism
  194. medieval economic system emadnating from the management of a large estate; domain; serfs and nobles
    the Manorial System
  195. four problems that plagued the medieval church
    • lay investure
    • simony
    • world lives of the Clergy
    • heresy
  196. mediecal chruch problem involving the buying of a postion
    Simony
  197. Medieval church problem that describes the extreme wealth of the church
    Lay investure
  198. episode in church history where heretics were pruged through torturous confessions and burning at the stake
    inquisition
  199. Church's punishment of an entire region; it involved withholding sacraments
    intridict
  200. deudal document intended to limit the power and the king and protect nobles rights; U.S. Constitution
    Magna Carta
  201. Two terms for the period of history between ancient and modern history
    • Middle ages
    • Medieval Ages
  202. church code of law
    Cannon Law
  203. system of monestaries & convents in which christians withdrew from the world to lead a life of prayer fasting and self-denial
    monasticism
  204. Christian expeditions to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims; Pope Urban II; successful Failures
    Crusades
  205. Three reasons why people would join the crusades
    • adventure
    • promise of reward
    • escape debts or punishment
  206. three results of the crusades for the people of Europe
    • Status of women imporved
    • monarchs had less power of feudal lords
    • military technologies-crossbow
  207. the plague; fleas on rats; killed 1/3 of Europe's population; 75 million worldwide; disrupted every aspect of life
    Black Death
  208. policy of charging intrest on loans
    usury
  209. method of production in which work is done at home instead of the factory
    domestic system
  210. an economy in which land, labor and capital are controlled by individuals
    market economy
  211. workers formed organizations for regulatory purposes
    guilds
  212. author of the Divine Comedies
    Dante Alighieri
  213. Author of the Canterbury Tales
    Geoffrey Chaucer
  214. French peasant girl who rallied the French as a nation against the english; burned at the stake by English as heretic
    Joan of Arc
  215. "they who believe in the ingallibility of the pope and openly say so are blasphemers."
    John Husk
  216. The bible is for the goverment of the people, by the people and for the people.
    Johy Wycliffe
  217. York & Lancaster struggle for the throne; White & Red flowers as the symbols; Lancaster won & married a York; nobles die
    War of the Roses
  218. The removal of the papacy from Rome, Italy to Avigon, France
    Babylonian Captivity
  219. a division of the medieval chruch over rivaling political groups
    the Great Schism
  220. France and English battled over English oppresion of the French; French Rallied and drove the English out
    Hundred Years war
  221. Four Great empires or cultures of the America's-Mexico Peru
    • Olmecs
    • Incas
    • Toltecs
    • Aztecs
  222. Children of the Sun; anesthietics and brain surgery; Americas
    Incas
  223. Wandering Warriors; dominating Mexico; pyramids, temples, marketplaces, palaces
    Aztecs
  224. one of the most advanced cultures; human sacrifice; accurate calendar; immediated disaster-demise
    Mayans
  225. First real Japanese emperor who reigned in the 300s; successors reigned until end of 1945-WWII conclusion
    Sujin
  226. Grandson fierce and most infamous Mongol leaders; lavish summer place-Coolridge
    Kublai Khan
  227. powerful officail who controlled Japanese emperor; major office; controled $$, laws, courts, appointments
    shoguns
  228. warrior landlords in Japan; Bushido-code of honor
    Sammuri
  229. every type of climate and terrrain can be found in this region; two of the world's largest river systems here
    Americas
  230. code of honor for Japanese samurai; similar to chivalry
    bushido
  231. legendary first emperor of Japan
    Jimmu
  232. religious revolt against the authority and certain doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church
    Reformation
  233. a revival or rebirth; 15th century; France, Germany, Holland, & England; renewed interest in learning & classics; artistic & philosophical movement
    Renaissanse
  234. heart of the Renaissance
    Flourence
  235. ideal renaissance Man
    Leonardo da Vinci
  236. French converts to Calvinism
    Huguenots
  237. the principle of doubt; do not belive unless can be proven by experiment or math
    scientific revolution
