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237
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2011-01-03 23:55:38
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  1. WHAT ARE THE COMMON STANDARDS FOR ALL TASKS
    (a) Do not exceed aircraft limitations.

    (b) Perform crew coordination actions per chapter 6 of this ATM.
  2. WHAT ARE THE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF CREW COORDINATION?
    a. Communicate positively. Communication is positive when the sender directs, requests, announces, or offers. The receiver acknowledges and the sender confirms (based on received acknowledgment) or correct action. Communications should be quick and clearly understood using limited vocabulary of explicit terms and phrases so actions can be made in a timely manner.

    b. Direct assistance. Crewmembers will direct assistance when unable to maintain aircraft control or unable to troubleshoot aircraft systems without assistance. Pilot on the controls will divert his attention from outside to inside for momentary cross-check of aircraft systems.

    c. Announce actions. To ensure effective and well-coordinated actions in the aircraft, all crewmembers must be aware of the expected movements and unexpected individual actions. Each crewmember will announce any action that affects the actions of the other crewmembers.

    d. Offer assistance. Offer assistance for the following: (1) when the pilot on the controls demonstrates difficulty in aircraft control or deviates from normal or expected actions, (2) anytime information or assistance is requested, or (3) anytime a crewmember sees or recognizes anything that poses a hazard to flight.

    • e. Acknowledge actions. Similar to positive communication, this must include supportive feedback to ensure crewmembers correctly understand. The preferred method of
    • acknowledgment is to repeat critical parts of the message.

    f. Be explicit. Crewmembers should use clear terms and phrases and positively acknowledge critical information. They must avoid using terms that have multiple meanings—such as, “Right,” “Back up,” or “I have it.” Crewmembers must also avoid using indefinite modifiers such as, “Do you see that tree?” or “You are coming in a little fast.”

    g. Provide aircraft control and obstacle advisories. Although the pilot on the controls (P*) is responsible for aircraft control, the other crewmembers may need to provide aircraft control information regarding altitude, airspeed, and heading. Hazard identification and avoidance is the responsibility of all crewmembers.

    h. Coordinate action sequence and timing. The proper sequencing, timing, and interaction of machine, crew, and environment helps ensure that the actions of one crewmember mesh with the actions of the other crewmembers to successfully execute a task or mission.
  3. CREW COORDINATION BASIC QUALITIES. The crew coordination elements are further broken down into a set of 13 basic qualities. Each basic quality is defined in terms of observable behaviors. The paragraphs below summarize these basic qualities.

    a. Flight team leadership and crew climate are established and maintained
    This quality addresses the relationships among the crew and the overall climate of the flight deck. Aircrews are teams with a designated leader and clear lines of authority and responsibility. The pilot in command (PC) sets the tone for the crew and maintains the working environment. Effective leaders use their authority but do not operate without the participation of other crewmembers. When crewmembers disagree on a course of action, they must be effective in resolving the disagreement. Specific goals include the following:

    (1) The PC actively establishes an open climate where crewmembers freely talk and ask questions.

    (2) Crewmembers value each other for their expertise and judgment. They do not allow differences in rank and experience to influence their willingness to speak up.

    (3) Alternative viewpoints are a normal and occasional part of crew interaction. Crewmembers handle disagreements in a professional manner—avoiding personal attacks or defensive posturing.

    (4) The PC actively monitors the attitudes of crewmembers and offers feedback when necessary. Each crewmember displays the proper concern for balancing safety with mission accomplishment.
  4. CREW COORDINATION BASIC QUALITIES.

    b. Premission planning and rehearsal are accomplished.
    Premission planning includes all preparatory tasks associated with planning the mission. These tasks include planning for visual flight rules (VFR), instrument flight rules (IFR), and terrain flight. They also include assigning crewmember responsibilities and conducting all required briefings and brief backs. Premission rehearsal involves the crew's collectively visualizing and discussing expected and potential unexpected events for the entire mission. Through this process, all crewmembers think through contingencies and actions for difficult segments or unusual events associated with the mission and develop strategies to cope with contingencies. Specific goals include the following:

    (1) The PC ensures that all actions, duties, and mission responsibilities are partitioned and clearly assigned to specific crewmembers. Each crewmember actively participates in the mission planning process to ensure a common understanding of mission intent and operational sequence. The PC prioritizes planning activities so that critical items are addressed within the available planning time.

    (2) The crew identifies alternate courses of action in anticipation of potential changes in mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available (METT-T) and is fully prepared to implement contingency plans as necessary. Crewmembers mentally rehearse the entire mission by visualizing and discussing potential problems, contingencies, and responsibilities.

    (3) The PC ensures that crewmembers take advantage of periods of low workload to rehearse upcoming flight segments. Crewmembers continuously review remaining flight segments to identify required adjustments. Their planning is consistently ahead of critical lead times.
  5. CREW COORDINATION BASIC QUALITIES

    c. Appropriate decisionmaking techniques are applied.
    Decisionmaking is the act of rendering a solution to a problem and defining a plan of action. It must involve risk assessment. The quality of decisionmaking and problem solving throughout the planning and execution phases of the mission depends on the information available, time constraints, and level of involvement and information exchange among crewmembers. The crew's ability to apply appropriate decisionmaking techniques based on these criteria has a major impact on the choice and quality of their resultant actions. Although the entire crew should be involved in the decisionmaking and problem-solving process, the PC is the key decision maker. Specific goals include the following:

    (1) Under high-time stress, crewmembers rely on a pattern-recognition decision process to produce timely responses. They minimize deliberation consistent with the available decision time. Crewmembers focus on the most critical factors influencing their choice of responses. They efficiently prioritize their specific information needs within the available decision time.

    (2) Under moderate- to low-time stress, crewmembers rely on an analytical decision process to produce high-quality decisions. They encourage deliberation when time permits. To arrive at the most unbiased decision possible, crewmembers consider all important factors influencing their choice of action. They consistently seek all available information relative to the factors being considered.
  6. CREW COORDINATION BASIC QUALITIES

    d. Actions are prioritized and workload is equitably distributed.
    This quality addresses the effectiveness of time and workload management. It assesses the extent to which the crew, as a team, avoids distractions from essential activities, distributes and manages workload, and avoids individual task overload. Specific goals include the following.

    (1) Crewmembers are always able to identify and prioritize competing mission tasks. They never ignore flight safety and other high-priority tasks. They appropriately delay low-priority tasks until those tasks do not compete with more critical tasks. Crewmembers consistently avoid nonessential distractions so that these distractions do not impact on task performance.

    (2) The PC actively manages the distribution of mission tasks to prevent overloading any crewmember, especially during critical phases of flight. Crewmembers watch for workload buildup on others and react quickly to adjust the distribution of task responsibilities.
  7. CREW COORDINATION BASIC QUALITIES

    e. Unexpected events are managed effectively.
    This quality addresses the crew's performance under unusual circumstances that may involve high levels of stress. Both the technical and managerial aspects of coping with the situation are important. Specific goals include the following.

    (1) Crew actions reflect extensive rehearsal of emergency procedures in prior training and premission planning and rehearsal. Crewmembers coordinate their actions and exchange information with minimal verbal direction from the PC. They respond to the unexpected event in a composed, professional manner.

    (2) Each crewmember appropriately or voluntarily adjusts individual workload and task priorities with minimal verbal direction from the PC. The PC ensures that each crewmember is used effectively when responding to the emergency and that the workload is efficiently distributed.
  8. CREW COORDINATION BASIC QUALITIES

    f. Statements and directives are clear, timely, relevant, complete, and verified.
    This quality refers to the completeness, timeliness, and quality of information transfer. It includes the crew's use of standard terminology and feedback techniques to verify information transfer. Emphasis is on the quality of instructions and statements associated with navigation, obstacle clearance, and instrument readouts. Specific goals include the following.

    (1) Crewmembers consistently make the required call outs. Their statements and directives are always timely.

    (2) Crewmembers use standard terminology in all communications. Their statements and directives are clear and concise.

    (3) Crewmembers actively seek feedback when they do not receive acknowledgment from another crewmember. They always acknowledge understanding of intent and request clarification when necessary.
  9. CREW COORDINATION BASIC QUALITIES

    g. Mission situational awareness is maintained.
    This quality considers the extent to which crewmembers keep each other informed about the status of the aircraft and the mission. Information reporting helps the aircrew maintain a high level of situational awareness. The information reported includes aircraft position and orientation, equipment and personnel status, environmental and battlefield conditions, and changes to mission objectives. Awareness of the situation by the entire crew is essential to safe flight and effective crew performance. Specific goals include the following.

    (1) Crewmembers routinely update each other and highlight and acknowledge changes. They take personal responsibility for scanning the entire flight environment, considering their assigned workload and areas of scanning.

    (2) Crewmembers actively discuss conditions and situations that can compromise situational awareness. These include, but are not limited to, stress, boredom, fatigue, and anger.
  10. CREW COORDINATION BASIC QUALITIES

    h. Decisions and actions are communicated and acknowledged.
    This quality addresses the extent to which crewmembers are kept informed of decisions made and actions taken by another crewmember. Crewmembers should respond verbally or by appropriately adjusting their behaviors, actions, or control inputs to clearly indicate that they understand when a decision has been made and what it is. Failure to do so may confuse crews and lead to uncoordinated operations. Specific goals include the following.

    (1) Crewmembers announce decisions and actions, stating their rationale and intentions as time permits. The pilot not on the controls (P) verbally coordinates the transfer of or inputs to controls before action.

    (2) Crewmembers always acknowledge announced decisions or actions and provide feedback on how these decisions or actions will affect other crew tasks. If necessary, they promptly request clarification of decisions or actions.
  11. CREW COORDINATION BASIC QUALITIES

    i. Supporting information and actions are sought from the crew.
    This quality addresses the extent to which supporting information and actions are sought from the crew by another crewmember, usually the PC. Crewmembers should feel free to raise questions during the flight regarding plans, revisions to plans, actions to be taken, and the status of key mission information. Specific goals include the following:

    (1) The PC encourages crewmembers to raise issues or offer information about safety or the mission. Crewmembers anticipate impending decisions and actions and offer information as appropriate.

    (2) Crewmembers always request assistance from others before they become overloaded with tasks or before they must divert their attention from a critical task.
  12. CREW COORDINATION BASIC QUALITIES

    j. Crewmember actions are mutually cross monitored.
    This quality addresses the extent to which a crew uses cross monitoring as a mechanism for breaking error chains that lead to accidents or degraded mission performance. Crewmembers must be capable of detecting each other's errors. Such redundancy is particularly important when crews are tired or overly focused on critical task elements and thus more prone to make errors. Specific goals include the following.

    (1) Crewmembers acknowledge that crew error is a common occurrence and the active involvement of the entire crew is required to detect and break the error chains that lead to accidents. They constantly watch for crew errors affecting flight safety or mission performance. They monitor their own performance as well as that of others. When they note an error, they quickly and professionally inform and assist the crewmember committing the error.

    (2) The crew thoroughly discusses the two-challenge rule before executing the mission. When required, they effectively implement the two-challenge rule with minimal compromise to flight safety.

    Note. The two-challenge rule allows one crewmember to automatically assume the duties of another crewmember who fails to respond to two consecutive challenges. For example, the P* becomes fixated, confused, task overloaded, or otherwise allows the aircraft to enter an unsafe position or attitude. The P first asks the P* if he is aware of the aircraft position or attitude. If the P* does not acknowledge this challenge, the P issues a second challenge. If the P* fails to acknowledge the second challenge, the P assumes control of the aircraft.
  13. CREW COORDINATION BASIC QUALITIES

    k. Supporting information and actions are offered by the crew.
    This quality addresses the extent to which crewmembers anticipate and offer supporting information and actions to the decision maker—usually the PC—when apparently a decision must be made or an action taken. Specific goals include the following.

