Chapter 8 pt.2

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Livinchillinlove
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57639
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Chapter 8 pt.2
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2011-01-01 13:27:34
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MedTERM
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Medical Terminology Nervous System
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  1. cerebrospinal fluid
    CSF
    plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
  2. spinal cord
    column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae; responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
  3. meninges
    three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid mater
  4. peripheral nervous system
    nerves that branch from the central nervous system including nerves of the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
  5. cranial nerves
    12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
  6. spinal nerves
    31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
  7. sensory nerves
    nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain; also called afferent nerves
  8. motor nerves
    nerves taht conduct motor impulses from the brain to muscles and glands; also called efferent nerves
  9. autonomic nervous system
    ANS
    nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands
  10. hypothalamus
    control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus
  11. sympathetic nervous system
    division of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned primarily within preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
  12. parasympathetic nervous system
    division of the autonomic nervous system that is most active in ordinary conditions; it counterbalances the effects of sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience
  13. aphasia
    dysphasia
    impairment because of localized brain injury that affects the understanding, retrieving, and formulating of meaningful and sequential elements of language, as demonstrated by an inability to use or comprehend words; occurs as a result of a stroke, head trauma, or disease
  14. coma
    a general term referring to levels of decreased consciousness with varying responsiveness; a common method of assessment in the Glasgow Coma Scale
  15. delirium
    a state of mental confusion caused by disturbances in cerebral function; the many causes include fever, shock, and drug overdose
  16. dementia
    an impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion
  17. motor deficit
    loss or impairment of muscle function
  18. sensory deficit
    loss or impairment of sensation
  19. neuralgia
    pain along the course of a nerve
  20. paralysis
    temporary or permanent loss of motor control
  21. flaccid paralysis
    defective (flabby) or absent muscle control caused by a nerve lesion
  22. spastic paralysis
    stiff and awkward muscle control cause by a central nervous system disorder
  23. hemiparesis
    partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body
  24. sciatica
    pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve, caused by compression or trauma of the nerve or its roots
  25. seizure
    sudden, transient disturbances in brain function resulting from an abnormal firing of nerve impulses; may or may not be associated with convulsion
  26. convulsion
    to pull together; type of seizure that causes a series of sudden, involuntary contractions of muscles
  27. syncope
    fainting
  28. tactile simulation
    evoking a response by touching
  29. hyperesthesia
    increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain
  30. paresthesia
    abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective cause
  31. agnosia
    any of many types of loss of neurologic function involving interpretation of sensory information
  32. astereognosis
    inability to judge the form of an object by touch
  33. atopognosis
    inability to locate a sensation properly, such as an inability to locate a point touched on the body
  34. Alzheimer disease
    disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
  35. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    ALS
    condition of progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in total loss of voluntary muscle control; symptoms advance from muscle weakness in the arms and legs, to the muscles of speech, swallowing, and breathing, to total paralysis and death; also known as Lou Gehrig disease
  36. cerebral palsy
    CP
    condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth; characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordination
  37. cerebrovascular disease
    disorder resulting from ac change within one or more blood vessels of the brain
  38. cerebral arteriosclerosis
    hardening of the arteries of the brain
  39. cerebral atherosclerosis
    condition of lipid buildup within the blood vessels of the brain
  40. cerebral aneurysm
    dilation of a blood vessel in the brain
  41. cerebral thrombosis
    presence of a stationary clot in a blood vessel
  42. cerebral embolism
    obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by an embolus transported through the circulation
  43. cerebrovascular accident
    CVA
    stroke
    damage to the brain caused by cerebrovasculary disease, such as occlusion of a blood vessel by a thrombus or embolus (ischemic stroke) or intracranial hemorrhage after rupture of an aneurysm (hemorrhagic stroke)
  44. transient ischemic attack
    TIA
    brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain usually caused by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurologic deficit (impairment); often precedes a CVA
  45. encephalitis
    inflammation of the brain
  46. epilepsy
    disorder affecting the central nervous system; characterized by recurrent seizures
  47. tonic-clonic seizure
    stiffening- jerking; a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups; previously termed grand mal (big bad) seizure
  48. absence seizure
    seizure involving a brief loss of consciousness without motor involvement; previously termed petit mal (little bad) seizure
  49. partial seizure
    seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms
  50. glioma
    tumor of glial cells graded according to degree off malignancy

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