Chapter 8 pt.4

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Chapter 8 pt.4
2011-01-02 19:18:16

medical terminology nervous system
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  1. stereotactic/stereotaxic radiosurgery
    radiation treatment to inactive malignant lesions using multiple, precise external radiation beams focused on a target with the aid of a stereotactic frame and imaging such as CT, MRI, or angiography; used to treat inoperable brain tumors and other lesions
  2. stereotactic/stereotaxic frame
    mechanical device used to localize a point in space, targeting a precise site
  3. analgesic
    agent that relieves pain
  4. anticonvulsant
    agent that prevents or lessens convulsions
  5. hypnotic
    agent that induces sleep
  6. affect
    emotional feeling or mood
  7. flat affect
    significantly dulled emotional tone or outward reaction
  8. apathy
    a lack of interest or display of emotion
  9. catatonia
    a state of unresponsiveness to one's outside environment, usually including muscle rigidity, staring, and inability to communicate
  10. delusion
    a persistent belief that has no basis in reality
  11. grandoise delusion
    a person's false belief that he or she possesses great wealth, intelligence, or power
  12. persecutory delusion
    a person's false belief that someone is plotting against him or her with the intent to harm
  13. dysphoria
    a restless, dissatisfied mood
  14. euphoria
    an exaggerated, unfounded feeling of well-being
  15. hallucination
    a false perception of the senses for which there is no reality; most commonly hearing or seeing things
  16. ideation
    the formation of thoughts or ideas, such as suicidal ideation
  17. mania
    state of abnormal elation and increased activity
  18. neurosis
    a psychologic condition in which anxiety is prominent
  19. psychosis
    a mental condition characterized by distortion of reality resulting in the inability to communicate or function within one's environment
  20. thought disorder
    thought that lacks clear processing or logical direction
  21. major depression
    major depressive illness
    clinical depression
    major affective disorder
    unipolar disorder
    a disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentration, sleep, activity, appetite, and social behavior; characterized by feelings of worthlessness, fatigue, and loss of interest
  22. dysthymia
    a milder affective disorder characterized by chronic depression
  23. seasonal affective disorder
    an affective disorder marked by episodes of depression that most often occur during the fall and winter and that remit in the spring
  24. manic depression
    bipolar disorder (BD)
    an affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression
  25. generalized anxiety disorder
    the most common anxiety disorder; characterized by chronic, excessive, uncontrollable worry about everyday problems; affects the ability to relax or concentrate, but does not usually interfere with social interactions or employment; physical symptoms include muscle tension, trembling, twitching, fatigue, headaches, nausea, and insomnia
  26. panic disorder
    a disorder of sudden, recurrent attacks of intense feelings, including physical symptoms that mimic a heart attack with a general sense of loss of control or feeling that death is imminent; often progresses to agoraphobia
  27. phobia
    exaggerated fear of a specific object or circumstance that causes anxiety and panic; named for the object or circumstance
  28. posttraumatic stress disorder
    a condition resulting from an extremely traumatic experience, injury, or illness that leaves the sufferer with persistent thoughts and memories of the ordeal; symptoms include feelings of fear, detachment, exaggerated startle response, restlessness, nightmares, and avoidance of anything or anyone who triggers the painful recollections
  29. obsessive-compulsive disorder
    an anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsions; can interfere with all aspects of a person's daily life
  30. hyphochondriasis
    a preoccupation with thoughts of disease and concern that one is suffering form a serious condition that persists despite medical reassurance to the contrary
  31. autism
    a development disability, commonly appearing during the first three years of life, resulting from a neurologic disorder affecting brain function, as evidenced by difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication and an inability to relate to anything beyond oneself in social interactions; persons with autism often exhibit body movements such as rocking and repetitive hand movements; persons commonly become preoccupied with observing parts of small objects or moving parts with performing meaningless rituals
  32. dyslexia
    a developmental disability characterized by difficulty understanding written or spoken words, sentences, or paragraphs that affects reading, spelling, and self-expression
  33. attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder
    a dysfunction characterized by consistent hyperactivity, distractibility, and lack of control over impulses, which interferes with ability to function normally at school, home, or work
  34. mental retardation
    a condition of subaverage intelligence characterized by an IQ of 10 or less, resulting in the inability to adapt to normal social activities
  35. anorexia nervosa
    a severe disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perception about one's body weight, as evidenced by an overwhelming fear of becoming fat that results in a refusal to eat and body weight well below normal
  36. bulimia nervosa
    an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit digestion through induced vommiting, use of laxatives, or excessive exercise
  37. substance abuse disorders
    mental disorders resulting from abuse of substance such as drugs, alcohol, or other toxins, causing personal and social dysfunction; identified by the abused substance, such as alcohol abuse, amphetamine abuse, opioid abuse, and polysubstance abuse
  38. schizophrenia
    a disease of brain chemistry causing a distorted cognitive and emotional perception of one's environment; symptoms include distortions of normal function, flat affect, apathy, and withdrawal from reality
  39. electroconvulsive therapy
    electrical shock applied to the brain to induce convulsions; used to treat patients with severe depression
  40. light therapy
    use of specialized illuminating light boxes and visors to treat seasonal affective disorder
  41. psychotherapy
    treatment of psychiatric disorders using verbal and nonverbal interaction with patients, individually or in a group, employing specific actions and techniques
  42. behavioral therapy
    treatment to decrease or stop unwanted behavior
  43. cognitive therapy
    treatment to change unwanted patterns of thinking
  44. psychotropic drugs
    medications used to treat mental illnesses
  45. antianxiety agents
    anxiolytic agents
    drugs used to reduce anxiety
  46. antidepressant
    agent that counteracts depression
  47. neuroleptic agents
    drugs used to treat psychosis, especially schizophrenia
  48. sedative
    agent that has a calming effect and quiets nervousness