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Define anatomy and physiology.
Anatomy is the study of the body's parts or the body's structure.
Physiology is the study of how the body functions.
Structure determines function/Function determines structure.
Describe the 6 levels of structural organization within the body
Level 1: Chemical. We are chemical machines with millions of chemical reactions. The body is composed of atoms bonded in various formations creating molecules and compounds.
Level 2: Cellular. Cells are made of many types of molecules. Cells are like tiny motors that keep us running. Metabolic reactions convert nutrients to cell energy called ATP.
- Level 3: Tissue. Tissues are made up of cells working together to perform the same function. The four classes are:
- - connective (cartilage, bone, tendon, blood)
- - epithelial (digestive, skin)
- - muscle
- - nerve
Level 4: Organs. An organ performs a specialized physiological function.
Level 5: Systems. An organ system is a group of specialized organs working together to acheive a specific function.
Level 6: Organism. All the systems combined make of the organism (human). The organism continuously fine tunes itself to restore balance (homeostasis). Anything that stresses the body creates a need for adaptation, meaning the cells are not working optimally at that level.
Define pH and describe the scale used for pH
pH stands for Power of Hydrogen. It represents the acidity or alkalinity of a substance. The more hydrogen (H+) the more acidic, the more hydroxide (OH-) the more alkaline. A balance is neutral. The scale runs from 0-14, with 0 as pure acide and 14 as pure alkalinity.
The pH scale represents exponential differences. Each unit represents a tenfold difference in concentration.
Example: 10-8=2 10x10=100 A pH of 10 is 100 times more alkaline than a pH of 8.
Describe the anatomical position
- Standing face forward
- Look forward
- Arms hanging by sides
- Palms facing forward
Define and apply the direction terms for anatomy
- Superior: toward head or top
- Inferior: away from or below head
- Proximal: nearer attachment to the body
- Distal: further from attachment to body or trunk
- Medial: toward middle
- Lateral: toward the side
- Anterior: toward the front
- Posterior: toward the back
- Superficial: toward the surface of the body
- Deep: away from the surface
- Bilateral: relating to or having two sides
- Unilateral: occuring on only one side
- Ipsilateral: on the same side of the body
- Contralateral: of the opposite side of the body
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