    (1) Crewmembers anticipate the need to provide information or warnings to the PC or P* during critical phases of the flight. They provide the required information and warnings in a timely manner.

    (2) Crewmembers anticipate the need to assist the PC or P* during critical phases of flight. They provide the required assistance when needed.
  14. CREW COORDINATION BASIC QUALITIES

    l. Advocacy and assertion are practiced.
    This quality concerns the extent to which crewmembers are proactive in advocating a course of action they consider best—even when others may disagree. Specific goals include the following.

    (1) While maintaining a professional atmosphere, crewmembers state the rationale for their recommended plans and courses of action when time permits. They request feedback to make sure others have correctly understood their statements or rationale. Time permitting, other crewmembers practice good listening habits; they wait for the rationale before commenting on the recommended plans or courses of action.

    (2) The PC actively promotes objectivity in the cockpit by encouraging other crewmembers to speak up despite their rank or experience. Junior crewmembers do not hesitate to speak up when they disagree with senior members; they understand that more experienced aviators can sometimes commit errors or lose situational awareness. Every member of the crew displays a sense of responsibility for adhering to flight regulations, operating procedures, and safety standards.
  15. CREW COORDINATION BASIC QUALITIES

    m. Crew-level after action reviews are conducted.
    This quality addresses the extent to which crewmembers review and critique their actions during or after a mission segment, during periods of low workload, or during the mission debriefing. Specific goals include the following:

    (1) The crew critiques major decisions and actions. They identify options and factors that should have been discussed and outline ways to improve crew performance in future missions.

    (2) The critique of crew decisions and actions is professional. "Finger-pointing" is avoided; the emphasis is on education and improvement of crew performance.
  16. WHAT ARE THE COMMON STANDARDS FOR HOVERING FLIGHT?
    (a) Maintain heading ±10 degrees.

    (b) Maintain altitude, ±3 feet (±5 feet for OGE). *

    (c) Do not allow drift to exceed 3 feet (10 feet for OGE hover). *

    • (d) Maintain ground track within 3 feet.
    • (e) Maintain a constant rate of movement appropriate for existing conditions.
    • *These standards require that the other crewmembers announce drift and altitude changes
    • before exceeding the standard.
  17. WHAT ARE THE IN-FLIGHT COMMON STANDARDS?
    (a) Maintain heading ±10 degrees.

    (b) Maintain altitude ±100 feet.

    (c) Maintain airspeed ±10 knots indicated airspeed (KIAS).

    (d) Maintain ground track with minimum drift.

    (e) Maintain rate of climb or descent ±200 feet per minute (FPM).

    (f) Maintain the aircraft in trim ±½ ball width.
  18. WHAT STANDARDS ARE COMMON TO ALL TASKS WITH THE APU/ENGINES OPERATING?
    (a) Maintain airspace surveillance (task 1026).

    (b) Apply appropriate environmental considerations.
  19. TASK 1000
    Participate in a crew mission briefing

    CONDITIONS: Before flight in a H-60 helicopter, DA Form 5484-R (Mission Schedule/Brief) information, and a unit-approved crew briefing checklist.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    • 1. The pilot in command (PC) will acknowledge an understanding of DA Form 5484-R and will
    • actively participate in a crew mission briefing.

    • 2. A rated crewmember (RCM) will conduct the aircrew mission briefing using table 4-1 or a
    • more detailed unit-approved crew briefing checklist.

    • 3. Crewmembers will verbally acknowledge a complete understanding of the aircrew mission briefing.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. A designated briefing officer will evaluate and then brief essential areas of the mission to the PC according to AR 95-1. The PC will acknowledge a complete understanding of the mission briefing and will initial DA Form 5484R.
    • b. The PC has overall responsibility for the crew mission briefing. He may direct other crewmembers to perform all or part of it.

    c. Crewmembers will direct their attention to the crewmember conducting the briefing. They will address any questions to the briefer and acknowledge that they understand the assigned actions, duties, and responsibilities. Lessons learned from previous debriefings should be addressed as applicable during the crew briefing.

    Note. An inherent element of the mission briefing is establishing the time and location for the crew-level after action review. (See task 1262.)

    • 2. Procedures. Brief the mission using a unit-approved crew mission briefing checklist. See the following suggested format (table 4-1) for the minimum mandatory crew-briefing checklist. Identify mission and flight requirements that will demand effective communication and proper
    • sequencing and timing of actions by the crewmembers.
  20. TASK 1004
    Plan a visual flight rules flight

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter and given access to weather information; notices to airmen
    (NOTAMs); flight planning aids; necessary charts, forms, and publications.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Determine if the aircrew and aircraft are capable of completing the assigned mission.

    2. Determine if the flight can be performed under visual flight rules (VFR) per AR 95-1, applicable Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs)/host-nation regulations, local regulations, and standing operating procedures (SOPs).

    3. Determine the correct departure, en route, and destination procedures.

    • 4. Select route(s) and altitudes that avoid hazardous weather conditions; do not exceed aircraft or equipment limitations and conform to visual flight rules (VFR) cruising altitudes per
    • Department of Defense flight information publication (DOD FLIP).

    5. For cross-country flights, determine the distance ±1 nautical mile, true airspeed ±5 knots, ground speed ±5 knots, and estimated time en route (ETE) ±1 minute for each leg of the flight. Compute magnetic heading(s) ±5 degrees.

    6. Determine the fuel required per AR 95-1, ±100 pounds.

    7. Complete and file the flight plan per AR 95-1 and DOD FLIP.

    8. Perform mission risk assessment per unit SOP.

    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot in command (PC) may direct the other crewmembers to complete some
    • elements of the VFR flight planning.
    • b. The other crewmembers will complete the assigned elements and report the results to the
    • PC.

    • 2. Procedures. Using appropriate military, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), or hostnation
    • weather facilities, obtain information about the weather. After ensuring that the flight can be completed under VFR per AR 95-1, check NOTAMs, chart updating manuals (CHUMs) and
    • other appropriate sources for any restrictions that apply to the flight. Obtain navigational charts
    • that cover the entire flight area, and allow for changes in routing that may be required because of the weather or terrain. Select the course(s) and altitude(s) that will best accomplish the mission. Determine the magnetic heading, ground speed, and ETE for each leg. Compute total distance
    • and flight time. Calculate the required fuel using a CPU-26A/P computer/Weems plotter (or
    • equivalent) or approved mission planning software. Complete the appropriate flight plan and file
    • it with the appropriate agency.

    NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: More detailed planning is necessary at night because of visibility restrictions. Checkpoints used during the day may not be suitable for night or night vision goggle (NVG) use.
  21. TASK 1006
    Plan an instrument flight rules flight

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter and given access to weather information; notices to airmen
    (NOTAMs); flight planning aids; necessary charts, forms, and publications.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Determine if the aircrew and aircraft are capable of completing the assigned mission.

    2. Determine if the flight can be performed under instrument flight rules (IFR) per AR 95-1 and applicable Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs)/host-nation regulations, local regulations, and standing operating procedures (SOPs).

    3. Determine the proper departure, en route, and destination procedures.

    4. Select route(s) and altitudes that avoid hazardous weather conditions, do not exceed aircraft or equipment limitations, and conform to IFR cruising altitudes per Department of Defense flight information publication (DOD FLIP).

    5. If off airway, determine the course(s) ±5 degrees.

    6. Select an approach that is compatible with the weather, approach facilities, and aircraft equipment; determine if an alternate airfield is required.

    7. Determine distance ±1 nautical mile, true airspeed ±5 knots, ground speed ±5 knots, and estimated time en route (ETE) ±1 minutes for each leg of the flight.

    8. Determine the fuel required per AR 95-1 and FM 1-240, ±100 pounds.

    9. Complete and file the flight plan per AR 95-1 and the DOD FLIP.

    • 10. Perform mission risk assessment per unit SOP.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot in command (PC) may direct the other rated crewmember (RCM) to complete some elements of the IFR flight planning.

    • b. The other RCM will complete the assigned elements and report the results to the PC.
    • 2. Procedures. Using appropriate military, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), or hostnation
    • weather facilities, obtain information about the weather. Compare destination forecast and approach minimums, and determine if an alternate airfield is required. Ensure that the flight can be completed per AR 95-1. Check the NOTAMs and other appropriate sources for any restrictions that apply to the flight. Obtain navigation charts that cover the entire flight area, and allow for changes in routing or destination that may be required because of the weather. Select the route(s) or course(s) and altitude(s) that will best accomplish the mission. When possible, select preferred routing. Determine the magnetic heading, ground speed, and ETE for each leg, to include flight to the alternate airfield if required. Compute the total distance and flight time. Calculate the required fuel using a CPU-26A/P
    • computer/Weems plotter (or equivalent) or approved mission planning software. Complete the appropriate flight plan and file it with the appropriate agency.
    • Note. Crews should consider and plan to use global positioning system (GPS) as an emergency backup system only. FAA-approved IFR GPS possess specific noncorruptible terminal instrument procedure data that cannot be altered by the aircrew
    • Note. Crewmembers must be proficient in using all IFR navigation equipment installed in the aircraft they are operating (such as distance measuring equipment [DME], tactical air navigation [TACAN]). The proper use may include operating capabilities and restrictions that must be considered during the flight planning process.
  22. TASK 1010
    Prepare a performance planning card

    CONDITIONS:
    Given a blank DA Form 5701-60-R (H-60 Performance Planning Card), mission conditions, engine torque factors, and aircraft basic weight.

    Note
    . The charts in the aviation and missile command (AMCOM)-approved aircraft operator’s manual/checklist (CL) or the AMCOM-approved performance planning software must be used for performance planning.

    Note
    . Performance planning items shaded in grey box (figures 4-1 and 4-2, page 4-14) are not required to be completed each time a performance planning card (PPC) is computed. These values should be completed when, based on the proposed mission, the information may be required for the flight. Additionally, these items will be annotated in the procedures as OPTIONAL after the item name.

    Note.
    Tabular performance data usage and values are explained at the end of the task description (figures 4-3 and 4-4, page 4-30).
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Calculate PPC values using accurate conditions for the time of takeoff within the following parameters:

    a. Free air temperature (FAT) + 5 degrees Celsius.

    b. Pressure altitude (PA) + 1,000 feet.

    c. Gross weight + 500 pounds.

    d. Engine torque factor (ETF) 0.03.

    2. Compute values within following parameters:

    a. Torque values ±2 percent.

    b. Weight values ±500 pounds.

    c. Fuel flow ±100 pounds per hour.

    d. Airspeeds ±5 knots.

    3. Determine performance planning data necessary to complete the mission.

    • 4. Correctly determine aircraft weight, maximum torque available, maximum allowable gross weight (OGE), and GO/NO GO (OGE) using tabular data found in the CL when an update is required.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions. The pilot in command (PC) will compute or direct other rated crewmembers (RCMs) to compute the aircraft performance data required to complete the mission. He will ensure aircraft performance meets mission requirements, and aircraft limitations are not exceeded.

    2. Procedures.

    • a. Determine and have available aircraft performance data required to complete the mission. Using the DA Form 5701-60-R is mandatory to organize performance planning data required for the mission.
    • Note. The data presented in the performance charts in the -10 are primarily derived for either a "clean" or "high drag" aircraft. When the external equipment or configuration differs significantly from the clean or high drag configuration, drag compensations will be made. This configuration is referred to as the alternative or sling load configuration and the appropriate drag compensation is described.

