micro 101 (MJC)

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micro 101 (MJC)
2010-01-31 21:03:18
Chapter 9

Introduction to Taxonomy: The bacteria
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  1. Strain
    A subgroup of species with one or more characteristics that distinguish it from other subgroups of that species.
  2. Taxonomy
    Science classification by orderly basis for naming of organisms.
  3. Taxon
    A catagory used in classification, such as species, genus, order, & family.
  4. Binomial nomenclature
    • The system of taxonomy developed by Linneaus with each organism is assigned a genus and specific epithet.
    • 1. 1st. name of genus or genera (pl) is capitalized
    • 2. 2nd. name of specific epithet, NOT CAPITALIZED, two name combined is the species.
    • example; Escherichia coli or Escherichia coli or E.coli
  5. Define Dichotomous key
    Taxonomic key used to identify organisms: composed of paired (either-or) statements describing characteristics.
  6. Explain dichotomous key
    • 1. Always start w/question #1.
    • 2. Decide which option best fits your unkown.
    • 3. Proceed to next comparison as directed
  7. Who is Carolus Linnaues
    • "Father of Taxonomy".
    • developed binomial (nomenclature).
    • naming system for all living organizms
  8. Name the five-kingdom system of classification.
    • Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
    • "Do kings play chest on fine grain of sand"
  9. Name the 5 kingdom w/major characteristics (1/5)
    • Monera.
    • Prokaryotic & unicellular.
    • Cell walls.
    • Binary fission.
    • Includes; eubacteria, cyanobacteria, archaeobacteria.
    • ***BROKEN UP BY 3 DOMAINS***
  10. Name the 5 kingdom w/major characteristics (2/5)
    • Protista
    • Eukaryotic, mostly unicellular.
    • Do not have an embryonic stage of development
  11. Name the 5 kingdom w/major characteristics (3/5)
    • Fungi.
    • Eukaryotic, mostly multicellular.
    • Cell walls.
    • Nutrition by absorption of dead organic matter.
    • Spore-forming
  12. Name the 5 kingdom w/major characteristics (4/5)
    • Plantae.
    • No microscopic organisms.
    • Importance to microbiology.
    • Chemical used in tx of infection.
    • Plant-microbe interaction (Positive & Negative)
  13. Name the 5 kingdom w/major characteristics (5/5)
    • Animalia.
    • Eukaryotic, multicellular.
    • No cell wall.
    • Reproduce by sexual reproduction.
    • Ingest nutrients
  14. Define the Three Domain System
    • Archaea (prokaryotes).
    • Bacteria (prokaryotes).
    • Eukarya (eukaryotes)
  15. Define Archeae its main groups
    • Prokayotic.
    • ancient origin.
    • protein walls, no peptidoglycan.
    • lives in extreme enivornments.
    • 3 main groups are:
    • Methanogenus; produce methane in absence of O2.
    • Halophile; live in high salt environments.
    • Thermophiles; live in Springs, submarine vents
  16. Define Bacteria from the three domain system
    • Prokaryotes.
    • 1. morphology; staining characteristics & growth.
    • 2. bio chemical test for ID of bacteria.
    • 3. DNA comparisms
  17. Define Eukarya from the three domain system
    • w/a nucleus.
    • plants, animals,& people
  18. Explain the tree of life vs. the shrub of life.
    • "strub of life" diagram better represents our current understanding of the early evolution of life.There are many roots, rather than a single ancestral line.
    • "Tree of life" is plain wrong for the being of increasing numbers giving rise to a linear, and is eeen as oversimplified.
  19. How do we classify bacteria?
    • Morphology, staining, characteristics, and growth characteristics.
    • Biochemical.
    • DNA comparsions.
    • other analyses
  20. How do we use genetic homology?
    • Methods of ID genetic homology: DNA/RNA sequencing and DNA hybridization.
    • Protein Profile: page
  21. Define phage typing
    Use of bacteriophages to determine similarities/differences among different bacteria.
  22. Who was David Bergey and what was his major contribution to the field of microbiology?
    • He developed a manuel that classified all bacteria by staining rxn & biochemical.
    • reference source for bacterial taxonomy
  23. How are viruses classified?
    • viruses do not belong to any kingdom.
    • Type & arrangement of nucleic acid material.
    • Symmetry of their protein coat.
    • Presence of absence of out membrane