  238. Bohemian (Czech) religouis leader who advocated the ideas of Wycliffe; burned at the stae as a heretic
    John Huss
  239. generally, a christian who is not of the roman catholic or eastern orthodox faiths
    protestants
  240. english philosopher; scientific method
    Francis Bacon
  241. encouraged European peoples to seek material comfort
    renaissance spirit
  242. paved the way for new inventions and set roots for the industrial revolution
    material comfort
  243. material comfort paved the way for this
    industrial revolution
  244. painter, sculptor, engineer-loading cannon & scaling wall; Last Supper; Mona Lisa
    Leonardo da Vinci
  245. "the end justifies the means"; ethics of goverment
    Machevelli
  246. The two classic cultures
    • Roman
    • Greek
  247. concets of the planets and earth; heliocentirc theory; Polish astronomer
    Copernicus
  248. literary movement that typified the renaissance spirit; every day human problems; Petrarch, Erasmus, Moore
    Humanism
  249. French protestant; founded Protestant church in Geneva; predstinatino; theocracy
    John Calvin
  250. founder of the Jesuits in 1534
    Ignatious Loyola
  251. German; Roman Catholic; 95 theses; translated Bible to German; excommunicated; established a new religion
    Martin Luther
  252. Dutch Humanist scholar who attacked church abuses but remained loyal
    Erasmus
  253. English priest who condemned the wealth and worldliness of the Catholic Church; denied papal supremacy
    John Wycliffe
  254. Established many protestant sects; shattered Catholic religious unity
    reformation
  255. English Protestant Reformation; Henry VIII; divorced Kate of Aragon-no male heir
    Anglican Church
  256. Three reasons for renaissance in Italy
    • Artifacts
    • location
    • wealthy patrons
  257. Italian astronomer and physicist; telescope
    Galileo
  258. English chemist; Laws of gases
    Boyle
  259. English mathmatician, astronomer, and physicist-calculus, law of light and color, laws of motion and gravity
    Newton
  260. Author of Eutopia; the ideal country
    More
  261. Gods plan for who is saved and who is damned
    predestination
  262. fusion of church and state; clergy control goverment
    theocracy
  263. Calvanism laid the foundation for this religious group
    Puritans
  264. Catholic reform to counteract the spread of Protestantism
    counter-reformation
  265. Society of Jesus; stressed education-best universites in Euro & US; opposed killing-convert through conversation
    Jesuits
  266. mathematical calculations to verify results of experiments
    scientific method
  267. most effective in slowing the spread of Protestantism
    Jesuits
  268. French Scientist; mathematician & philosopher-"I think therefore i am"
    Descartes
  269. a new way of thinking; relied on questioning & experimentation
    Scientific Revolution
  270. earth at the center of the universe; disputed during Renaissance
    geocentric thoery
  271. theory that the sun was the center of the universe; accepted in Renaissance
    heliocentric theory
  272. caused by Protestant & Catholic conflict, German ruling rivalries, & desire for France, Denmark, & Sweden to weaken the Hapsburgs & the Holy Roman Empire; resulted in the territorial changes for Europe, Dutch & Sweden independence
    30 years war
  273. technological advances amde long explortaions possible
    • Cannon
    • Map Making
    • Astrolobe
    • compass
    • new ships
  274. Theory that suggested the world contained a fixed amount of wealth; to increase a share one had to take from another
    merchantalism
  275. factors that lead to Europeans to colonize
    • overcrowding
    • reap quick profits
    • escape religious or political persecution
    • expand trade
  276. Second stage of the triangle trade involving the shipment of slaves across the atlantic
    Middle passage
  277. believed he could reach Asia quickly by sailing across the Atlantic; discovered islands in the Caribbean that later becameknown as the West Indies; controversail
    Christopher Columbus
  278. member of the Poruguese Royal family who founded a school for navigators; wanted to start a crusade in Africa to access Muslim slave trade
    Prince Henery the Navigator
  279. led expiditions that completed the circumnavigation of the world-did not make it home because he was killed in the Phillipines
    Magellan
  280. Russian Ruler who wanted to Westernize Russia; made men shave beards & wear Euro. clothes; encouraged women to participate in community; adopted Louis XIV highly centralized governing system
    Peter the Great