    Note. The procedures for determining performance planning data are the same for the UH-60A/L and UH-60Q/HH-60L aircraft unless specifically noted in the appropriate items. (1) Departure data. (Refer to figures 4-1 and 4-2 for each item number for completing DA Form 5701-60-R.)
  23. TASK 1012
    Verify aircraft weight and balance

    CONDITIONS:
    Given crew data, aircraft configuration, mission cargo, passenger data, the appropriate
    aircraft operator’s manual, and completed DD Form(s) 365-4 (Weight and Balance Clearance Form F-Tactical/Transport) from the aircraft logbook.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Verify that center of gravity (CG) and gross weight (GWT) remain within aircraft limits for the duration of the flight per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual.

    2. Identify all mission or flight limitations imposed by weight or CG.

    • 3. Ensure DD Form(s) 365-4 has been completed within 90 days.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot in command (PC) will brief crewmembers on any limitations.

    • b. Crewmembers will continually monitor aircraft loading (such as fuel transfers, sling loads, cargo load) during the mission to ensure CG remains within limits.
    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. Using the completed DD Form 365-4, verify that aircraft GWT and CG will remain within the allowable limits for the entire flight. Note all GWT, loading task/maneuver restrictions/limitations. If there is no completed DD Form 365-4 that meets mission requirements, the PC will ensure adjustments are made to existing DD Form 365-4 (to meet the criteria outlined in AR 95-1) and the aircraft is capable of completing the assigned mission.

    b. Verify the aircraft CG in relation to CG limits at predetermined times during the flight when an aircraft’s configuration requires special attention, for example, when it is a critical requirement to keep a certain amount of fuel in a particular tank. Conduct CG checks for fuel transfer, sling loads, and cargo loading operations.
  24. TASK 1013
    Operate mission planning system

    CONDITIONS:
    Given approved computer and mission planning software, a mission briefing, signal
    operating instructions (SOI) information, weather information, navigational maps, Department of
    Defense flight information publication (DOD FLIP), intelligence data, and other materials as
    required.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Configure and operate the approved mission planning software.

    2. Evaluate and enter all pertinent weather data, as appropriate.

    3. Select and enter appropriate primary and alternate routes.

    4. Select and enter appropriate tactical/terrain flight mission planning control features.

    5. Select and enter appropriate communication data.

    6. Load mission data to data transfer cartridge, if applicable.

    • 7. Print out time distance heading (TDH) cards, waypoint lists, crew cards, communication cards, and kneecards as required.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions. The pilot in command (PC) will assign tasks. The crew receives the mission briefing. Any crewmember may enter data into the approved mission planning software and brief the crew on the mission.

    2. Procedures. Plan the flight according to task 1004, 1006, or 2012 as applicable, using all appropriate data.
  25. TASK 1014
    Operate aviation life support equipment

    CONDITIONS:
    Given the appropriate aviation life support equipment (ALSE) for the mission.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Inspect/perform operational checks on ALSE.

    2. Use personal and mission ALSE.

    • 3. Brief passengers in using ALSE.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions. The pilot in command (PC) will verify that all required ALSE equipment is onboard the aircraft before takeoff.
    • 2. Procedures. Based on mission requirements, obtain the required ALSE. Inspect equipment for
    • serviceability and perform required operational checks. Secure the required ALSE in the aircraft per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual and the unit standing operating procedure (SOP). Brief passengers in using ALSE.
  26. TASK 1016
    Perform internal load operations

    CONDITIONS: In a H-60 helicopter loaded with passengers/cargo.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:
    • 1. Rated.
    • a. Perform or ensure that a thorough passenger briefing has been conducted and that a passenger manifest is on file according to AR 95-1. Conduct the passenger briefing per the
    • appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/checklist (CL) and unit standing operating procedure (SOP).

    b. Ensure that the passengers/cargo is restrained.

    • c. Ensure that floor loading limits are not exceeded.
    • 2. Nonrated.
    • a. Perform a thorough passenger briefing and ensure that a passenger manifest is on file
    • according to AR 95-1. Conduct the passenger briefing per the appropriate aircraft operator’s
    • manual/CL and unit SOP.

    b. Load the aircraft per the load plan, if applicable.

    c. Ensure that floor loading limits are not exceeded.

    • d. Secure passengers/cargo according to the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The PC will formulate a load plan, ensure that a DD Form 365-4 (Weight and Balance Clearance Form F-Tactical/Transport) is verified, if required, and ensure that the aircraft
    • will be within gross weight (GWT) and center of gravity (CG) limits. He will ensure that the crew loads the cargo, uses proper tie-down procedures, and completes a passenger briefing as
    • required. The pilot in command (PC) will determine whether the aircraft is capable of completing the assigned mission and will ensure that aircraft limitations will not be exceeded.

    • b. The nonrated crewmember (NCM) will complete a passenger briefing as directed and will ensure passengers are seated and wearing seat belts according to AR 95-1. He will
    • monitor passengers/cargo during the flight for security.
    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. Load cargo per the cargo plan or DD Form 365-4, as appropriate. Secure and restrain all cargo to meet restraint criteria. (For additional information, see task 1012.)

    • b. Brief passengers for the flight and seat them according to the load plan or DD Form 365-4, as appropriate. Conduct the passenger briefing per the appropriate aircraft operator’s
    • manual /CL or unit SOP and information about the mission. Ensurethat the passengers
    • understand each element of the briefing.

    • Note. If the aircraft is not shut down for loading, a passenger briefing may be impractical. Passengers may be prebriefed or passenger briefing cards may be used per local directives or
    • the unit SOP.

    Note. Hazardous cargo will be handled, loaded, and transported per AR 95-27.
  27. TASK 1020
    Prepare aircraft for mission

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter and given a warning order or a mission briefing and required mission equipment.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Install, secure, inspect, and inventory all mission equipment.

    • 2. Prepare the aircraft for the assigned mission.
    • DESCRIPTION: After receiving a mission briefing, determine the required mission equipment.
    • Ensure that it is installed, secured, inventoried, and operational before flight. If an airworthiness release (AWR) is required for mission equipment, ensure that a current AWR is in the aircraft logbook and that all inspections and checks have been completed according to the AWR. Check the equipment that requires aircraft power for operation per procedures in the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/checklist (CL) or appropriate mission equipment operator's manuals.
  28. TASK 1022
    Perform preflight inspection

    CONDITIONS:
    With a H-60 helicopter and given the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/checklist (CL).
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:
    • 1. Rated.
    • a. Perform the preflight inspection per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/checklist (CL).

    • b. Enter appropriate information on DA Form 2408-12 (Army Aviator’s Flight Record), DA Form 2408-13 (Aircraft Status Information Record), and DA Form 2408-13-1 (Aircraft Maintenance and Inspection Record), per DA Pam 738-751.
    • 2. Nonrated. Assist in all before preflight and preflight duties per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/CL, unit standing operating procedure (SOP), and for the designated duty position.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot in command (PC) is responsible for ensuring that a preflight inspection is conducted using the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/CL. The PC may direct other crewmembers to complete elements of the preflight inspection as applicable and will verify that all checks have been completed according to the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/CL. He will report any aircraft discrepancies that may affect the mission and will ensure that the appropriate information is entered on DA Form 2408-12, DA Form 2408-13 and DA Form 2408-13-1.

    • b. The crewmembers will complete the assigned elements and report the results to the PC.
    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. Ensure the preflight inspection is conducted per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/CL. Verify that all preflight checks have been completed, and ensure that the crewmembers enter the appropriate information on DA Form 2408-12, DA Form 2408-13, and DA Form 2408-13-1.

    b. If circumstances permit, accomplish preflight inspection during daylight hours.

    • c. The nonrated crewmember (NCM), if available, will ensure all cowlings and equipment are secured upon completing the preflight.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: If performing the preflight inspection during the hours of darkness, a flashlight with an unfiltered lens to supplement available lighting should be used. Hydraulic leaks, oil leaks, and other defects are difficult to see using a flashlight with a colored lens. TC 1-204 contains details on preflight inspection at night.

    SNOW/SAND/DUST CONSIDERATIONS: Ensure all rotating components and inlets/exhausts are clear of ice and/or snow before starting APU/engines.
  29. TASK 1026
    MAINTAIN AIRSPACE SURVEILLANCE

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Brief airspace surveillance procedures prior to flight. This will include scan sectors.

    2. Announce any unplanned drift or altitude changes, clear the aircraft, and immediately inform other crewmembers of all air traffic or obstacles that pose a threat to the aircraft.

    3. Announce when attention is focused inside the aircraft using a time limit that is appropriate for the conditions and announce when attention is focused back outside.

    • 4. Maintain airspace surveillance in assigned scan sectors.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot in command (PC) will brief airspace surveillance procedures prior to the flight. The briefing will include areas of responsibility and scan sectors.

    b. The pilot on the controls (P*) will announce his intent to perform a specific maneuver and will remain focused outside the aircraft. He is responsible for clearing the aircraft and obstacle avoidance.

    c. The pilot not on the controls (P) and nonrated crewmember (NCM), as duties permit, will assist in clearing the aircraft and will provide adequate warning of obstacles, unusual drift, or altitude changes. He will announce when his attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside.

    • d. When landing, the crew will confirm the suitability of the area and that the aircraft is clear of barriers.
    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. Maintain close surveillance of the surrounding airspace. Keep the aircraft clear from other aircraft and obstacles by maintaining visual surveillance (close, mid, and far areas) of the surrounding airspace. Inform the crew immediately of air traffic or obstacles that pose a threat to the aircraft. Call out the location of traffic or obstacles by the clock, altitude, and distance method. (The 12 o'clock position is at the nose of the aircraft.) Give distance in miles or fractions of miles for air traffic and in feet for ground obstacles. When reporting air traffic, specify the type of aircraft (fixed-wing or helicopter) and, if known, the model. The altitude of the air traffic should be reported as the same altitude, higher, or lower than the altitude at which you are flying.

    b. Prior to changing altitude, visually clear the aircraft for hazards and obstacles inclusive of what is ahead, above, below, and to the left and right of the aircraft.

    c. Prior to performing a descending flight maneuver, it may sometimes be desirable to perform clearing “S” turns to the left or right. The clearing “S” turns will provide the aircrew with a greater visual scan area.

    d. During a hover or hovering flight, inform the P* of any unannounced drift or altitude changes. When landing, the crew will confirm the suitability of the area.

    NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: Using proper scanning techniques will assist in detecting traffic and obstacles, and in avoiding spatial disorientation. Hazards such as wires are difficult to detect.
  30. TASK 1028
    Perform hover power check

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter, at an appropriate hover height, and with performance planning information available.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus determine if sufficient power is available to perform the mission.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot in command (PC) will determine whether the aircraft is capable of completing the assigned mission and will ensure that aircraft limitations will not be exceeded.

    b. The pilot on the controls (P*) will announce his intent to bring the aircraft to a stationary hover for a hover power check. During the ascent, check for proper center of gravity (CG) and control response. Remain focused outside the aircraft and announce when the aircraft is stabilized at the desired hover altitude. Use a 10-foot stationary hover into the wind when performing a hover power check unless the mission or terrain constraints dictate otherwise.

    c. The pilot not on the controls (P) will monitor the aircraft instruments and verify the power check. He will compare the actual hover performance data to the computed data on the performance planning card (PPC) and announce the results to the P*. If GO/NO GO inground effect (IGE) or out of ground effect (OGE) torque is indicated prior to reaching the planned hover height used during performance planning, the P will tell the P* to stop the hover power check and land the aircraft. The PC will confirm the GO/NO GO torque and adjust the mission as required.

