# music theory 2

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1. what do melodies consist of
successions of pitches that usually vary in length
2. define rest
a duration of silence in a piece of music
3. define rythem
the duration and accents of musical sounds
4. how many quarter notes are in one whole note
4
5. how many half notes are in one whole note
2
6. how many eighth notes are in one whole note
8
7. how many sixteenth notes are in one whole note
16
8. how many quarter notes are in a half note
2
9. how many eighth notes are in a half note
4
10. how many 16th notes are in a half note
8
11. how many eighth notes are in a quarter note
2
12. how many 16th notes are in a quarter note
4
13. define : tie
a curved line connecting two notes of the same pitch to combine the duration
14. if one dot is on a note what value does the dot add
a dot on a note adds half the value of the note to the note eg a dotted half note in 4/4 time recieves 3 beats
15. if two dots are on a note what value does the note have
the first dot adds half the value of the note and the second dot adds half the value that the first dot added eg a doubble dotted half note in 4/4 time recieves 3.5 beats
16. define beat
the durational unit in music
17. define tempo
the speed of the beat
18. define accent
the stress or emphasas placed on certin notes
19. define tonal accent
a note is stressed because it is noticeably higher than the pitches around it
20. define agogic accent
a note is stressed because it is longer than the surronding pitches
21. define dynamic accent
a note is stressed because it is played more forcefully than the surronding notes
22. define meter
a regular pattern of accents
23. define measure
one complete cycle of accents
24. how are measures seperated from each other
bar lines
25. define anacrusis
a weak beat beginning of a measure
26. define time/meter signature
the way of knowing how many beats in a bar and what note gets what beat
27. define simple meter
• where the number of beats in a measure is divisible into two parts eg 2/4 3/8 4/2 in 2/4 ^= 1 quarter note
• eg 2/4 one measure is /^^/ since the simplest way to divide it is in2 parts it is in simple meter
28. define compound meter
a meter in which the number of beats in a measure is divisible by a factor of three of the one beat value eg 9/4 a quarter note gets one beat ^= 1 quarter note @= a dotted half note one measure would be as follows /^^^^^^^^/ or /@@@/ the simplest way of wrighting it divides it into 3rds
29. define asymmetric meter
the number of beats in a measure is not in a multiple of two or three 5/4
30. define borrowed division
when a piece in simple meter has a three part division of notes eg triplets in 4/4
31. define syncopation
• the shift in accents to a normlly unaccented beat
• eg in 3/4 meter an accent is usually on the 1st beat if it is on either of the other too the measure is syncopated also if the + beat of the 1st beat it is syncopated
32. define cross rythem
two or more conflicting rythems being played at the same time usually because of borrowed division eg eighth notes and triplets being played together
33. define hemiola
a rythemic relationship based on a 3:2 ratio usually occurs when three notes of the same value are played where two notes of the same value normally are eg in 6/4 (3= dotted half note , 2 = half note , 4= quarter note, 8= eighth note) /33/222/ the second bar is hemiola this can be done with alternating rythmic patters also in 3/4 time (the two quarters are tied) /21/18888/
34. in what meter do you not use double dotted notes
complex meter also double dots are rare in any piece of music
35. when can you add a dot to a note
on any note so long as the note does not exceed the length of a measure or obsucure the beat for too long eg if you have 4/4 time and /554/ the beat does not fall on too many notes consiter rewrighting it as this /58-44/ this lets you see the beat on a note instead of in the middle of one
36. when should a beam for a note smaller than a quarter note be broken
when the beats are obscured in a measure because they are all on the same beam eg on p 34
37. do beams for eighth notes or smaller usually expand through beats
usually in 4/4 beams do not span between the second and third beats in triple meters (like 3/4) either the 2nd and 3rd or 1st and 2nd can be beamed together eg on p 34
38. should notes in a beat be connected by beams
all notes whithin a beat that can be connected by a beam should be
39. After what number of notes are beams usually broken
usually after 6 notes beams are broken unless the notes are in one beat
40. Can rests be tied
rests are never tied
41. what is a whole rest indicate
one complete bar of silance regardless of time signature
42. define: dynamic
markings that indicate relative levals of volume know that dynamics are relative to the music and size of ensamble and instrument
43. define: ppp
pianississimo or extreamly soft
44. define: pp
pianissimo or very soft
45. define: p
piano or soft
46. define: mp
mezzo piano or moderately soft
47. define: mf
mezzo forte or moderately loud
48. define: f
forte or loud
49. define: ff
fortissimo or very loud
50. define: fff
extreamly loud
51. define: crescendo
gradually growing louder usually notated with
52. define: diminuendo
gradually growing softer usally notated with >
53. define: legato
a smooth connected style which one tone leads to another with litte or no break in sound and without strong attacks
54. define: staccatto
ashort detatched style in which a break occurs between pitches notated by dots placed over or under notes
55. define: accent
a forcefull attack with immediate loweing of volume
56. define: marcato
an accent and staccatto combined a seperated note that has a forcefull attack
57. if the book is reddaly available go to page 44 and do the excerises part a
58. if the book is easialy available go to page 45 and do part b
59. if the the book is easialy available go to page 46 and do part c
 Author: dragonbring ID: 57792 Card Set: music theory 2 Updated: 2011-01-02 22:27:13 Tags: music theory Folders: Description: music Show Answers: