The MItotic Division of an Animal Cell

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The MItotic Division of an Animal Cell
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2010-12-31 15:14:29
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AP Biology
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  1. A nuclear envelope bounds the nucleus
    The nucleus contains one or more nucleoli
    G2 of Interphase
  2. Two centrosomes have formed by replication of a single centrosome
    In animal cells, each centrosome features two centrioles
    G2 of Interphase
  3. Chromosomes, duplicated during S phase, cannot be seen individually because they have not yet condensed
    G2 of interphase
  4. The chromatin fibers become more tightly coiled, condensing into discrete chromosomes observable with a light microscope.
    phrophase
  5. the nucleoli disappear
    prophase
  6. Each duplicated chromosome appears as two identical sister chromatids joined together at their centromeres and all along their arms by cohesins (sister chromatid cohesion)
    prophase
  7. The mititic spindle begins to form. It is composed of the centrosomes and the microtubules that extend from them. The radial arrays of shorter microtubules that extend from the centrosomes are called asters ("starts")
    prophase
  8. the centrosomes move away from each other, apparently propelled by the lengthening microtubules between them
    prophase
  9. the nuclear envelope fragments
    prometaphse
  10. the microtubules extending from each centrosome can now invade the nuclear area
    prometaphsae
  11. the chromosomes have become even more condensed
    prometaphase
  12. each of the two chromatids of each chromosome now has a kinetochore, a specialized protein structure located at the centromere
    prometaphase
  13. some of the microtubules attach to the kinetochores, becoming "kinetochore microtubules"; these jerk the chromosomes back and forth
    prometaphse
  14. Nonkinetochore microtubules inateract with those from the opposite pole of the spindle
    prometaphase
  15. Longest stage of mitosis, often lasting about twenty minutes
    metaphase
  16. the centrosomes are now at opposite poles of the cell
    metaphase
  17. the chromosomes convene on the metaphase plate, an imaginary plane that is equidistant between the spindle's two poles. The chromosomes' centromeres lie on the metaphase plate
    metaphase
  18. for each chromosome, the kinetochores of the sister chromatids are attached to kinetochore microtubules coming from opposite poles
    metaphase
  19. the shortest stage of mitosis, often lasting only a few minutes
    anaphase
  20. begins when the cohesin proteins are cleaved. This allows the two sister chromatids of each pair to part suddenly. Each chromatid thus becomes a full-fledged chromosome
    anaphase
  21. the two liberated daughter chromsomes begin moving twoard opposeite ends of the cell as their kinetochore microtubules shorten. Because these microtubules are attached at the centromere region, the chromosomes move centromere first
    anaphase
  22. the cell elongates as the nonkinetochore microtubules lengthen
    anaphase
  23. by the end of anaphase, the two ends of the cell have equivalent-and complete- collections of chromosomes
    anaphase
  24. two daughter nuclei form in the cell
    telophase
  25. nuclear envelopes arise from the fragments of the parent cell's nuclear envelope and other portions of the endomembrane system
    telophase
  26. nucleoli reappear
    telophase
  27. the chromosomes become less condesnsed
    telophase
  28. Mitosis, the division of one nucleus into two genetically identical nuclei, is now complete
    telophase
  29. the division of teh cytoplsam is usually well under way by late teloophase, so the two daughter cells appear shortly after the end of mitosis
    cytokinesis
  30. in anima cells, it involves the formation of a cleavage furrow, which pinches the cell in two
    cytokinesis

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