    • d. The nonrated crewmember (NCM) will remain focused primarily outside the aircraft to assist in clearing and to provide adequate warning of obstacles.
    • Note. If an adjusted zero fuel weight is required, the data should be recorded when time permits.
    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. Use the hover height computed during performance planning when performing this task unless the mission or terrain constraints dictate otherwise.

    • b. At desired hover height, monitor the aircraft instruments and verify the power check. Compare the actual performance data to that computed.
    • Note. If the torque required to maintain a stationary hover does not exceed the GO/NO GO torque OGE, any maneuver requiring OGE/ IGE power or less may be attempted. If the torque required to maintain a stationary hover exceeds the GO/NO GO torque OGE but does not exceed the GO/NO GO torque IGE, all IGE maneuvers may be attempted. If the torque required to maintain a stationary hover exceeds the GO/NO GO IGE and structural limits have been exceeded, further flight is prohibited until appropriate maintenance action is performed.
  31. TASK 1032
    Perform radio communication procedures

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:
    • 1. Rated.
    • a. Program, check, and operate aircraft avionics.

    • b. Establish radio contact with the desired unit or air traffic control (ATC) facility. When communicating with ATC facilities, use correct radio communication procedures and
    • phraseology per the Department of Defense flight information publication (DOD FLIP) and Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation Administration (DOT/FAA) 7110.65.

    c. Correctly operate intercommunication system.

    d. Perform two-way radio failure procedures per the DOD FLIP or host-nation regulations.

    • 2. Nonrated.
    • a. Correctly operate intercommunication system.

    b. Use the appropriate radio to communicate with the desired facility (as required for nonrated crewmembers [NCMs]).

    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot in command (PC) will determine radio frequencies per mission requirements during the crew briefing and will indicate whether the pilot on the controls (P*) or pilot not
    • on the controls (P) will establish and maintain primary communications.

    • b. The P* will announce information not monitored by the P.
    • c. The P will adjust avionics to required frequencies. He will copy pertinent information and announce information not monitored by the P*.

    d. During normal operations, the NCM will monitor external communications so as not to interrupt when external communications are being transmitted or received. (Monitoring external communications may not be desirable during operations requiring extensive internal communication; for example, sling loads, hoist, rappelling, or emergencies.)

    e. Certain operations may require that the NCM transmit on an aircraft radio; for example, medical evacuation (MEDEVAC). He will coordinate with the PC before using aircraft radios.

    f. Crew actions for two-way radio failure:

    (1) P* or P will announce two-way radio failure to all crewmembers.

    (2) The PC will direct the efforts to identify and correct the avionics malfunction.

    • (3) The P* will focus outside the aircraft visual meteorological conditions (VMC) or inside instrument meteorological condition (IMC) on the instruments, as appropriate, but
    • should not participate in troubleshooting the malfunction.

    (4) The P will remain focused primarily inside the aircraft to identify and correct the avionics malfunction.

    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. Adjust avionics to the required frequencies. Continuously monitor the avionics as directed by the PC. When required, establish communications with the desired facility.Monitor the frequency before transmitting. Transmit the desired/required information. Use the correct radio call sign when acknowledging each communication. When advised to change frequencies, acknowledge instructions. Select the new frequency as soon as possible unless instructed to do so at a specific time, fix, or altitude. Use radio communication procedures and phraseology as appropriate for the area of operations. Use standard terms and phraseology for all intercommunications.

    b. Procedure for two-way radio failure. Attempt to identify and correct the malfunctioning radio and announce the results. If two-way radio failure is confirmed, comply with procedure outlined in the Flight Information Handbook.
  32. TASK 1034
    PERFORM GROUND TAXI

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter and the aircraft cleared.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Maintain speed appropriate for conditions.

    • 2. Maintain the desired ground track within ±3 feet.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will ensure that the parking brake is released and the tail wheel is locked or unlocked as required before starting the ground taxi. He will announce his intent to begin ground taxi operations, the intended direction of any turns, and that the aircraft is clear of all traffic and obstacles. He will remain focused primarily outside the aircraft.

    • b. The pilot not on the controls (P) and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will help clear the aircraft and provide adequate warning of traffic and obstacles. They also will announce when their attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside.
    • 2. Procedures. Ensure the area is suitable for ground taxi operations. Initiate the taxi by centering the cyclic and increasing the collective slightly to start forward movement. If required, adjust lateral cyclic and/or pedals to release the tail wheel lockpin. Avoid droop stop pounding contact by using proper cyclic and collective control applications. Ensure that both sets of brakes operate properly, conditions permitting. Use left or right pedal input to turn the aircraft and lateral
    • cyclic as necessary to maintain a level fuselage attitude in the turns. To regulate the taxi speed, use a combination of collective, slight forward cyclic and brakes. Be aware that high gross weights, soft, rough, or sloping terrain may require using more than normal power.
    • Note. During taxi with the tail wheel unlocked, fuselage roll attitude is controlled with the cyclic. The attitude indicator, inclinometer, as well as outside visual cues, may be used to reference fuselage roll attitude. The normal method for ground taxi is with the tail wheel in the unlocked position.
    • Note. While ground taxiing, minor heading changes may be made with the tail wheel locked. However, care should be taken not to break or bend the tail wheel-locking pin. A slight fuselage roll in the opposite direction may indicate excessive pedal input with the tail wheel locked. Excessive collective application may activate the drag beam switch.
    • Note. Depending on ground velocity, emergency stops may be performed by lowering the collective and applying the wheel breaks or by bringing the aircraft to a hover.
    • Note. Excessive cyclic input and insufficient collective application may result in droop stop pounding or main rotor contact with mission equipment.
    • DROOP STOP POUNDING (DSP): DSP is a phenomenon that can occur when there is excessive downward blade travel causing the blades to strike the droop stops when they are in the fly position. The conditions, which combine to induce this type DSP, include excessive aft cyclic, low collective, and all wheels on the ground. The maneuver that is most likely to produce DSP is the roll-on landing in conjunction with aerodynamic braking; however, DSP can also occur during taxi and down slope landings.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: The landing light should be used for unaided ground taxi and the searchlight with installed infrared (IR) bypass filter when wearing night vision goggles (NVGs). Using proper scanning techniques will help detect obstacles that must be avoided.
    • SNOW/SAND/DUST CONSIDERATIONS: If ground reference is lost because of blowing snow/sand/dust, lower the collective, neutralize the flight controls, and apply wheel brakes until visual reference is reestablished. When initiating ground taxi, apply pressure and counterpressure to the pedals to ensure the wheels/skis are not frozen to the ground, if appropriate. Use caution when taxiing near other maneuvering aircraft because of limited visual references and possible relative motion illusion.

    • Note. Because of decreased visual references and relative motion illusions, limit ground speed to
    • a safe rate.
    • Note. At night, use of the landing, search, or anticollision lights may cause spatial disorientation
    • in blowing snow/sand/dust.
  33. TASK 1038
    PERFORM HOVERING FLIGHT

    CONDITIONS: In a H-60 helicopter with the aircraft cleared.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:
    • Rated.
    • a. Perform a smooth, controlled ascent to hover.

    • b. Perform a smooth, controlled descent with minimal drift at touchdown.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will announce his intent to perform a specific hovering flight maneuver and will remain focused primarily outside the aircraft to monitor altitude and avoid obstacles. He will ensure and announce that the aircraft is cleared prior to turning or repositioning the aircraft. He will announce when he terminates the maneuver.

    b. The pilot not on the controls (P) and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will assist in clearing the aircraft and provide adequate warning of obstacles, unannounced drift, or altitude changes. They will announce when their attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside.

    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. Takeoff to a hover. With the collective full down, place the cyclic in a neutral position. Increase the collective smoothly. Apply pedals to maintain heading, and coordinate the cyclic for a vertical ascent. As the aircraft leaves the ground, check for the proper control response and aircraft center of gravity (CG).

    b. Hovering flight. Adjust the cyclic to maintain a stationary hover or to move in the desired direction. Control heading with the pedals, and maintain altitude with the collective. The rate of movement and altitude should be appropriate for existing conditions. To return to a stationary hover, apply cyclic in the opposite direction while maintaining altitude with the collective and heading with the pedals.

    Note.
    Air taxi is the preferred method for ground movements on airports provided ground operations and conditions permit. Unless otherwise requested or instructed, pilots are expected to remain below 100 feet AGL. However, if a higher than normal airspeed or altitude is desired, the request should be made prior to lift-off. The pilot is solely responsible for selecting a safe airspeed for the altitude/operation being conducted. Using air taxi enables the pilot to proceed at an optimum airspeed/altitude, minimize downwash effect, conserve fuel, and expedite movement from one point to another.

    c. Hovering turns. Apply pressure to the desired pedal to begin the turn. Use pressure and counterpressure on the pedals to maintain the desired rate of turn. Coordinate cyclic control to maintain position over the pivot point while maintaining altitude with the collective. Hovering turns can be made around any vertical axis (for example, the nose, mast, tail of the aircraft, or a point in front of the aircraft). However, turns other than about the center of the aircraft will increase the turn radius proportionately.

    • d. Landing from a hover. Lower the collective to affect a smooth descent to touchdown. Ensure the aircraft does not move laterally or aft. Make necessary corrections with the pedals and cyclic to maintain a constant heading and position. On ground contact, ensure that the aircraft remains stable. Continue lowering the collective smoothly and steadily while continuing to check aircraft stability. When the collective is fully down, neutralize the pedals and cyclic. If sloping conditions are suspected or anticipated, see task 1062.
    • Note. Cyclic turns should only be used when necessary.
    • Note. When landing from a hover to an unimproved area, the crew must check for obstacles under the aircraft.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS:
    • 1. Movement over areas of limited contrast—such as tall grass, water, or desert—tends to cause spatial disorientation. Seek hover areas that provide adequate contrast and use proper scanning techniques. If disorientation occurs, apply sufficient power and execute an instrument takeoff (ITO) (task 1170). If a go-around is not feasible, try to maneuver the aircraft forward and down to the ground to limit the possibility of touchdown with lateral or aft movement.

    • 2. When performing operations during unaided night flight, ensure that the searchlight or landing light (white light) is in the desired position. Using the white light will impair night vision for several minutes. Therefore, exercise added caution if resuming flight before reaching full dark
    • adaptation.
    • SNOW/SAND/DUST CONSIDERATIONS: During ascent to a hover, if visual references do not deteriorate to an unacceptable level, continue ascent to the desired hover altitude.

    • 1. For 10-foot hover taxi: During takeoff to a hover, simultaneously accelerate the aircraft to a ground speed that keeps the snow/sand/dust cloud just aft of the main rotor mast.
    • Note. Maintain optimum visibility by observing references close to the aircraft. Exercise caution when operating in close proximity to other aircraft or obstacles.
    • Note. When visual references deteriorate making a 10-foot hover taxi unsafe, determine whether to abort the maneuver, ground taxi, air taxi, or perform an ITO (task 1170).

    • 2. For 20- to 100-foot air taxi: Use this maneuver when it is necessary to move the aircraft over terrain that is unsuitable for hover taxi. Initiate air taxi the same as a 10-foot hover, but increase altitude to not more than 100 feet and accelerate to a safe airspeed above effective translational lift (ETL).
    • Note. Ensure that an area is available to safely decelerate and land the aircraft. Under certain conditions, such as adverse winds, it may be necessary to perform a traffic pattern to optimize conditions at the desired termination point.
    • Note. Hovering out of ground effect (OGE) reduces available ground references and may increase the possibility of spatial disorientation. Be prepared to transition to instruments and execute an ITO (Task 1170) or unusual attitude recovery (task 1182) if ground reference is lost.
    • Note. At night, use of landing, search, or anticollision light may cause spatial
    • disorientation while in blowing snow/sand/dust.

