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A subgroup of species with one or more characteristics that distinguish it from other subgroups of that species.
Science classification by orderly basis for naming of organisms.
A catagory used in classification, such as species, genus, order, & family.
- The system of taxonomy developed by Linneaus with each organism is assigned a genus and specific epithet.
- 1. 1st. name of genus or genera (pl) is capitalized
- 2. 2nd. name of specific epithet, NOT CAPITALIZED, two name combined is the species.
- example; Escherichia coli or Escherichia coli or E.coli
Define Dichotomous key
Taxonomic key used to identify organisms: composed of paired (either-or) statements describing characteristics.
Explain dichotomous key
- 1. Always start w/question #1.
- 2. Decide which option best fits your unkown.
- 3. Proceed to next comparison as directed
Who is Carolus Linnaues
- "Father of Taxonomy".
- developed binomial (nomenclature).
- naming system for all living organizms
Name the five-kingdom system of classification.
- Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
- "Do kings play chest on fine grain of sand"
Name the 5 kingdom w/major characteristics (1/5)
- Prokaryotic & unicellular.
- Cell walls.
- Binary fission.
- Includes; eubacteria, cyanobacteria, archaeobacteria.
- ***BROKEN UP BY 3 DOMAINS***
Name the 5 kingdom w/major characteristics (2/5)
- Eukaryotic, mostly unicellular.
- Do not have an embryonic stage of development
Name the 5 kingdom w/major characteristics (3/5)
- Eukaryotic, mostly multicellular.
- Cell walls.
- Nutrition by absorption of dead organic matter.
Name the 5 kingdom w/major characteristics (4/5)
- No microscopic organisms.
- Importance to microbiology.
- Chemical used in tx of infection.
- Plant-microbe interaction (Positive & Negative)
Name the 5 kingdom w/major characteristics (5/5)
- Eukaryotic, multicellular.
- No cell wall.
- Reproduce by sexual reproduction.
- Ingest nutrients
Define the Three Domain System
- Archaea (prokaryotes).
- Bacteria (prokaryotes).
- Eukarya (eukaryotes)
Define Archeae its main groups
- ancient origin.
- protein walls, no peptidoglycan.
- lives in extreme enivornments.
- 3 main groups are:
- Methanogenus; produce methane in absence of O2.
- Halophile; live in high salt environments.
- Thermophiles; live in Springs, submarine vents
Define Bacteria from the three domain system
- 1. morphology; staining characteristics & growth.
- 2. bio chemical test for ID of bacteria.
- 3. DNA comparisms
Define Eukarya from the three domain system
- w/a nucleus.
- plants, animals,& people
Explain the tree of life vs. the shrub of life.
- "strub of life" diagram better represents our current understanding of the early evolution of life.There are many roots, rather than a single ancestral line.
- "Tree of life" is plain wrong for the being of increasing numbers giving rise to a linear, and is eeen as oversimplified.
How do we classify bacteria?
- Morphology, staining, characteristics, and growth characteristics.
- DNA comparsions.
- other analyses
How do we use genetic homology?
- Methods of ID genetic homology: DNA/RNA sequencing and DNA hybridization.
- Protein Profile: page
Define phage typing
Use of bacteriophages to determine similarities/differences among different bacteria.
Who was David Bergey and what was his major contribution to the field of microbiology?
- He developed a manuel that classified all bacteria by staining rxn & biochemical.
- reference source for bacterial taxonomy
How are viruses classified?
- viruses do not belong to any kingdom.
- Type & arrangement of nucleic acid material.
- Symmetry of their protein coat.
- Presence of absence of out membrane