  281. were exploited by the mother country for raw materials and a market for European products
    colonies
  282. Portugese explorer who sailed around Africa and across the Indian Ocean to India
    Vasco da Gama
  283. Portugese explorer who became convineved that the land across the Atlantic was not Asia by a new land; named after it
    Amerigo Vespucci
  284. Spanish explorer who crossed the isthmus of Pnama and claiemd the Pacific for Spain
    Balboa
  285. German Princess who married a Russain; conspiriring with nobles to mruder husband??; her expansion of Russia inot Pland and control of the Black Sea made Russia a force in European power balance
    Catherine the Great
  286. Poetry, flute, philosophy; encouraged industry & ag.; public education; made Prussia a force
    Fredrick the Great
  287. became more important than goods because it provided laborers for the colonies to operate large plantations more efficently
    slaves
  288. System throught which European merchants shipped weapons and liquor to Africa, exchanging them for slaves; were then transported to the americas and sold to plantation owners for produce from the plantations; these products were then shipped to European markets
    triangular Trade
  289. financed and supported the journey of Christopher Columbus; king and queen of Castile
    • Ferdenan
    • Issabela
  290. Venentian taveler; famous for journy from Euro. to China; 17 year stay in the court of Kublai Khan; his writings influenced Clomubus
    Marco Polo
  291. 3 sea dogs that were traders and raiders for England and Elizabeth I
    • Francis Drake
    • Walter Raliegh
    • John Hawkins
  292. Known as the Seven Year's War in Europe; settled French & British rivalry in North America; British came out on top
    French-Indian War
  293. Tudor; eldest daughter of Henry VIII; 1st reigning queen of England; Catholica & determined to make England a Catholic nation again; persecuted the Protestants-burned 300@ the stake; unhappy and & unpopular marriage to Phillip II of Spain; childless
    Mary I
  294. Tudor; Daughter of Henry VIII & Anne Boleyn-2nd wife; beheaded; came to the throne-England was a mess; left the throne-England was one of the richest and most powerful in Europe-Golden Age; organized a navy that defeated the Spanish Armada; Never married Childless
    Elizabeth
  295. while searching fo the Northwest passage, he explored the river in eastern North America and the bay in northern Canada that now bears his name
    Henry Hudson
  296. colonists supported, opposed, and didn't care about the Revolutionary War
    1/3, 1/3, 1/3
  297. The Virgin Queen
    Queen Elizabeth I
  298. Closest heir to Ellie the 1st throne; Catholic; plotted with phillip II men to kill Ellied 1st and seize the throne; Ellie found out and beheaded
    Mary Queen of Scotts
  299. King of Spain; husband to Mary I; leader of Counter Reformation; his Spanish Armada was destroyed by Ellie 1st
    Phillip II
  300. a fleet of 130 ships sent be Phillip II to England to kick it; were kicked instead
    Spanish Armada
  301. a radical attempt to change the very structure of a country's goverment
    Revolution
  302. parites in conflict for the English Civil War
    • Puritans
    • Royalists
  303. document outlining the fundamental laws and principles that govern a nation
    constitution
  304. Prutian Military dictator; New Model Army; Leader of the revolution in England; extended English commerce
    Oliver Cromwell
  305. 1660 Charles II and his rule restored the monarchy in England; end of the English Revolution; end of Cromwell's experiment
    restoration
  306. kind of republic that Cromwell established in England
    common wealth
  307. the union of England and Scotland; Untied Kingdom; island of two countires; one kingdom
    Great Britian
  308. head of goverment established in England; chief minister of the cabinet; real leader of the goverment
    Prime Minister
  309. wanted to "purify" the Protestant English Church; objected to Catholics; b/c a bitter enemy of the Tudor Monarchy-led a revolution against w/ Cromwell
    Puritans
  310. Three reasons England and Ireland were in conflict
    • Religion
    • Territory
    • Irish Revolts
  311. English Philosopher; "social Contract"; absolute monarchy
    Hobbes
  312. English Philosopher; "natural Rights"; ruler cannot violate rights-overthrow
    John Locke
  313. Irish-Catholic Guerillas; wanted hereditary monarchy; English political party in Parliment
    Tories
  314. Presbyterian guerillas; wanted strong Parliament; English political party in Parliament