    • CONFINED AREA CONSIDERATIONS: Select good references to avoid unanticipated drift. All
    • crewmembers must be focused primarily outside for obstacle avoidance.
  34. TASK 1040
    PERFORM VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS TAKEOFF

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus (rated only) maintain aircraft in trim above 50 feet (AGL) or as appropriate for transition to mission profile.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot in command (PC) will determine the direction of takeoff by analyzing the tactical situation, the wind, the long axis of the takeoff area, and the lowest obstacles, and will confirm that required power is available by comparing the information from the performance planning card (PPC) to the hover power check.

    b. The pilot on the controls (P*) will remain focused primarily outside the aircraft throughout the maneuver to provide obstacle clearance. He will announce whether the takeoff is from the ground or from a hover and his intent to abort or alter the takeoff. He will select reference points to assist in maintaining the takeoff flight path.

    • c. The pilot not on the controls (P) and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will announce when ready for takeoff and will remain focused primarily outside the aircraft to assist in clearing and to provide adequate warning of obstacles.
    • d. The P will monitor power requirements and advise the P* if power limits are being approached. The P and NCM will announce when their attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside.
    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. From the ground. Select reference points to maintain ground track. With the cyclic and pedals in the neutral position, increase power. Continue applying power as required to transition to mission profile. As the aircraft leaves the ground, maintain heading with pedals and apply forward cyclic as required to establish an accelerative attitude appropriate for the terrain and to avoid obstacles. Adjust the cyclic to continue the acceleration to the desired climb airspeed, and maintain the desired ground track. Make the required power adjustments to clear obstacles in the flight path, and obtain the desired rate of climb. Maintain heading with the pedals when below 50-feet (AGL) or until making the transition to terrain flight; then place the aircraft in trim. After obtaining the desired airspeed, adjust the cyclic as necessary to stop the acceleration and maintain desired climb airspeed. Maintain takeoff power until reaching minimum single engine airspeed and then adjust power as necessary to continue the desired rate of climb or transition to mission profile.

    • b. From a hover. Select reference points to maintain ground track. Apply forward cyclic to accelerate the aircraft while simultaneously applying power. Perform the rest of the maneuver
    • as for a takeoff from the ground.
    • Note. Avoid unnecessary nose low accelerate attitudes; 5 degrees nose low is recommended for acceleration. However, 10 degrees nose low should not be exceeded.
    • Note. Performing this maneuver in certain environments may require hover out of ground effect (OGE) power. Evaluate each situation for power required versus power available.

    c. From the ground with less than OGE power. Select reference points to maintain ground track. With the cyclic and pedals in the neutral position, increase power until the aircraft becomes “light on the wheels.” Continue applying power until the aircraft is airborne. As the aircraft leaves the ground, apply forward cyclic as required to avoid obstacles and to accelerate smoothly through effective translational lift (ETL) at an altitude appropriate for the terrain. Adjust the cyclic to continue the acceleration to the desired climb airspeed and maintain the desired ground track. Make the required power adjustments to clear obstacles in the flight path and to obtain the desired rate of climb. Maintain heading with the pedals when below 50 feet AGL or until making the transition to mission profile; then place the aircraft in trim. After obtaining the desired airspeed, adjust the cyclic as necessary to stop the acceleration. Adjust power as necessary to continue or to stop the rate of climb.

    • d. From a hover with less than OGE power. Apply forward cyclic to accelerate the aircraft while applying power to maintain the desired hover altitude. Perform the rest of the maneuver as for a takeoff from the ground with less than OGE power.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS:
    • 1. If sufficient illumination exists to view obstacles, accomplish the takeoff in the same way as a visual meteorological conditions (VMC) takeoff during the day. Visual obstacles, such as shadows, should be treated the same as physical obstacles. If sufficient illumination does not exist, perform an altitude-over-airspeed takeoff by applying takeoff power first followed by a slow acceleration to ensure obstacle clearance. The P* may perform the takeoff from a hover or from the ground.

    2. Maintain the takeoff power setting until reaching climb airspeed. Adjust power as required to establish the desired rate of climb and cyclic to maintain the desired airspeed. Alternate attention between cross-checking instruments and assisting in obstacle avoidance. The P* and NCM should maintain orientation outside the aircraft and concentrate on obstacle avoidance. The P should make all internal checks.

    a. Maintain desired ground track. Reduced visual references during the takeoff—and throughout the ascent at night—may make it difficult to maintain the desired ground track. Knowledge of the surface wind direction and velocity will assist in maintaining the desired ground track.

    b. Use proper scanning techniques to avoid spatial disorientation.

    • c. When performing operations during unaided night flight, ensure that the searchlight or landing light (white light) is in the desired position. Using the white light will impair night vision several minutes. Therefore, exercise added caution if resuming flight before reaching full dark adaptation.
    • SNOW/SAND/DUST CONSIDERATIONS: As the aircraft leaves the surface, maintain heading with the pedals and a level attitude with the cyclic. As the aircraft clears the snow/sand/dust cloud and clears the barriers, accelerate to climb airspeed and trim the aircraft.
    • Note. In some cases, applying collective to blow away loose snow/sand/dust from around
    • the aircraft is beneficial before performing this maneuver.
    • Note. Be prepared to transition to instruments and execute an instrument takeoff (ITO) if ground reference is lost.

    • Note. At night, use of the landing, search, or anticollision lights may cause spatial disorientation while in blowing snow/sand/dust.
    • CONFINED AREA CONSIDERATIONS: Before departure, confirm the takeoff plan. Perform a hover power check. Re-position the aircraft, if desired, to afford a shallower departure angle and minimize power requirements. During departure, adjust the cyclic and the collective as required to establish a constant departure angle to clear obstacles. All crewmembers must focuse primarily outside for obstacle avoidance.
    • MOUNTAIN/PINNACLE/RIDGELINE CONSIDERATIONS: Analyze winds, obstacles, and density altitude. Perform a hover power check. Determine the best takeoff direction and path for conditions. After clearing any obstacle(s), accelerate the aircraft to the desired airspeed.
    • Note. Where drop-offs are located along the takeoff path, the aircraft may be maneuvered down slope to gain airspeed.
    • MUD/MUSKEG/TUNDRA CONSIDERATIONS: Perform one of the following takeoff techniques:

    1. From dry muskeg/tundra areas. A vertical takeoff may be best in drier areas where the aircraft has not sunk into the muskeg/tundra or where obstacles prohibit motion. Smoothly increase the collective until the crew confirms that the wheels/skis are free. Adjust controls as necessary to perform a VMC takeoff.

    • 2. From wet areas. In wet areas where the aircraft is likely to have sunk or is stuck in the mud/muskeg/tundra, the following technique may be best: With the cyclic in the neutral position, smoothly increase the collective. As hover power is approached, place the cyclic slightly forward of the neutral position and slowly move the pedals back and forth. Continue increasing the collective and "swim" the aircraft forward to break the suction of the wheels/skis. When free, adjust the controls as necessary to perform a VMC takeoff.
    • Note. Before performing operations in a mud/muskeg/tundra environment, he must understand dynamic roll over characteristics.
  35. TASK 1044
    NAVIGATE BY PILOTAGE AND DEAD RECKONING

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter with the appropriate maps, plotter, flight computer, and flight
    log.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Maintain orientation within ½ mile or 800 meters.

    • 2. Arrive at checkpoints/destination at estimated time of arrival (ETA) ±1 minute.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will focus primarily outside the aircraft and respond to navigation instructions or cues given by the pilot not on the controls (P). The P* will acknowledge commands issued by the P for the heading, altitude, and airspeed changes necessary to navigate the desired course. The P* will announce significant surface features to assist in navigation.

    • b. The P will direct the P* to change aircraft heading, altitude, and airspeed as appropriate to navigate the desired course. The P will use rally terms, specific headings, relative bearings, or key terrain features to accomplish this task. He will announce all plotted wires before approaching their location. The P and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will monitor aircraft instruments, assist in clearing the aircraft, and provide adequate warning to avoid traffic and obstacles. The P and NCM will announce when their attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside.
    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. Both pilotage and dead reckoning will be used to maintain the position of the aircraft along the planned route. Planned headings will be adjusted as necessary to compensate for the effects of the wind.

    • b. Perform a ground speed check as soon as possible by computing the actual time required to fly a known distance. Adjust estimated times for subsequent legs of the flight route using the computed ground speed. Compare planned ground speed with computed ground speed and adjust airspeed as required to arrive at each control point at its original ETA.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: More detailed flight planning is required when the flight is conducted at night. Interior cockpit lighting should be considered when selecting colors for preparing
    • navigational aids such as maps and kneeboard notes.
  36. TASK 1046
    Perform electronically aided navigation

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter with an electronically aided navigation system installed and
    operational.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Operate the installed electronically aided navigational system per the appropriate technical manual (TM).

    2. Determine the position of the aircraft along the route of flight within 300 meters.

    • 3. Use the command instrument system (CIS) per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual if coupled with an electronically aided navigational system.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will focus primarily outside the aircraft and respond to navigation instructions or cues given by the pilot not on the controls (P). The P* will acknowledge commands issued by the P for the heading, altitude, and airspeed changes necessary to navigate the desired course. The P* will announce significant terrain features to assist in navigation.

    • b. The P will be the primary operator of the electronically aided navigation system. He will direct the P* to change aircraft heading, altitude, and airspeed as appropriate to navigate the desired course. The P will use rally terms, specific headings, relative bearings, or key terrain features to accomplish this task. He will announce all plotted wires before approaching their location. The P and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will monitor aircraft instruments, assist in clearing the aircraft, and provide adequate warning to avoid traffic and obstacles.
    • Note. Only the P will perform in-flight time/labor intensive navigational programming duties (for example, building routes).
    • 2. Procedures. Perform the turn on, test, and programming procedures per the appropriate TM. If the electronically aided navigational system is coupled, the selected course may be flown using the CIS. The proper updating and shutdown procedures will be performed per the appropriate TM.

  37. TASK 1048
    Perform fuel management procedures

    WARNING
    Failure to monitor fuel balancing operations could result in
    engine flameout because of fuel starvation.

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter with a (CPU)-26A/P computer or calculator.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:
    • 1. Rated.
    • a. Verify that the required amount of fuel is onboard at the time of takeoff.

    b. Initiate an alternate course of action if the actual fuel consumption varies from the planned value and the flight cannot be completed without the planned use of the required reserve.

    • c. Balance/manage fuel tank levels to maintain aircraft within center of gravity (CG) limits.
    • 2. Rated/nonrated.
    • a. Initiate an in-flight fuel consumption check within 10 minutes of leveling off or within 10 minutes of entering into the mission profile.

    b. Within 15 to 30 minutes after taking the initial readings, compute the fuel consumption rate ±50 pounds per hour and complete the fuel consumption check.

    • c. Monitor the remaining fuel quantity and the continuing rate of consumption.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot not on the controls (P) or nonrated crewmember (NCM) will record the initial fuel figures, fuel flow computation, burnout, and reserve times. He will announce when he initiates the fuel check and when he completes the fuel check. The P or NCM also will announce the results of the fuel check.

    b. The pilot on the controls (P*) will acknowledge the results of the fuel check.

    c. The pilot in command (PC) will confirm the results of the fuel check.

    d. If applicable, the P will announce when the fuel transfer switch or fuel selector lever(s) are repositioned and when the fuel transfer/balancing operation is completed.

