Chapter 23 Management of Patients with CHest and Lower Respiratory Tract Disorders

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cs77libra
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Chapter 23 Management of Patients with CHest and Lower Respiratory Tract Disorders
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2010-01-31 14:45:21
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NUR 112 Chapter 23
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Chapter 23 Respiratory Disorders
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  1. Atelectasis
    • - Refers to closure or collapse of alveoli and often is described in relation to x-ray findings and clinical signs and symtoms.
    • - May be acute or chronic
    • - Acute atelectasis- most common, occurs frequenty in post-op setting or in immobilized people who have shallow, monotonous breathing patterns.
    • - Observed in patients with chronic airway obstruction that impedes or blocks airflow to area of lung.
  2. Acute lung injury (ALI)
    an umbrella term fro hypoxemic, respiratory failure, ARDS is a severe form of ALI
  3. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
    Nonspecific pulmonary response to a variety of pulmonary and non- pulmonary insults to the lung. characterized by interstitial infiltrates, alveolar hemorrhage, atelectasis, decreased compliance, and refractory hypoxemia.
  4. Abestosis
    diffuse lung fibrosis resulting from exposure to asbestos fibers
  5. Atelectasis
    collapse or airless condition of the alveoli caused by hypoventilation, obstruction to the airways or compression
  6. Central Cyanosis
    bluish discoloration of the skinor mucous membranes due to hemoglobin carrying reduced amounts of oxygen
  7. Consolidation
    lung tissue that has become more solid in nature due to cllapse of alveoli or infectious process (pneumonia)
  8. Cor Pulmonale
    "heart of the lungs", enlargement of the right entricle from hypertrophy or dilation or as a secondary response to disorders that affect the lungs
  9. Empyema
    accumulation of purulent material in the pleural space.
  10. Fine needle aspiration
    insertion of a needle through the chest wall to onbtain cells of a mass or tumor, usualy performed under fluoroscopy or chest CT guidance
  11. Hemoptysis
    coughing up of blood form the lower respiratory tract
  12. Hemothorax
    partial or complete collapse of the lung dur to blood accumulating in the pleural space, may occur after surgery or trauma
  13. Induration
    an abnormally hard lesion or reaction, as in a positive tuberculin skin test
  14. Nosocomial
    pertaining to or originating from a hospitalization, not present at the time of hospital admission
  15. Open Lung Biopsy
    biopsy of lung tissue performed through a limited thoracotomy incision
  16. Orthopnea
    shortness of breath when reclining or in the supine position
  17. Pleural effusion
    abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space
  18. Pleural friction rub
    localized grating or creaking sound caused by rubbing toghther of inflammed parietal and visceral pleurae
  19. Pleural space
    area between the parietal and visceral pleurae, a potential space
  20. Pneumothorax
    parital or complete collapse of the lung due to positive pressure in the pleural space
  21. Pulmonary edema
    increase in the amount of extravascular fluid in the lung
  22. Pulmonary embolism
    obstruction of the pulmonary vasculature with an embolus, embolus may be due to blood clot, air bubbles, or fat droplets
  23. Purulent
    consisting of, containing, or discharging pus
  24. Restrictive lung disease
    disease of the lung that causes a decrease in lung volumes
  25. Tension pneumothorax
    pneumothorax characterized by increasing positive pressure in the pleural space with each breath, this is an emergency situation and the positive pressure needs to be decompressed or released immediately.
  26. Thoracentesis
    insertion of a needle into the pleural space to remove fluid that has accumulated and decrease pressure on the lung tissue, may also be used diagnostically to identify potential causes of a pleurla effusion
  27. Transbronchial
    through the bronchial wall, as in transbronchial lung biopsy
  28. Ventilation-perfusion ratio
    the ratio between ventilation and perfusion in the lung, matching of ventilation to perfusion optimizes gas exchange

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