    Wigs
  315. William and Mary of Orange take the throne; Parliamnet makes James II abdicated & replaces with his daughter and hubby
    Glorious Revolution
  316. The Protestant Queen
    Elizabeth I
  317. Supporter of the King during English Revolution; also known as a Royalist
    Cavaliers
  318. English Civil War; Cromwell, Puritans, & Parliament vs. Charles I Monarchy & the rest; Charles I executed; Cromwell's commonwealth; ends with the Restoration of Charles II
    English Revolution
  319. King of England; problems w/ scots, Irish, parliament; surrendered & executed w/ ER; martyred
    Charles I
  320. English Legislature consisting of Two houses-Lords and Commons-like our congress-senate & representatives
    Parliment
  321. Rights to life, liberty, and property
    Natural Rights
  322. Protection from illegal arrest & false imprisonment
    Habeas Corpus
  323. Ministers or heads of governmental departments
    Cabinet
  324. Monarchy in which a king or queen occupies the throne but whose powers are limited by a constitution;
    English- set examples
    Limited Constitutional Monarchy
  325. Not a single document, but a collection including The Bill of Rights and the Magna Carta; based on tradition
    English Constitution
  326. English sea captains who were both traders and pirates
    Sea Dogs
  327. Italian Captain; commissioned by King Henry VII to explore North America; Voyages gave the English a claim to the new world
    John Cabot
  328. First Englishman to sail around the world; Sea dog
    Francis Drake
  329. Set up trading posts at Calcutta and Madras in India; Used force and bribery to exert English influence in trade; became very powerful and wealthy
    English East India Company
  330. A water route to India around the Americas to the north and west; English goal
    Northwest Passage
  331. First permanent English settlement in America; located on northeastern coast of North America
    Jamestown
  332. Second permanent English settlement in America; located on northeastern coast of North America
    Plymouth
  333. 1754-17693; decisive conflict that settled British and French rivalry in North America; Treaty of Paris in 1763 confirmed Great Britian's victory in North America and the entire world; GB dominated NA from Atlantic Ocean to Mississippi River and From the Gulf of Mexico to almost the Artic Ocean; "The sun never sets on the British Empire"
    Seven Years War
  334. coloniest who supported independence; aka Tories
    loyalists
  335. colonists who actively favored independece
    patriots
  336. July 4
    Declaration of Independence
  337. General of the Continental Army; 1st US President
    Gerneral George Washington
  338. cheif American negotiator w/ British During the War
    Ben Franklin
  339. colonies fought and won their independence from GB with the help of France, Spain, and the Neatherlands
    American Revolution
  340. First plan of goverment for the US; one house of Congress; ineffective
    Articles of Confederation
  341. principle author of the Declaration of Indepence
    Thomas Jefferson
  342. Federal System of goverment; three branches of goverment; Bill of Rights
    US Constitution
  343. system in which power is devided between the central, or federal goverment and the goverment of the states
    Federal system of Goverment
  344. branch of goverment that enforces the laws; president
    Executive Branch
  345. branch of goverment that makes the laws; Congress
    legislative
  346. branch of goverment that interprest and applies the laws; federal courts
    Judical Branch
  347. first 10 amendments to the constitution
    Bill of Rights
  348. one of the small towns outside Boston where British first met armed resistance from the colonists
    Concord
  349. scene of decisive American and French Victory over the british, located on Chesapeake Bay, Virginia
    Yorktown
  350. British general of armies against American colonies; forced to yeild at Yorktown; later took position in India
    Cornwallis
  351. Europeans; 1700s; free exchange of ideas was the lifeblood; philosophers believed they could apply the scientific method & rationalism-reason or logical thinking to explain human nature
    Enlightenment
  352. THE SOCIAL CONTRACT; popular sovereignty; history repeats itself in a cycle of decay; kind of outside of Enlightenment b/c thought reason brought corruption; advocated simple pastoral state
    Rousseau
  353. LETTERS ON ENGLAND; popularized English ideas in France; "I do not agree with a word you say, but defend to the death your right to say it."