    • e. The NCM will acknowledge and monitor the fuel transfer/balancing operation until the operation is completed.
    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. When performing the before takeoff check, determine the total fuel onboard, and compare it with fuel required for the mission. If the fuel onboard is inadequate, add sufficient fuel or abort or revise the mission.

    • b. Initial airborne fuel reading. Within 10 minutes after leveling off or within 10 minutes of entering into the mission profile, record the total fuel quantity and the time of reading. Complete the fuel consumption check 15 to 30 minutes after taking the initial airborne fuel reading. Determine if the remaining fuel is sufficient to complete the flight without the planned use of the required reserve.
    • Note. Crews should verify ability to transfer fuel from external to internal tanks before using external tank fuel quantities in fuel reserve/burnout computations.
    • Note. Do not perform fuel consumption checks while transferring fuel from external fuel tank(s) to internal fuel tanks.

    • c. Fuel quantity and consumption. Periodically monitor the fuel quantity and consumption rate. If the fuel quantity or flow indicates a deviation from computed values, repeat the fuel consumption check to determine if the amount of fuel is adequate to complete the flight. Periodically check individual fuel tank indicators to determine that the system is operating properly.
    • Note. If an emergency or urgent situation requires placing an ENG FUEL SYS selector to cross-feed (for example, fuel filter bypass caution light), recalculate burnout time and reserve entry time based on the usable fuel remaining.

    d. Main fuel balance operations. Place the ENG FUEL SYS selector of the lowest fuel indicator to XFD. After the fuel quantities equalize, return the selector to DIR.

    e. Auxiliary fuel management. Follow procedures outlined in the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual when using the external extended range fuel system. When using nonstandard auxiliary fuel systems, use the appropriate manufacturer’s operator’s manuals.
  38. TASK 1052
    PERFORM VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS FLIGHT MANEUVERS

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter given visual meteorological conditions (VMC) conditions.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus (rated only) enter, operate in, and depart a traffic
    • pattern.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will remain focused primarily outside the aircraft. He will announce and clear each turn, climb, and descent.

    • b. The pilot not on the controls (P) and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will assist in clearing the aircraft and will provide adequate warning of traffic and obstacles. They will announce when their attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside.
    • 2. Procedures. Adjust cyclic as required to maintain the desired airspeed, course, ground track, or heading as appropriate. Adjust collective as required to maintain the desired climb/descent rate or altitude and maintain aircraft in trim with the pedals. Perform traffic pattern operations per air traffic control (ATC) directives, local standing operating procedure (SOP), and FM 1-203.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS:
    • The P* will focus primarily outside the aircraft and should concentrate on obstacle avoidance and aircraft control. The P will make all internal cockpit checks.
  39. TASK 1054
    Select landing zone/pickup zone/holding area

    WARNING

    Not all hazards will be shown on a map. When using a map
    reconnaissance to determine suitability, the added risk of
    unknown hazards must be addressed during the mission risk
    assessment process.

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter given a map or photo data.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Perform map, photo, or visual reconnaissance.

    2. Determine that the landing zone (LZ) is suitable for operations and provide accurate and detailed information to supported unit (if applicable).

    • 3. Confirm suitability on initial approach.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions. The crew will confirm the location of plotted hazards and call out location of unplotted hazards.

    a. The pilot in command (PC) will confirm suitability of the area for the planned mission.

    b. The pilot on the controls (P*) will remain focused primarily outside the aircraft throughout the maneuver for aircraft control and obstacle avoidance. He will announce his intent to deviate from the maneuver.

    • c. The pilot not on the controls (P) and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will assist in LZ reconnaissance and clearing the aircraft. They will provide adequate warning of obstacles and will acknowledge the P*'s intent to deviate from the maneuver.
    • 2. Procedures. Gather map or photo data on potential LZ(s) or conduct an in-flight suitability check if map or photo data is unreliable. Determine the suitability by evaluating size, long axis, barriers, surface conditions, tactical situation, and effects of the wind. Select a flight path, altitude, and airspeed that afford the best observation of the landing area, as required. Determine an approach, desired touchdown point, and departure path. The tactical, technical, and meteorological elements must be considered in determining suitability.
    • Note. If wind conditions will be a factor, a wind evaluation should be performed. Techniques for evaluating wind conditions are found in FM 1-202.
    • Note. Depending on the mission, an in-flight suitability check may not be feasible. Suitability may be determined by a map reconnaissance. Make a final determination of suitability upon
    • arrival to the landing zone/pickup zone (LZ/PZ)
    • a. Tactical.
    • (1) Mission. Determine if the mission can be done from the selected LZ. Consider flight time, fuel, number of sorties, and access routes.

    (2) Location. To reduce troop fatigue, consider distance of PZ or LZ from supported unit or objective. Also consider the supported unit's mission, equipment, and method of travel to/from PZ/LZ.

    • (3) Security. Consider size and proximity of threat elements versus availability of security forces. The supported unit normally provides security. Consider cover and concealment, key terrain, avenues of approach and departure. The area should be large enough to provide dispersion.
    • b. Technical.
    • (1) Number and type of aircraft. Determine if the size of the LZ can support all the aircraft at once or if they must rotate into LZ for in-flight linkup.

    (2) Landing formation. Plan landing formation for shape and size of LZ.

    (3) Sling loads. For missions requiring sling loads at or near maximum gross weight of the helicopter select larger LZs where barriers have minimum vertical development.

    (4) Surface conditions. Consider slopes; blowing sand, snow, or dust. Be aware that vegetation may conceal surface hazards (for example, large rocks, ruts, or stumps). Areas selected should also be free of sources of rotor wash signature.

    (5) Obstacles. Hazards within the LZ that cannot be eliminated must be plotted. Plan approach and departure routes over lowest obstacles.

    • c. Meteorological.
    • (1) Ceiling and visibility. Ceiling and visibility are critical when operating near threat elements. Inadvertent instrument meteorological condition (IMC) recovery can expose the aircraft and crew to radar guided and heat-seeking weapons, with few options for detection and avoidance. If one aircrew of a multiship operation must respond to inadvertent IMC, the element of surprise will be lost, the assets onboard will not be available for the mission, and the entire mission may be at risk.

    (2) Winds. Determine approach and departure paths.

    • (3) Pressure altitude (PA). High PA may limit loads and, therefore, require more sorties.
    • Note. Avoid planning approach or departure routes into a rising or setting sun or moon.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS:
    • 1. Unimproved and unlit areas are more difficult to evaluate at night because of low contrast. Knowledge of the various methods for determining the height of obstacles is critical to successfully completing this task. Visual obstacles such as shadows should be treated the same as
    • physical obstacles.

    • 2. When performing operations during unaided night flight, ensure that the searchlight or landing light (white light) is in the desired position. Using the white light will impair night vision for several minutes. Therefore, exercise added caution if resuming flight before reaching full dark
    • adaptation.

    CONFINED AREA CONSIDERATIONS: Determine a suitable axis and path for a go-around. For multiaircraft operations, determine the number of aircraft that the area can accommodate safely.

    • SNOW/SAND/DUST CONSIDERATIONS: Evaluate surface conditions for the likelihood of encountering a whiteout/brownout. Determine a suitable axis and path for a go-around.
    • MOUNTAIN/PINNACLE/RIDGELINE CONSIDERATIONS: When practical, position the aircraft on the windward side of the area. Evaluate suitability—paying particular attention to PA and winds. Determine a suitable axis and escape route for a go-around. Operations at high altitudes are more likely to expose the crews to visual detection, radar, or heat-seeking weapons.
  40. TASK 1058
    PERFORM VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS APPROACH

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter given visual meteorological conditions (VMC) conditions.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:
    • Rated.
    • 1. Select a suitable landing area (analyze suitability, barriers, wind, approach path, touchdown point, and takeoff direction).

    2. Ensure that sufficient power exists for the type of approach/landing desired.

    3. Maintain a constant approach angle clear of obstacles to desired point of termination (hover) or touchdown (surface).

    4. Maintain rate of closure appropriate for the conditions.

    5. Maintain ground track alignment with the landing direction, as appropriate.

    6. Align aircraft with landing direction below 50 feet AGL or as appropriate for transition from terrain flight.

    • 7. Perform a smooth and controlled termination to a hover or touchdown to the surface.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will focus primarily outside the aircraft to provide obstacle clearance throughout the maneuver. He will announce when he begins the approach and whether the approach will terminate to a hover or to the surface. The P* also will announce the intended point of landing and any deviation to the approach, if required.

    b. The pilot not on the controls (P) and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will confirm the suitability of the area, assist in clearing the aircraft, and provide adequate warning of traffic and obstacles. The P and NCM will acknowledge any deviation during the approach. The P and NCM will announce when their attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside.

    2. Procedures. Evaluate winds. Select an approach angle that allows obstacle clearance while descending to the desired point of termination. Once the termination point is sighted and the approach angle is intercepted (on base or final), adjust the collective as necessary to establish and maintain a constant angle. Maintain entry airspeed until the rate of closure appears to be increasing. Above 50 feet AGL, maintain ground track alignment and the aircraft in trim. Below 50 feet AGL, align the aircraft with the landing direction. Progressively decrease the rate of descent and rate of closure until reaching the termination point (hover or touchdown).

    a. To a hover. The approach to a hover may terminate with a full stop over the planned termination point, or continue movement to transition to hovering flight. Progressively decrease the rate of descent and rate of closure until an appropriate hover is established over the intended termination point.

    b. To the surface. Proceed as for an approach to a hover, except determine an approach angle that allows obstacle clearance while descending to the desired point of touchdown. (The decision to terminate to the surface with zero speed or with forward movement will depend on the aircraft's loading or environmental conditions.)

    • c. Touch down with minimum lateral movement. After surface contact, ensure that the aircraft remains stable until all movement stops. Smoothly lower the collective to the full down position and neutralize the pedals and cyclic. Apply brakes if required.
    • Note. If wind conditions may be a factor, a wind evaluation should be performed. Techniques for evaluating wind conditions are found in FM 1-202.
    • Note. Steep approaches can place the aircraft in potential settling with power conditions.
    • Note. Performing this maneuver in certain environments may require hover out of ground effect (OGE) power. Evaluate each situation for power required versus power available.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS:
    • 1. Altitude, apparent ground speed, and rate of closure are difficult to estimate at night. The rate of descent during the final 100 feet should be slightly less than during the day to avoid abrupt attitude changes at low altitudes. After establishing the descent during unaided flights, airspeed may be reduced to approximately 50 knots until apparent ground speed and rate of closure appear to be increasing. Progressively decrease the rate of descent and forward speed until termination of
    • maneuver.

    2. Surrounding terrain or vegetation may decrease contrast and cause degraded depth perception during the approach. Before descending below obstacles, determine the need for artificial lighting.

    3. Use proper scanning techniques to avoid spatial disorientation.

    • 4. When performing operations during unaided night flight, ensure that the searchlight or landing light (white light) is in the desired position. Using the white light will impair night vision for several minutes. Therefore, exercise added caution if resuming flight before reaching full dark
    • adaptation.
    • SNOW/SAND/DUST CONSIDERATIONS:
    • 1. Termination to a point OGE. This approach requires OGE power and may be used for most snow landings and some sand/dust landings. Make the approach to a hover OGE over the intended landing location. Slowly lower the collective and allow the aircraft to descend. The rate of descent will be determined by the rate in which the snow/sand/dust is blown from the intended landing point. Remain above the snow/sand/dust cloud until it dissipates and visual references can be seen for touchdown. After ground contact, slowly lower the collective to the full down position and neutralize the flight controls.

