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2010-01-31 06:55:33
glossary lt. terms

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  1. An intrinsic trait further developed through training, education, or experience that allows performance of a function which is either mental or physical.
  2. Is the result of task oriented, autocratic management. Under such management, subordinates become Reluctant to make decisions on routine matters, believing they will be criticized for Even minor mistakes.
    Apprehension of Authority
  3. Details the amount of money needed to deliver police Services in a community. It is an estimate of the need for human resources (people- their salaries, benefits, and training) and physical resources (such as cruisers, desks, typewriters, and forms).
  4. Details the costs of specific programs and activities in Police departments, such as investigations or traffic control.

    Objectives are outlined, then tied directly to dollar amounts with summaries of the levels of service that can be provided at various levels of funding.
    A performance budget
  5. The total amount of money authorized for the entire city budget for a fiscal year is determined by the city manager, city council, or mayor. Department heads (police chief, fire chief, parks and recreation manager, and so forth) are informed of the allocations for their departments. The police chief then submits a budget based on the projection, estimating the level of police service that can be provided for the amount of money allocated.
    Zero-based budgeting
  6. The most frequently encountered method of police budgeting. Each category of an expense is shown on a separate line and the amount for that line is entered on the right-hand side of the budget document.
    Line-item budget
  7. A government administration organized in departments, divisions, or bureaus staffed by nonelected employees.
  8. Refers to the hierarchy of ranks in an organization. Orders come down the chain of command and feedback goes up the chain of command, for example.
    Chain of Command
  9. Provides organizational structure, direction, and goals through which people work in order to accomplish the department's objectives.
  10. Established in emergency situations to serve as a base of operations, or staging area, for personnel and equipment. It may be located in an office building,, apartment, patrol vehicle, or SWAT truck, and it is used for planning, organizing, directing, and communicating.

    It should be near but not exposed to the emergency situation.

    Conditions that may require a command post include hostage situations, barricaded persons, public demonstrations, and civil disorders.
    Command Post
  11. Encompasses the intrinsic qualities of a leader.

    Factors contributing to command presence include military bearing, self discipline, a neat appearance, integrity, honesty, and poise. Command presence influences a manager's ability to create a vision that others will adopt and to instill in officers a willingness to follow.
    Command Presence
  12. The transfer of information, attitudes, and understanding between individuals and groups. Whenever two or more people are together, some form of communication takes place. The ability to communicate clearly and effectively is vital for a manager. Poor communication results in misdirection, confusion, duplication of effort, and lost efficiency and productivity.
  13. Provides officers with the information they need to perform their jobs. Most information in a police organization moves downward through written or face-to-face communication channels.
    Downward communication
  14. Provides organizational structure and consists of standard operating procedures, orders, correspondence, and other written messages that communicate the "official policy" of a police department.
    Formal communication
  15. Takes place between people at the same organizational levels, such as between two captains or two detectives, and is used to coordinate people and equipment for task accomplishment.
    Horizontal communication
  16. Develops when formal channels of communication don't exist or fail to meet the needs of officers. Informal communication consists of "grapevines" or "rumor mills" which distort or filter messages.
    Informal communication
  17. The flow of information is from the lower levels of the organization upward to the top. Without upward communication, police administrators would not have the information needed to plan or make decisions.
    Upward communication
  18. Leading people toward organizational objectives through communication and the modeling of proper behavior. In order to control subordinates, managers make observations and inspections and review records and reports.
  19. Providing unity of action and preventing duplication of effort and resources through the orderly arrangement of group effort.
  20. Turning over or entrusting of one's work (and the formal authority to do it) to another while remaining responsible for its completion.
    Delegation of Authority
  21. The day-to-day guiding, coaching, counseling, and influencing of people toward organizational task accomplishment while prioritizing, scheduling, and monitoring expenditures and the quality of work.
  22. A manager uses the disciplinary process to accomplish organizational objectives by coaching, training, instructing, and correcting subordinates to improve their job performance.
  23. Involves punishment for poor job performance or misconduct.

    Managers should privately tell subordinates exactly what is lacking in job performance or behavior, what needs to be done to bring performance or behavior up to an acceptable level, and what consequences will occur if performance or behavior do not reach the acceptable level.

    Managers should be fair, consistent, and impartial and should conduct frequent inspections so failures can be corrected promptly.
    Negative discipline
  24. It is not punishment; it is the teaching, counseling, and instructing of subordinates in order to encourage them to improve work performance.
    Positive discipline
  25. Describes a disciplinary process with progressively stronger measures for repeated offenses.

    A usual progression consists of counseling, verbal reprimand, written reprimand, suspension, and termination.

    Severe misconduct requires an acceleration of the process.
    Progressive discipline
  26. Learning something through exploration, reading, observing, and original thinking.
  27. In reference to communication, distortion is the changing or blurring of information as it is communicated to more than one person sequentially. Distortion changes the meaning of a message.
    Distortion -
  28. Involves the grouping of organizational functions and job tasks and functions to improve efficiency and effectiveness.
    Division of Work
  29. The purpose of evaluating subordinates is to develop every officer into the best employee he or she can be. An evaluation is a comparison of a subordinate's job performance with clearly defined standards of acceptable job performance.