    Voltaire
  354. less than 1% of French population; clergy of Roman Catholic Church; privilaged & wealth
    1 Estate
  355. less than 2% of French population; nobility; thoughless, irresponsible, & wasteful
    2 Estate
  356. 97% of French population; bourgeoisie, laborers, peasants, artisans, tithad; no say; worked fro the benefit of above classes
    3 Estate
  357. instituted to sqelch the threat of the counterrevolution in France; "national razor"; 100 days; Roberspierre; fear & ignorance were motivating factors
    Regin of Terror
  358. "Stroke of State"; Napoleon's method of taking control of France
    Coup d etat
  359. 5'2"; general at the age of 26; required only 2-3 hours of sleep; military genius; took control of France; "Grand Design" for Europe
    Napolean
  360. French monarch; reigned 1774-92; weak; target of French Revolution for taxes & extrabagance; guillotined
    Louis XVI
  361. Prussia, Great Britian, & the Dutch Netherlands defeated Napolean's Army; Napolean surrendered to British & was exiled & watched under guard until his death
    Battle of Waterloo
  362. ideals of individual rights; fair rule of law; principles of the American & French Revolutions
    liberalism
  363. activities aimed counter to; or against Revolution
    counter revolution
  364. French King who reigned 1643-1715; increased monarchial authority; reign longest in Euro. hostory; France
    Louis XIV
  365. French revolutionary; doctor from Paris; leader of extreme radical sact of the jacobins; assassinated in his bath
    Mariat
  366. Napolean's first wife who humiliated him w/ extramarital affairs
    Josephinee
  367. French King; reigned 1715-74; financial situation worsened; discontent & hatred for monarchy increased; lost Canada & India in Seven Years War
    Louis XV
  368. Wife of Louis XVI of France; disliked for extravagance & resistance to reform; convicted of Treason; guillotined
    Marie Antoinette
  369. zPersian military leader who extended Presia's boundries to their greatest extent since the times of Darius & Xerxes
    Nader Sha
  370. English; governor general of India; surrendered @ Yorktown in the Revolutionary War
    Lord Cornwallis
  371. Polish King who halted the Turks attack @ Vienna
    John Sobieski
  372. military leader for British East India Company- secured India commercialy over French
    Robert Clive
  373. manmade Chinese structure built to secure China from invaders like the Mongols
    Great wall of China
  374. was a chinese symbol of socioeconomic class; women didn't have to work; feet
    Golden Lotus
  375. war b/t the British and Chinese; the British attempted to establish free trade w/ China and began to pay for tea w/ opium
    Opium War
  376. Chinese political Rebellion whose leader claimed to be the younger brother of Jesus; weakened the Qing Dynasty
    Taiping Rebellion
  377. title give to the cheif ministers of the sultans of the ottomans Empire
    Grand Vizers
  378. Controlled Great Britians trade w/ India; solely interested in trade not colonization @ first
    British East India Company
  379. British trained local soldiers in India
    Sepoys
  380. Britsih East India Company used cow and pig fat to grease rifle cartridges; offensive English customs imposed on Indians; execution of leading Sepoys; BEIC dissolved; India trade ruled by british goverment
    Indian Revolution
  381. Empress of India
    Queen Victoria
  382. the factors of production that were basic resources necessary during the Industrial Revolution
    • Land
    • Labour
    • Capital
  383. the start of the Industiral Revolution because they had the resources and the demand
    Great Britian
  384. Three inventions that increased the effieciency & spread of industry Communiaction
    transportation
    production
    • Spinning Jenny
    • Steam engine
    • telegraph
  385. the use of automatic machinery to increase producition
    mechinization
  386. three pros of the IR
    • Middle Class
    • Women Education
    • New Inventions
  387. three cons of the IR
    • over crowding cities
    • end of skilled crafts
    • child labour
  388. improtant class developed w/ IR; bought products if IR; kids educated; moms didn't work
    Middle Class
  389. three elements of mass production
    • Assembly Line
    • interchangeable parts
    • division of Labour
  390. an economic pattern of alternating periods of prosperity and decline
    business cycle
  391. lowest point in a business cycle
    depression
  392. this law dictates price and wages
    Supply and Demand
  393. the center of the business cycle
    competition
  394. every person should be free to go into a ny buisness & operate at the greatest advantage; Adam Smith
    free enterprise
  395. population poses greatest challenge to human progress; people multipy more rapidly than supply increase despite natural checks like war, famine, & natural disatster
    Malthus