    2. Termination to the surface with forward speed. This termination may be made to an improved landing surface or suitable area with minimal ground references. Once the appropriate approach angle is intercepted, adjust the collective as necessary to establish and maintain the angle. As the apparent rate of closure appears to increase, progressively reduce the rate of descent and closure to arrive at the touchdown area slightly above effective translational lift. At this point, maintain the minimum rate of closure that ensures that the snow/sand/dust cloud remains behind the pilot's station. Apply slight aft cyclic just prior to touchdown to prevent burying the wheels or toes of the skis. When the wheels or heels of the skis contact the snow/ground, slowly lower the collective and allow the aircraft to settle. Lower the collective as necessary, neutralize the flight controls, and apply brakes as necessary to stop forward movement.

    • 3. Termination to the surface with no forward speed. This termination should be made to landing areas where slopes, obstacles, or unfamiliar terrain precludes a landing with forward speed. It is not recommended when new or powder snow or fine dust is present because whiteout/brownout conditions will occur. The termination is made directly to a reference point on the ground with no forward speed. The angle should be slightly steeper than a normal approach and the approach speed faster than a normal approach. After ground contact, slowly lower the collective to the full down position, neutralize the flight controls, and apply brakes as necessary to ensure no forward movement.
    • Note. When landing in deep snow, the aircraft wheels/skis may settle at different rates and the aircraft will normally terminate in a tail low attitude.
    • Note. During sand/dust landings, all doors and windows should be closed and vent blowers turned off.
    • Note. Hovering OGE reduces available ground references and may increase the possibility of spatial disorientation. Be prepared to transition to instruments and execute an instrument takeoff if ground reference is lost.
    • Note. At night, using the landing, search, or anticollision light may cause spatial disorientation while in blowing snow/sand/dust.
    • CONFINED AREA CONSIDERATIONS: An approach to the forward one third of the useable landing area will reduce the approach angle and minimize power requirements. Before beginning the approach, the crew will determine and brief an escape route in case a go-around is necessary. During the approach, continue to determine the suitability of the area and the possible need for a go-around. If possible, make the decision to go-around before descending below the barriers or going below effective translational lift (ETL). After touchdown, check aircraft stability as the collective is lowered.
    • MOUNTAIN/PINNACLE/RIDGELINE CONSIDERATIONS: Select a shallow to steep approach angle, depending on the wind, density altitude, gross weight, and obstacles.Before beginning the approach, the crew will determine and brief an escape route in case a go-around is necessary. During the approach, continue to determine the suitability of the intended landing point. The rate of closure may be difficult to determine until the aircraft is close to the landing area. Reduce airspeed to slightly above effective translational lift until the rate of closure can be determined. Before reaching the near edge of the landing area, the descent should be stopped and the rate of closure slowed. At this point, decide whether to continue the approach or make a go-around. If a go-around is required, it should be performed before decelerating below ETL. If the approach is continued, terminate in the landing area to a hover or to the surface. After touching down, check aircraft stability as the collective is lowered.
    • Note. To successfully operate into small areas, the P* may have to place the nose of the aircraft over the edge of the landing area. This may cause a loss of important visual references when on the final approach. All crewmembers must assist in providing information on aircraft position in the landing area.
    • MUD/MUSKEG/TUNDRA CONSIDERATIONS: Select a suitable area and terminate the approach to a
    • 10-foot hover over the intended touchdown point. Begin a vertical descent until the aircraft touches
    • down. Check aircraft stability while lowering the collective. If the area is suitable, lower the collective to the full down position andneutralize the cyclic and pedals
  41. TASK 1062
    PERFORM SLOPE OPERATIONS

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter with aircraft cleared and given a slope area.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:
    • 1. Rated.
    • a. Select a suitable landing area.

    b. Set the parking brake before landing.

    c. Perform a smooth and controlled descent and touchdown.

    d. Maintain heading ±5 degrees.

    • e. Do not allow aircraft to drift ±1 foot until touchdown. Then no drift allowed.
    • f. Perform a smooth and controlled ascent from the surface.
    • 2. Nonrated.
    • a. Confirm suitable landing area.

    b. Confirm parking brake set before landing.

    • c. Announce drift and altitude.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P)* will announce his intent to perform a slope operation and establish the helicopter over the slope. He will ensure the brakes are set. He will announce his intended landing area and any deviation from the intended maneuver. P* should be aware of the common tendency to become tense and, as a result, to over control the aircraft while performing the slope operation. The P* will note the aircraft attitude at a hover, prior to starting descent to land on the slope.

    • b. The pilot not on the controls (P) and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will provide adequate warning of obstacles, unannounced drift, or altitude changes. The P will assist in setting the parking brakes and verify when they are set. He will note the aircraft attitude on the vertical situation indicator (VSI), and notify the P* prior to exceeding aircraft slope limitations. The P and NCM will confirm the suitability of the intended landing area and announce when their attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside.
    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. Landing. Select a suitable area for slope operations. If possible, orient the aircraft into the wind. Set the parking brakes. Announce the initiation of the slope landing. Smoothly lower the collective until the tail or main landing gear contacts the ground. Adjust the cyclic to maintain the aircraft in a level attitude while maintaining heading with the pedals. Continue lowering the collective and simultaneously apply cyclic into the slope to maintain the position of the up slope wheel until the landing gear is firmly on the ground. Coordinate the collective and cyclic to control the rate of attitude change when lowering the down slope gear to the slope. With the down slope gear on the ground, simultaneously lower the collective full down and neutralize the cyclic. If cyclic or aircraft slope limits are reached before the aircraft is firmly on the ground, return the aircraft to a hover. Select a new area where the slope is less steep and attempt another slope landing.

    • b. Takeoff. Before takeoff, announce initiation of an ascent. Smoothly increase the collective and apply the cyclic into the slope to maintain the position of the up slope wheel. Continue to increase the collective to raise the down slope wheel(s), maintain heading with the pedals, and simultaneously adjust the cyclic to attain a hover attitude. As the aircraft leaves the ground, adjust the cyclic to accomplish a vertical ascent to a hover with minimum drift.
    • Note. Before performing slope operations, the crew must understand dynamic roll over and droop stop pounding characteristics.
    • Note. When the tail wheel is locked and on the ground, overcontrolling the pedals may result in roll oscillations caused by the thrust of the tail rotor.

    • Note. Crewmembers must be aware of the helicopter’s normal hovering attitude before putting a wheel on the ground.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS:
    • 1. When conducting slope operations, determine the need for artificial illumination before starting the maneuver. Select reference points to determine slope angles. (References probably will be limited and difficult to ascertain.) If, at any time, successful completion of the landing is doubtful, abort the maneuver.

    2. When performing operations during unaided night flight, ensure that the searchlight or landing light (white light) is in the desired position. Using the white light will impair night vision for several minutes. Therefore, exercise added caution if resuming flight before reaching fully dark adaptation.
  42. TASK 1064
    PERFORM A ROLL-ON LANDING

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter given a suitable landing area.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Select a suitable landing area.

    2. Maintain a constant approach angle clear of obstacles to desired point of touchdown.

    3. Maintain ground track alignment with the landing direction, as appropriate.

    4. Perform a smooth, controlled touchdown and termination, appropriate for the conditions, below 60 knots ground speed aligned with the landing direction ±5 degrees.

    • 5. Ensure speed at touchdown is no slower than that appropriate for the conditions.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will announce his intent to perform a roll-on landing, when beginning the approach, the intended point of landing, and any deviation from the approach.

    b. The P will verify that the brakes are released before starting the approach. The P and NCM will confirm the suitability of the landing area and will provide adequate warning of hazards or obstacles. They will announce when their attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside.

    • 2. Procedures: When the desired approach angle is intercepted, adjust the collective as necessary to maintain a constant angle of approach and adjust the cyclic for an attitude that will result in an optimum airspeed for the conditions. Before touchdown, align the aircraft with the landing direction. Before tail wheel touchdown, increase the collective as necessary to make a smooth touchdown below 60 knots ground speed. After tail wheel contact, use collective to smoothly lower the landing gear to the surface. If desired, use aerodynamic braking while maintaining the main landing gear off the ground to assist in stopping the roll out. Allow the aircraft to descend to the surface by adjusting the collective as necessary and centering the cyclic to allow a smooth touchdown. After the main landing gear is on the surface, center the cyclic to avoid droop stop pounding, then lower the collective, and apply the brakes as necessary.
    • Note. When it is necessary to perform a roll-on landing because of a single engine failure, the P* should not decelerate the aircraft below minimum single engine indicated airspeed (IAS) until the aircraft is at a point from which obstacles in the flight path will be cleared and a safe landing can be assured.
    • DROOP STOP POUNDING (DSP)/AERODYNAMIC BRAKING:
    • 1. DSP is a phenomenon that can occur when there is excessive downward blade travel causing the blades to strike the droop stops when they are in the fly position. The conditions, which combine to induce this type DSP, include excessive aft cyclic, low collective, and all wheels on the ground. The maneuver that is most likely to produce DSP is the roll-on landing in conjunction with aerodynamic braking; however, DSP can also occur during taxi and down slope landings. Aerodynamic braking is a procedure that uses the aerodynamic forces of the rotor system to slow or stop the aircraft. Once the tail wheel is on the ground, using the aft cyclic in conjunction with an increase in collective will slow or stop the aircraft.

    • 2. Aerodynamic braking is permissible while the tail wheel is on the ground before main gear contact. Once the main wheels contact the ground, the cyclic must be centered, collective lowered (center cyclic before lowering the collective), and brakes applied (only when collective is full down as required). If a pilot attempts to slow the aircraft after main wheel contact by using aft cyclic as he lowers the collective, he will hear an audible 4/Rev knocking. This is the first indication of DSP. With more rear cyclic applied, DSP will become heavy (you may also feel the pounding in the airframe) and main rotor blade contact with the ALQ-144 and tail rotor drive shaft may result.
    • Note. This maneuver may be performed in an environment where obscurants (for example, sand, dust, or snow) are present.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: Altitude, apparent ground speed, and rate of closure are difficult to estimate at night. The rate of descent at night during the final 100 feet should be slightly slower than during the day to avoid abrupt attitude changes at low altitudes.
    • ROUGH/UNPREPARED SURFACE CONSIDERATIONS: Closely monitor touchdown speed when landing to a rough or unprepared surface. Consistent with the situation and aircraft capabilities, a more pronounced deceleration before touchdown coupled with more effective aerodynamic braking after tail wheel touchdown may be appropriate. Note that the wheel brakes may be less effective. If the surface is soft, exercise care when lowering the collective until the aircraft comes to a complete stop.
  43. TASK 1068
    PERFORM GO-AROUND

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Determine when a go-around is required.

    2. Immediately apply appropriate power to initiate go-around.

    • 3. Immediately adjust to appropriate climb airspeed for conditions.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will announce his intent to perform a go-around and will remain primarily focused outside to avoid obstacles.

