The Mitotic Division of an Animal Cell

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DesLee26
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The Mitotic Division of an Animal Cell
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2011-01-01 22:02:13
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AP Bio
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  1. a nuclear envelope bounds the nucleus
    the nucleus contains one or more nucleoli
    G2 of Interphase
  2. two centrosomes have formed by relpication of a single centrosome
    G2 of interphase
  3. in animal cells, each centrosome features two centrioles
    G2 of interphase
  4. chromosomes, duplicated during S phase, cannot be seen individually beacuse they have not yet condensed
    G2 of interphase
  5. the chromatin fibers become more tightly coled, condensing into discrete chromosomes observable with a light microscope
    prophase
  6. the nucleoli disappear
    prophase
  7. each duplicated chromosome appears as two identical sister chromatids joined together at their centromeres and all along their arms by cohesins (sister chromatid cohesion)
    prophase
  8. the mitotic spindle begins to form. it is composed of the centrosomes and the microtubules that extend from them. the radial arrays of shorter microtubules that extend from the centrosomes are called asters
    prophase
  9. the centrosomes move away from each other, apparently propelled by the lengthening microtubules between them
    prophas
  10. the nuclear envelope fragments
    prometaphase
  11. the microtubuels extending from each centrosome can now invade the nuclear area
    prometaphase
  12. the chromosomes have become even more condesnsed
    prometaphase
  13. each of the two chromatids of each chromosome now has a kinetochore, a specialized structure located at the centromere
    prometaphase
  14. some of the microtubules attach to the kinetochores, becoming "kinetochore microtubules"; these jerk the chromosomes back and forth
    prometaphase
  15. nonkinetochore microtubules interact with those from the opposite pole of the spindle
    prometaphase
  16. longest stage of mitosis, often lasting about 20 minutes
    metaphase
  17. the centrosomes are now at opposite poles of the cell
    metaphase
  18. the chromosomes convene on the metaphase plate, an imaginary plane that is equidistant between the spindle's two poles. the chromosomes' centromeres lie on the metaphase plate
    metaphase
  19. for each chromosome, the kinetochores of the sister chromatids are attached to kinetochore microtubules coming from opposite poles
    metaphase
  20. shortest stage of mitosis, often lasting only a few minutes
    anaphase
  21. begins when the cohesin proteins are cleaved; allows the two sister chromatids of each pair to part suddenl; each chromatid thus becomes a full-fledged chromosome
    anapahse
  22. the two liberated daughter chromosomes begin moving twoard opposite ends of the cells as their kinetochore microtubules shorten. Because these microtubues are attached at the centromere region, the chromosomes move centromere first
    anaphase
  23. the cell elongates as the nonkinetochore microtubules lengthen
    anaphase
  24. by the end of anaphase. the two ends of the cell have equivalent- and complete- collections of chromosomes
    anaphase
  25. two daughter nuclei form in the cell
    telophase
  26. nuclear envelopes arise from the fragments of the parent cell's nuclear envelope and other portions of the endomembrane system
    telophsae
  27. nucleoli reappear
    telophase
  28. the chromosomes become less condesnsed
    telophase
  29. mitosis, the division of one nucleus into two genetically identical nuclei is now complete
    telophase
  30. the division of the cytoplasm is usually well under way by late telophse, so the two daughter cells appear shortly after the end of mitosis
    telophase
  31. in animal cells, this involves the formation of a cleavage furrow, which pinches the cell in two
    cytokinesis

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