  396. process of negotiation b/t management and union over wages, working conditions, etc.; contact; fixed amount of time
    Collective barganing
  397. formed by workers in response to harsh working conditions and poor wages
    unions
  398. Prussian born; Communist Manifesto; founder of communism; stages of class struggle in history
    Karl Marx
  399. objective laws of historical development; people could work together cooperatively w/o being forced to do so
    scientific socialism
  400. discoverd a processof "curing'' rubber to make it more elastic and usable
    Goodyear
  401. devised a method of wieghing atoms
    John Dalton
  402. theory that plants and animals developed from common ancestors
    evolution
  403. founder of genetics
    Mendel
  404. French chemists who investigated radioactivity
    Curies
  405. theory that stated enery can only be released in fixed amounts
    quantum Theory
  406. science that deals in inanimate, or nonliving, aspects of nature-astronomy, geology, physics, and chemistry
    physical sciences
  407. science dealing with living organisms
    biological sciences
  408. process of disintergration in which certain elements can release energy
    radioactivity
  409. German physicist who developed the quantum theory
    Max Planck
  410. German physicist who discoverd x-rays
    Roetgen
  411. English physician who develped the principle of inoculation
    Genner
  412. process of heating liquids to kill bacteria
    pasturization
  413. theory that stated no particles of matter can move faster than the speed of light
    special theory of relativity
  414. Russian chemist who produced the first workabel classification of the elements; Periodic table of elements
    Menedelyve
  415. German scientist; revolutionized physics, stating all events occur in four dimensions of space-4th=time; E=MC2
    Albert Einstien
  416. Found that micro-organisms are not spontaneously created; introduced germ theory of disease; pasturization
    Louis Pasture
  417. study of the ways in which inborn characteristics of plants and animals develope by inheritance
    Genetics
  418. develped the Telephone
    Alexander Graham Bell
  419. wireless telegraph
    Marconi
  420. Name three technologies that imporved city life
    • Iron pipes
    • electricty
    • toliets
  421. War and Peace-war portrayed as avast confusion of misery and death; Russian novelist
    Leo Tolstoy
  422. "Father" of American football
    Walter Camp
  423. Its genesis came with the IR and overcrowding cities; residential areas on the ouskirts of the city
    suburbs
  424. first to fly in a powered. sustained, controlled flight
    wright brother
  425. inveneted the electric lightbulb & central powerhouse to trasmit electricity
    Thomas Eddison
  426. people moving to another land
    emigration
  427. principles of Sociology; theory of socail Darwinism
    Herbert Spencer
  428. study of human relationships in society
    sociology
  429. were two improvments that increased overall health and well-being
    • Pasturization
    • Refrigeration
  430. study of human mind-how it works and how it affects behavior
    pyschology
  431. people coming to a country to settle`
    immigrants
  432. survival of fittest; humans in the animal kingdom; contentions conflicted w/ creationism & therefor controversial
    Charles Darwin
  433. Dutch painter who expressed intense emotion
    Vincent Van Gogh
  434. expression of the realities of everyday life in art and literature
    realism
  435. movement that appeals to the imagination and sentiment
    romanticism
  436. artistic portrayal of everyday life that is relevant to a specific location
    regionalism
  437. a cicid impression of people and places as they may appear at a glance
    impressionism
  438. Freud's process of revealing and analyzing the unconscious
    physicoanalycis
  439. French sculptor who broke tradition; unfinished quality to statues; show people & scenes as they appear
    Rodine
  440. rivalry among carious sections of a country; plagued the new nation- the United State
    Sectionalism
  441. two issues that led to the US Civil War
    • Slavery
    • States rights
  442. Region extending westward from th Mississippi River to approx. the Rocky Mountains; France sold to US for $15 million
    Lousiana
  443. co-organizers of the 1848 women's rights conference in Seneca Falls, New York
    • Elizabeth Stanton
    • Lucretta Mott
  444. person who belives in the abolition of all goverment through force
    anarchists
  445. established professional nurins of the wounded
    Florence Nightngale
  446. statement issued by president Monore opposing European Intervention in American affairs
    Monroe Doctrine
  447. a phrase used by leaders and politicians in the 1840s to explain continental expansion by the US
    Manifest Destiny

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