    A formal evaluation officially rates an officer's performance against preestablished criteria using a range of scores on a standardized form.

    An informal evaluation is a mechanism used by a manager to evaluate and document officer performance on a day-to-day basis. Informal evaluation provides the foundation for disciplining, delegating, controlling, and formally evaluating subordinates.
  30. Also known as management by exception, the exception principle relates to the phrase completed staff work. Work should be performed at the lowest level possible in a police department. Managers should not act on routine matters that can be handled at a lower level. Their time and expertise should be reserved for matters, and exceptions, that can be handled only at their level.
    Exception Principle
  31. A a response to communication that involves some degree of evaluation. In the verbal communication process, feedback is a combination of facial expressions, gestures, and other body language that indicates whether understanding has or has not taken place.
  32. In reference to communication, filtering is the manipulation of information so it is perceived to be positive by the person receiving it.
  33. Questions are broad in scope and cover universally accepted principles and concepts, not a specific department's method of operations.
    Generic Test Questions
  34. A future state or condition that, if achieved, contributes to the fulfillment of an organization's mission.
  35. A formal communication of an employee's perception that a job-related factor is unfair, improper, or inequitable.
  36. A systematic review of departmental procedures, systems, and methods of operation, equipment, and employees' performance in order to improve efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity.
  37. Occurs when a person says one thing but his or her posture, gestures, and voice inflections say something else, creating an image different from the one intended.
    Image Distortion
  38. Are the main duties and responsibilities of an employee.
    Job Dimensions
  39. A systematic process of defining the job dimensions and tasks required to perform a job successfully over a period of time.
    Job Task Analysis
  40. A a systematic body of information that a person possesses as a result of formal education, life experience, and training.
  41. The ability to influence people toward the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. There are many styles of leadership.
  42. Task oriented and stresses rules and regulations. Makes decisions on their own and generally motivate employees through fear rather than inspiration. The style doesn't work well for extended periods of time; however, it is effective in emergency situations where rapid decisions and the control of subordinates is important.
  43. Is allowed by followers, who attribute heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities to managers when they observe certain of their behaviors.
  44. Managers who prefer to direct rather than control employees, and they consult with their subordinates before making decisions.

    They look at people as resources and opportunities rather than as problems, costs, and threats.
    Participative or Democratic
  45. Managers turn over all decision making authority to their subordinates after outlining a task and don't become directly involved again unless requested to do so.
    Free-Rein or Laissez-Faire
  46. Defines several leadership styles adapted by successful managers to meet the various demands of their own unique situations.

    Recognizes that effective leadership style depends on the maturity of the followers.
  47. Proposes that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders and that if those behaviors can be identified, they can provide the basis for selecting the "right" person for a position requiring leadership.
    The behavioral theory of leadership
  48. Proposes that it is the leader's job to assist his or her followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the organization.
    The path-goal theory of leadership
  49. Attempts to identify a set of characteristics that consistently differentiate leaders from followers and effective leaders from ineffective leaders.
    The trait theory of leadership
  50. Describes the work of officers engaged in activities directly related to immediate response to citizens' calls for police service. For example, officers assigned to the patrol division are line officers, while those engaged in the training or records division, which supports the work of the patrol division, are staff officers.
    Line Function
  51. Clearly delineate the responsibility for completion of job tasks- throughout the department and describe those individuals who have the authority to delegate work to lower levels.
    Lines of Authority
  52. The process of setting and achieving organizational goals and objectives.
  53. Augments participation by sharing managerial functions to the fullest extent possible within the framework that obtaining organizational objectives is primary and individual goals are subordinate.
    Adaptive management
  54. In the behavioral school of management, the primary emphasis is on improving management through understanding the psychological makeup of people.
  55. The contingency approach to management is a name for a Situational type of management that recognizes there is no one best way to manage people or work.
  56. Management by exception uses a system of identification and communication that indicates when management attention is needed; otherwise, tasks and decisions are handled at an appropriate level farther down in the organizational hierarchy.

    This approach permits management to find problems that need action and to avoid dealing with those that are better left to subordinates.
  57. The ultimate purpose for which it was created, it identifies precisely what an organization does and for whom.
    Mission Statement
  58. A Latin term meaning "method of operation. “It refers to the methods criminals use to commit crimes.”
    Modus Operandi
  59. Through monitoring, a manager determines whether subordinates are properly carrying out their assignments. Monitoring techniques include reviewing data-analysis reports on subordinate productivity, conducting field inspections, observing responses to calls for service, and checking the condition of beats and areas.
  60. The influencing of one person by another to encourage positive behavior. Managers can motivate their employees by providing for their needs.
  61. An individual's willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals as long as the effort satisfies some individual need.
  62. Most often results from the deliberate indifference by a supervisor or manager in allowing an unfit officer to stay in a police department position.
    Negligent retention
  63. The failure of police department managers and/or supervisors to properly train officers in the fundamental components of their jobs (for example, in the use of deadly physical force).
    Negligent Training
  64. The stages of accomplishment that are to be achieved to gauge the short-term progress of an organization toward its goals.
  65. Exists to accomplish goals that can't be achieved efficiently and effectively by an individual.
  66. A a principle held by an employee who places the interests of an organization higher in importance than personal interests.
    Organizational Integrity
  67. The formal grouping of people and jobs.
    Organizational Structure
  68. A managerial duty, is the process of formally categorizing, structuring, rearranging, and coordinating employees, authority, and communication responsibilities.
  69. The ongoing process of identifying immediate and potential needs, determining the availability of resources, and formulating a course of action likely to achieve organizational objectives.

