Mechanical Fundamentals II.txt

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pegwinn
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56955
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Mechanical Fundamentals II.txt
Updated:
2011-01-15 22:41:03
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Mechanical Fundamentals Fundamentals UPO2
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Description:
Mech Fund II PQS Study Guide from the UPO2 Book.
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  1. Discuss the following as applied to mechanical fundamentals:

    Corrosion:
    A chemical reaction. The action process, or eating away (corroding) due to chemical reaction.
  2. Discuss the following as applied to mechanical fundamentals:

    Erosion:
    The action process, or eating away (eroding) due to mechanical action. Most condenser areas condenser flows.
  3. Discuss the following as applied to mechanical fundamentals:

    Misalignment:
    • Any two pieces which are not parallel, or straight, when connected.
    • Also applies to improper valve, or system alignment.

    Two types of misalignment are: parallel, and angular.
  4. Discuss the following as applied to mechanical fundamentals:

    Calibration:
    The comparison of any measuring device / instrument with a set standard.
  5. Discuss the following as applied to mechanical fundamentals:

    Purification:
    The removal of impurities from a fluid.
  6. Discuss the following as applied to mechanical fundamentals:

    Resonance vibration:
    The natural frequency an item will vibrate at, based on its material, length, and thickness. Noticed greatly when bringing up a chiller. The vibration while bringing up to the governor.
  7. Discuss the purpose of this pipe fitting:

    Unions:
    A device used to connect parts of machinery, or pipes together. Made up of 2 halves, a male and a female. Each piece is welded, soldered, or threaded together. They require no gasket and are easily taken apart.
  8. Discuss the purpose of this pipe fitting:

    Flange:
    Another way of connecting 2 pieces of piping together. Made up of 2 flat disks that are threaded, welded, or soldered to the pipe, then bolted together. They require a gasket to prevent leaks and are easily taken apart to allow removal of the pipe.
  9. Discuss the purpose of this pipe fitting:

    Expansion Joint:
    Used where pipes tend to expand and contract. (Steam lines) Flexible so they will not break. They are placed between solid hangers.
  10. Discuss the purpose of this pipe fitting:

    Coupling:
    Allow the connecting of two pipes like unions and flanges. A coupling is made up of 1 solid piece. The two pipes are threaded, soldered, or welded into the coupling. Does not allow for easy separation.
  11. Discuss the purpose of this pipe fitting:

    Reducer:
    Used to reduce the (step-down) pipe size. There are concentric and eccentric reducers available. Concentric reducers step down in uniform increments like a cone. Eccentric reducers will have the reduced portion off to one side.
  12. Discuss the purpose of this pipe fitting:

    Plug:
    Screws into the end of a pipe to plug it.
  13. Discuss the purpose of this pipe fitting:

    Cap:
    Screws, soldered, or welded on the outside of the pipe to cap it
  14. Discuss the purpose of this pipe fitting:

    Blank Flange:
    Used to blank off a line. Must be ASME approved rated by pressure.
  15. Discuss the purpose of this pipe fitting:
    Pancake plate:
    A blind flange inserted between 2 flanges to isolate a system. Must be ASME approved
  16. What is the difference between tubing and piping?
    • Tubing is measured by outside diameter.
    • Piping is measured by inside diameter.
  17. Describe the function of this non-destructive testing (NDT) inspection method:

    Liquid penetrant (PT):
    Uses a liquid that can be seen by a black light. Spray the penetrant on the surface; wipe off excess, spray on the developer. Use a black light; the developer will cause the penetrant to glow. Finds surface cracks.
  18. Describe the function of this non-destructive testing (NDT) inspection method:

    Magnetic particle (MT):
    Sprinkle iron fillings on the area to be inspected. Place the magnetic field to the surface, the filings will line up along surface cracks.
  19. Describe the function of this non-destructive testing (NDT) inspection method:

    Ultrasonic (UT):
    Sound waves reflect of the internal thickness of the surface. Can check wall thickness and large defects.
  20. Describe the function of this non-destructive testing (NDT) inspection method:

    Radiographic (RT):
    Uses X-ray machine to find internal and external cracks. Hazardous.
  21. Single helical:
    The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle. Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix.

    Helical gears can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations. The former refers to when the shafts are parallel to each other; this is the most common orientation. In the latter, the shafts are non-parallel.
  22. Internal spur:
    • Spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type of gear because the edge of each tooth is straight and aligned parallel to the axis of rotation.
    • These gears can be meshed together correctly only if they are fitted to parallel axles.

    An Internal Spur Gear, similar to a regular spur gear. However, with an Internal Spur Gear, the gears make internal contact.
  23. External spur:
    External spur gears are cylindrical gears with straight teeth parallel to the axis.

    They are used to transmit rotary motion between parallel shafts and the shafts rotate in opposite directions.

    They tend to be noisy at high speed as the two gear surfaces come into contact at once.
  24. Worm:
    Worm gears resemble screws. A worm gear is usually meshed with an ordinary looking, disk-shaped gear, which is called the gear, wheel, or worm wheel.
  25. Bevel gear:
    A bevel gear is shaped like a right circular cone with most of its tip cut off.

    When two bevel gears mesh their imaginary vertices must occupy the same point. Their shaft axes also intersect at this point, forming an arbitrary non-straight angle between the shafts. The angle between the shafts can be anything except zero or 180 degrees.

    Bevel gears with equal numbers of teeth and shaft axes at 90 degrees are called miter gears.
  26. Describe three ways of detecting an overloaded bolt.
    The length of the used bolt may be Necked (or Stretched) out.

    You can thread on a new nut to see if it accepts it without difficulty.

    Finally you can compare thread pitch between new and used.
  27. Describe the effects that lubrication has on torque.
    Torque values normally are based on dry bolts. If lubrication is added, reduce the torque approximately 30%.

    Use the torque chart for wet torque.

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