Card Set Information
Notes for the first semester honors biology final
Biology is the study of __________?
All organism are composed of _________.
What is a hypothesis?
An educated guess/prediction that can be tested
The variable that is measured in an expirement is called the ____________.
A planned procedure to test a hypothesis is call a(n) ___________.
Describe the structurer of an atom/
The center of an atom has a nucleus.A nucleus the contains protons (+) and nuetrons (0). The nucleus is surronded by electrons (-) that float around in an electron cloud.
Define Polar Molecule.
A molecule that has an unequal distribution of charge due to an uneven pull of electrons.
All matter is composed of ________.
Ionic bonds form between molecules that have ____________________.
What is a convalent bond?
A bond formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons.
Why do oil and water not mix?
Because oil is nonpolar and water is polar.
What is the pH of an acidic solution? A basic solution?
Less than seven
More than seven
List the four types of organic compounds and their building blocks.
Lipids (3 fatty acids chains bonded to two glycerol molecules)
Proteins (amino acids)
Nucleotides (nucleic acids)
What element do all organic molecules contain?
What is the form that animals store glucose in?
What type of organic compound are polysaccharides?
What are two types of nucleic acids?
DNA and RNA
What is a substrate?
The molecule on which an enzyme acts upon.
What kind of organic compound is an enzyme?
How does an enzyme work?
It's a biological catalyst that reduces the amount of activation energy to perform chemical reactions
T or F : Enzymes are used up during a chemical reaction.
What are the three things that affect the performence of an enzyme.
Enzyme and Substrate Concentration
Enzymes are specific, which means?
They work on one reaction only
Fuzzy images viewed with a microscope may be due to poor ______________.
How do you calculate the total magninfication of a microscope?
Mulitply the magnification of the ocular lens with the objective lens.
As the cell gets bigger, which increases faster the surface area or the volume?
What is an organelle?
A structure within a eukaryotic cell that performs a specific function.
What kind of molecule forms a lipid bilayer within a cell membrane?
What is the function of the cell membrane?
Regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Provides protection and support to the cell
What are two differences between active and passive transport? List examples.
: (1) Requires energy (2) Materials move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.
: (1) Does not require energy (2) Materials move down the concentration gradient
A cell will shrink in a __________ solution.
A cell will swell in a _________ solution.
What is endocytosis?
The process of taking things into the cell.
What is exocytosis?
The process of things leaving the cell.
How is energy released from an ATP molecule?
A molecule is broken off.
Define cellular respiration and photosynthesis.
: The process of the mitochondrica breaking down glucose to release chemical energy.
: The process of plants using the sun's energy to make help make glucose.
What is the major atmospheric by-product in photosynthesis?
What are NADPH and FADPH?
What does the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis require? What is formed?
, NADPH, ATP
What happens during glycolysis?
Chemical reactions break glucose down into pyruvic acid.
NADPH is made
A net profittwo ATP is created
List the three stages of cellular respiration?
2) Citric Acid Cycle (Kreb Cycle)
3) Electron Transport Chain
What is the final electron accecptor in aerobic respiration?
Water is an end product in ______________________.
Electron Transport Chain
What happens if oxygen is not present during cellular respiration?
For each molecule of glucose that is broken down during aerobic respiration, the Krebs cycle produces how many ATP?
What is the point at which two chromatids are attached to each other in a chromosome?
List the stages of the cell cycle IN ORDER.
, Synthesis, G
, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telephase, and Cytokynesis
What is spindle made of? What is it produced by?
Cytokinesis in plant cells involves the formation of a ___________.
How much energy is lost at each trophic level?
What three things make up an organisns niche?
What biome makes up the central part of the United States?
What biome is located on the equator?
Animals that feed on plants are at least in the _______ trophic level.