    Deciding in advance what must be done, who will do it, when they will do it, and what equipment is necessary to accomplish it.
  70. Outline how an organization will reach long-term goals.
    Long-range plans
  71. Plans that assist operating personnel in performing their normal duties, such as engaging in high speed pursuits or responding to a crime in progress.
    Operational plans
  72. Policies are broad-based plans designed to guide personnel in recurring, routine situations and activities.
  73. Guidelines for the day-to-day operational tasks of personnel, units, squads, divisions, and bureaus. Outlines how to process arrests, handle domestic disputes, and issue parking tickets.
    Procedural plans
  74. Plans for dealing with the daily conduct and performance of employees; they are strict and specific.
    Rules and Regulations
  75. Outline procedures for completion of immediate job tasks or those lasting a brief time in order to accomplish organizational goals.
    Short-range plans
  76. Plans for the handling of non routine issues or rarely occurring police emergencies, such as civil disorders, bomb threats, and natural disasters.
    Tactical plans
  77. An acronym that stands for planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting as they relate to the management of an organization.
  78. A document about a job describing its function, tasks associated with its successful completion, and the minimum requirements a candidate must possess to successfully apply for the position.
    Position Description
  79. A working test period, usually one year in length, during which a new employee may be discharged for inadequate performance. No access to a union grievance process is allowed during this period.
    Probationary Period
  80. The exchange of information through records, research, and inspection between a manager and subordinate. It is communicating through records, research, and inspection reports throughout an organization.
  81. The Chief's prerogative to choose among the top three qualified candidates to fill a vacancy in the police department.
    Rule of Three
  82. A proficiency that is acquired through training, experience, and practice.
  83. Refers to the number of people a manager can effectively supervise and control.

    Factors that affect a manager's control include

    The manager's experience and ability;
    The types of tasks that subordinates perform;
    The experience and morale of subordinates;
    The conditions under which job tasks are to be performed, and
    The physical resources available to assist in performing them
    Span of Control

    Staffing encompasses the personnel functions of recruiting, selecting, training, and assigning personnel.
  84. Describes all work in a police department that doesn't deal directly with the public in the field, such as the records and training divisions and fiscal management.
    Staff Function
  85. Specific to a police department's orders, guidelines, procedures, rules, and regulations.
    Procedural Test Questions
  86. Any examination, interview, or information form that eliminates a candidate from a job selection process.
    Test -
  87. A testing process in which candidates participate in a series of systematic, job-related, true-to-life, mock situations while being observed and graded by subject matter experts, and evaluates a candidate for the knowledge, skills, abilities, and personal characteristics necessary for the performance of a job.

    The test is an interview before panel members who evaluate a candidate's intrinsic and behavioral qualities, communication skills, appearance, and organizational integrity.

    A written consists of multiple-choice, true/false, and essay questions designed to measure a candidate's knowledge; reasoning; judgment; memory; common sense; observation skills; and analytical thinking, problem-solving, and writing abilities.
    An assessment center
  88. A test if it consistently and dependably measures the characteristics needed to perform a job properly over a period of time.
    Test Reliability
  89. A test is valid if its questions specifically relate to performing the job for which the test is given.
    Test Validity
  90. According to Douglas McGregor, people who are managers have different assumptions and perceptions of employees and of their own role at work.
    Theory X Management Philosophy

    Managers labeled as Theory X are more concerned about output than the people who work for them, and they think employees dislike work and must be coerced, controlled, and constantly directed. They do not allow input into their decision-making process.
  91. According to Douglas McGregor, people who are managers have different assumptions and perceptions of employees and of their own role at work.
    Theory Y Philosophy

    Managers labeled as Theory Y believe the people who work for them generally like to work, seek responsibility, and will get jobs done if given the chance to do so. They encourage employee participation in management.
  92. Refers to the principle that each person in a police organization should be under the direct supervision or management of only one person.
    Unity of Command
  93. Refers to the liability of a public entity for the wrongful acts or missions of employees acting within the scope of their employment.
    Vicarious Liability
  94. A technique used to keep the mind focused on a specific goal.
  95. A a martial arts philosophy that pursues wisdom through a series of life-long challenges, each of which is at a slightly higher plateau.
    The Way