Card Set Information
Psychology ch 2
set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are related to on another
what are the advantages and disadvantages of hindsight
disadvantage-many explanations unable to know what ones are correct
Law of parisimony
If two theories can explained predicted equally well, the simpler is preferred.
factor that can vary
defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it.
social desirability bias
tendency to respond in a cocially acceptable manner tather than according to how one truly feels or behaves.
darley and latanes experiment
bystander emergency experiment
how did latane's and darley test their hypothesis?
Record whether and how quickly college students helped a seizure victim
record behavior while participants are unawared.
records that already exist
how can psychologists measure behavior
self-reports, reports from others who know participants, unobtrusive measures, archival data, psychological tests, physiological measures.
What is thinking scientifically?
steps in scientific process
info. gathering, forming hypothesis
analyze, conclusions, report findings
build a body of knowledge
prediction about a phenomenon
describes how humans and animals behave in natural settings
gathers info about behavior in real-life settings
anaylysis of a person, group or event
measures the relation between naturally occurring variables. positive correlations 1st and 2nd variables have high scores. negative correlations have opposite variable scores.
manipulated variable, viewed as cause
measured, viewed as effect
change in behavior from expectation, not because of the treatment
independant variable becomes mixed up with an uncontrolled variable
degree to which an experiment supports clear causal conclusions
experimenter expectancy effects
unintentional ways researchers influence participants response
prevents placebo effects and experimenter expectancy
replicating study under other circumstances
summarize the characteristics of a set of data
measures of central tendancy
whats the most typical score
score in the middle
average of scores
difference between highest and lowest scores
determines whether findings will occur again
unlikely that findings occured by chance
combine different studies that examine same topic