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Project delivery system; is the comprehensive process by which a building is designed and constructed, including;
- • Definitions of scope and requirements of a project
- • Procedures, actions and sequences of events
- • Contractual requirements, obligations and responsibilities of the parties.
- • interrelationships among the participants
- • Mechanisms for managing time, cost, safety and quality
- • Forms of agreement and documentation of activity.
- • Closeout of the project and startup of the new facility.
Criteria for determining the best project delivery system for a proposed building:
- • Time available for the entire project, including design and construction.
- • Overall scope and complexity of project.
- • Possibility of phased or (fast Track) Construction.
- • Strength of the owner’s staff in regard to administration of a project.
- • Availability of qualified contractor, subcontractor, suppliers and tradespersons.
- • Legal requirements, particularly in construction of Public buildings.
- • Financial strength of owner.
- • Budget and cash flow capabilities of owner.
- • Design expectations of owner.
- • Owner’s desire for integration of the design and construction processes, including preconstruction services by contractor.
- • Special needs of users.
- • Special employment preference program requirement by owner.
- • Desired risk distribution.
Traditional Approach (Design-Bid-Build)
- Advantages (owners viewpoint)
- • Simplified contract
- • Overall cost determined prior to construction award.
- • Less owner involvement (not always good)
- • Competitive process
- • More risk passed on to contractor.
- Disadvantages (owners point)
- • Design completed without contractor input.
- • Design construction time does not overlap.
- • Adversarial position with contractor.
- • Change orders difficult to resolve.
- • Process assumes drawings depict most cost effective design.
- • Less control by owner over control of work.
- • Process encourages the use of marginal subcontractors (i.e cheap)
- • Costs not confirmed until after the design process is completed.
Difference between CM and General Contractor:
- CM GM
- Hired on basis of Fee/Credentials Hired by Lump Sum Bid Process
- Preconstruction Services Usually no Preconstruction services
- Conceptual Estimate Safety
- Value Engineering/Constructability Reviews Construction
- Bid Packaging Warranty
- Coordinate owners Team Risk for quality, Cost & Schedule
- Interface with Agencies
- Cash Flow Studies
- Overview GM
- Advise Owner on claims/Change Orders
- Advantages (owners)
- • Overlap of design and construction phases shortens overall project schedule.
- • Reduces adversarial relationship with contractor.
- • Contractor’s expertise brought in during the design phase.
- • Owner usually participates in savings.
- • Better prequalification of subs.
- • Greater control by owner during all phases of construction.
- Disadvantages (owner)
- • Unrepeatable contractors can abuse arrangements.
- • GMP if set too early can cause numerous changes as the design finalizes.
- • More owner skill (involvement) is required.
- • Contract more difficult to administer.
- Advantages (owners)
- • One Contract eliminates finger pointing between design and construction teams.
- • Minimal owner coordination.
- • Delivery time shortest of all methods.
- • Opportunity for construction involvement during design phase.
- • Change orders are simplified.
- • Early establishment of GMP.
- Disadvantages (owner)
- • Owner must identify clearly the intended scope and quality expectations.
- • Selection of team might be hard, based on qualifications cost or combination?
- • If selection by cost, design/build team has to invest effort to determine cost.
Role Program manager
- • Pre-design
- ex: feasibility studies, finance, program, schedule, plan
- • Design
- ex: schematic design, design development, construction documents.
- • Construction
- ex: project control, cost reports, change order modification, safety.
- • Post-Construction:
- ex: Commissioning, Move in, Start up, Operation, Maintenance, Insurance
Six Steps of scheduling process:
- • Identify Project activities.
- • Estimate activity durations
- • Develop the project plan
- • Schedule project activities
- • Review and analyze the schedule
- • Implement the schedule.
- -identify activities
- -estimate duration
- -activity sequence
- - constructs bar chart.
- Advantages: Simple, Good Communications Tool
- Disadvantages: No interrelationships, hard to determine impacts of delay.
CPM: resources can change critical path, activities are linked and logical.
Resources schedule: a schedule that is affected by resources availability.
- Factors affecting productivity:
- • Seasonal conditions
- • Skills
- • Quality of work
- • Material and equipment availability.
- Logistics: Planning and establishment of the strategy to deal with the
- 1. Procurement
- 2. Maintenance
- 3. Transportation
- 4. Handling of material
- 5. Facilities
- 6. Personal
- Logistics plan Process
- • Investigate
- • Establish the plan
- • Communicate the plan
- • Implement follow up and control.
Benefits of a good project plan:
- • Cost/time impact reflected in schedule and estimate.
- • Subcontractors know what is expected from them.
- • Eliminate surprises.
- • Identify concerns and risks.
- • Smooth running project.
Areas to investigate during the planning process:
- • Adjacent properties
- • Existing roads, streets, utilities, features
- • Environmental concerns.
- • Soil types and ground water level.
- • Safety concerns.
- • Proposed building size, height. Coding.
- • Climate concerns.
- • Historical investigation.
Why is quality difficult to achieve in the construction process:
- • Uniqueness
- • Changing teams
- • Environment uncontrollable
- • Cost restrictions.
Quality control pre-construction:
- • Establish Partnering:
- -Create team environment
- -Establish common goals.
- -Methodology to solve ponflict.
- -Avoid litigation.
- • Perform Constructability reviews:
- -Repetitive items
- -building phasing.
• Establish comparative building standards.
• Estimate must confirm established quality levels.
Quality assurance during construction:
- • Purchasing
- • Submittals
- • Mock-ups
- • Inspection and testing
- • Field work
Reasons for construction Claims:
1. Delays: weather, documents, owner, force majeure, accidents.
2. Cost overruns: Changes, Drawing “scope creep”, unanticipated events, Hidden/unknown conditions, poor contractor estimates.
3. Performance: Owner, Architect “Errors and omissions”, contractor, subcontractor.
4. Varying Conditions: Site, Environmental, Code Issues, Phasing.