    • b. The pilot not on the controls (P) and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will assist in clearing the aircraft and provide adequate warning of obstacles. The P will also monitor systems instruments to ensure aircraft limits are not exceeded.
    • 2. Procedures. When it becomes doubtful that a safe landing can be done, announce "go-around." Immediately apply power (if available) and simultaneously adjust pitch attitude to stop the descent and clear any obstacles. Maintain aircraft in trim and adjust to the appropriate climb speed for conditions. Maintain the appropriate ground track.
    • Note. The decision to go-around may be made at any time but in limited power situations should be determined before descending below the barriers or decelerating below effective
    • transitional lift (ETL).
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: A go-around should also be initiated if visual contact with the landing area is lost.
    • SNOW/SAND/DUST CONSIDERATIONS: If during the approach, visual reference with the landing area or obstacles is lost, initiate a go-around or instrument takeoff (ITO) as required, immediately. Be prepared to transition to instruments. Once visual meteorological conditions (VMC) are regained, continue with the go-around.
    • MOUNTAINOUS AREA CONSIDERATIONS: If at any time during an approach, the aircraft does not have sufficient power and turbulent conditions or wind shift create an unsafe condition, perform a goround
    • immediately. Perform one of the following:

    1. Where escape routes exist, turn the aircraft away from the terrain, apply forward cyclic and lower the collective, if possible. Accelerate the aircraft to an appropriate airspeed for conditions and complete the go-around.

    2. Where escape routes do not exist, adjust aircraft for maximum rate of climb to ensure obstacle clearance. Upon clearing obstacles, accelerate aircraft to an appropriate airspeed for conditions and complete the go-around.
  44. TASK 1070
    RESPOND TO EMERGENCIES

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter, given a specific emergency condition or the indications of a specific malfunction, and given asuitable landing area.

    Note. For standardization annual proficiency and readiness test (APART) and annual evaluations, the following emergency procedures will be evaluated: Single engine failure (at altitude and at a hover), decreasing RPM R to include performing electronic control unit/digital electronic control unit (ECU/DECU) lockout (in flight), and any emergency procedure that results in a degraded automatic flight control system (AFCS) condition. Other emergency procedures may be evaluated at the discretion of the evaluator.

    Note.
    For evaluations, the following AFCS systems will be deactivated: SAS 1, SAS 2, TRIM, FPS, and BOOST.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:
    • 1. Rated.
    • a. Identify the malfunction, determine the appropriate emergency procedure, and perform or describe the appropriate immediate action procedures outlined in the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/checklist (CL).

    b. Select a suitable landing area.

    • c. For AFCS OFF, when a hover is required, maintain altitude ±5 feet and heading ±20 degrees.
    • 2. Nonrated.
    • a. Prepare the aircraft, crew, and passengers for an emergency landing. Ensure passenger seat belts are on and crew shoulder harnesses are locked.

    b. Look for a suitable landing area and alert the crew to the landing area’s location.

    • c. Assist in evacuating passengers to designated assembly area according to the crew briefing.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions. Any crewmember detecting an emergency will immediately announce the emergency to the other crewmembers. If time permits, lock shoulder harnesses, make a mayday call, and tune transponder to emergency, as appropriate.

    a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will perform the underlined and nonunderlined steps as appropriate depending on the environmental or aircraft conditions for the pilot on the controls (that is, noncircled items) as per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/CL and initiate the appropriate type of landing. During visual meteorological conditions (VMC), the P* will focus primarily outside the aircraft to maintain aircraft control and to provide adequate clearance from traffic or obstacles. During instrument meteorological condition (IMC), the P* will remain focused inside the aircraft on the flight instruments to maintain aircraft control.

    b. The pilot not on the controls (P) will perform as directed or briefed. The P will perform the underlined and nonunderlined steps for the pilot not on the controls (that is, circled items) as per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/CL. If time permits, he will verify all emergency checks with the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/CL. He will request appropriate emergency assistance as described in the Flight Information Handbook.

    • c. The nonrated crewmember (NCM) will prepare the passengers for an emergency landing. During the descent he will look for a suitable landing area, alert the crew to the landing area’s location and assist in clearing the aircraft. After landing, the NCM will assist in evacuating the passengers to the designated assembly area. If normal exits cannot be used, he will use the nearest emergency exit to expedite the evacuation. He will keep communications to a minimum to allow the P* or P to attempt communications outside the aircraft. After accounting for all crewmembers and passengers, the NCM will assist the other crewmembers in any follow-on action (fire fighting, first aid, emergency signaling, or survival equipment).
    • 2. Procedures. Analyze the information given (for example, aircraft response, caution/advisory lights, and central display unit/pilot display unit [CDU/PDU] indications). Determine the malfunction and select the appropriate emergency procedure. Perform the emergency procedure per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/CL.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: Take special precautions to identify the correct switches/levers when performing emergency procedures at night or while wearing night vision goggles (NVGs).
  45. TASK 1082
    PERFORM AUTOROTATION

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter and given an emergency procedure requiring autorotation.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Identify the malfunction, determine the appropriate emergency procedure, and perform or describe the appropriate procedures outlined in the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/checklist (CL).

    2. Select a suitable landing area.

    3. Adjust airspeed appropriate for the emergency.

    • 4. Perform a deceleration and termination as directed by the instructor pilot (IP) or as appropriate for the type of emergency per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will enter the autorotation and remain focused primarily outside the aircraft throughout the maneuver and will announce “autorotation.” The P* will monitor RPM R, trim, airspeed, and announce the intended point of termination. The P* will perform the appropriate steps for the pilot on the controls per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/CL. The P* will acknowledge any announced warnings, recommendations, or control input made by the pilot not on the controls (P).

    b. The P will monitor RPM R, aircraft trim, and airspeed and provide adequate warning for corrective actions. If time permits, lock shoulder harnesses, place transponder to emergency; and make a mayday call. If the P must make a control input to prevent exceeding any limitations, he will announce his actions to the P*. The P will perform the underlined steps and nonunderlined steps for the pilot not on the controls (that is, circled items) per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/CL. He will perform actions as directed by the P*. He will monitor and back up the performance of the emergency procedures, and confirm actions per the checklist, time permitting.

    c. The P and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will confirm the suitability of the landing area, assist in clearing the aircraft, and provide adequate warning of obstacles.

    • d. The NCM will prepare the passengers for an emergency landing. After landing, the NCM will assist in evacuating the passengers to the designated assembly area according to the crew briefing. If normal exits cannot be used, he will use the nearest emergency exit to expedite the evacuation. He will keep communications to a minimum to allow the P* or P to attempt communications outside the aircraft. After accounting for all crewmembers and passengers, the NCM will assist the other crewmembers in any follow-on action (fire fighting, first aid, emergency signaling, or survival equipment).
    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. Recognize the emergency and enter autorotation or during training select the correct entry point. An autorotation may be done either “straight in” or “with turn.” When executing an autorotation with turn, aircrews must be aware of the tendency for RPM R to increase. Smoothly lower the collective (at a moderate rate) to the full down position. Apply pedal as required to maintain the aircraft in trim. Adjust the cyclic to assume airspeed appropriate for the conditions, and initiate a turn, if necessary.
    • Note. When turning to the right, an increase in RPM R will develop rapidly in relation to the rate of cyclic application. The RPM R increase can be quite rapid with a corresponding rapid right turn. The increase in RPM R will even be further aggravated with heavy gross weight aircraft, and high density altitude. Adjust the collective as necessary to prevent rotor overspeed.
    • Note. When executing an autorotation with turn to the left, a slight to moderate increase in RPM R will normally occur. However, when right lateral cyclic is rapidly applied from a left turn condition into a right turn condition, an even greater increase in RPM R will be evident. The increase in RPM R will even be further aggravated with heavy gross weight aircraft and high density altitude. Adjust the collective as necessary to prevent rotor overspeed. An autorotation may be done “straight in” or “with turn.” When executing an autorotation with turn, aircrews must be aware of the tendency for RPM R to increase.

    b. During the descent, the P* and P will monitor RPM R to prevent an overspeed or underspeed condition and the P* will adjust the collective as necessary to establish and maintain a steady state autorotation. The P will call out RPM R, airspeed, and aircraft in trim. (Steady state autorotation is defined as RPM R within limits; airspeed is not below 80 knots indicated airspeed [KIAS]; torque, trim, and aircraft in position to land at the desired touchdown point.) If conditions are not met, execute a go-around.

    c. Between 50 and 75 feet above ground level (AGL), adjust the cyclic for a smooth, progressive deceleration. Maintain ground track and apply pedal to align the aircraft with the direction of touchdown.

    d. Terminate the autorotation by one of the three following methods. (During training the instructor pilot [IP] will announce which is to be used.)

    • (1) Power recovery. Upon receiving the command "power recovery," the P* will apply the collective as necessary to arrest the rate of descent while simultaneously maintaining trim with the pedals. He continues to apply sufficient collective to arrest the rate of descent and establish a normal climb.
    • Note. While applying the collective for a go-around, be aware of the tendency for initial RPM R decay.

    (2) Terminate with power. Upon receiving the command "terminate with power," the P* will adjust the collective to arrest the descent at an altitude that will ensure that the tail wheel will not contact the ground. (Conditions permitting; ground speed at the termination of the maneuver should be the same as for touchdown.)

    (3) Touchdown autorotations may only be conducted in an emergency or in the simulator. During touchdown autorotations, the P* will adjust the cyclic and collective to smoothly cushion the main gear onto the landing surface. After the main wheels are on the ground, he smoothly lowers the collective to full down, neutralizes the cyclic, and maintains heading and ground track with the pedals. He will use the brakes as necessary to stop roll out.

    • Note. When conducting autorotation training/evaluation in the aircraft (power levers at fly), the P* should limit the torque to below 10 percent to ensure that an autorotational descent (not a steep approach) is occurring. Torque spikes as a result of collective application to arrest RPM R are acceptable as long as the collective is reduced below 10 percent dual engine torque. The intent of the torque limit is to ensure the rotor is decoupled from the engines and autorotational descent is established.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: Suitable landing areas will be much more difficult to locate at night. Hazards will be difficult to detect in the landing area. Use the landing light/searchlight as appropriate.
  46. TASK 1114
    PERFORM A ROLLING TAKEOFF

    WARNING

    If the takeoff is aborted, it may be impossible to stop the aircraft before clearing the barriers (depending on aircraft weight, speed, surface composition, and size of the takeoff area). Situations requiring this maneuver will usually result in very marginal singleengine characteristics. This increased risk factor will be addressed during the mission risk assessment process.

    CAUTION

    Do not exceed power or aircraft component limitations when actual inground effect (IGE) hover power is not available.

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter with the aircraft cleared and from a suitable takeoff area.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:
    • 1. Before takeoff—
    • a. Establish and maintain power, as necessary.

    b. Maintain alignment with takeoff direction ±5 degrees.

    • c. Accelerate to desired takeoff speed not to exceed 60 knots ground speed.
    • 2. After takeoff—
    • a. Adjust power, as required, not to exceed aircraft limits.

    b. Maintain ground track alignment with the takeoff direction with minimum drift.

    c. Maintain maximum rate of climb airspeed ±5 knots indicated airspeed (KIAS).

    • d. Maintain aircraft in trim immediately after takeoff.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot in command (PC) will confirm the area is suitable for the maneuver.

    b. The pilot on the controls (P*) will remain focused primarily outside the aircraft during the maneuver. The P* will announce when he initiates the maneuver and his intent to abort or alter the takeoff.

    • c. The pilot not on the controls (P) and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will announce when ready for takeoff and will remain focused primarily outside the aircraft to assist in clearing and to provide adequate warning of obstacles. The P and NCM will announce when their attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside. The P will monitor power requirements, ground speed, and advise the P* when power limits are being approached.
    • Note. When conducting operations with jettisonable external stores, the P will be prepared to jettison the stores when operating below minimum single-engine airspeed or as briefed during the crew briefing.
    • 2. Procedures.
    • Note. A rolling takeoff is used when hover power for takeoff is marginal or insufficient and a takeoff must be made. Use the rotor system thrust to accelerate the aircraft to a more efficient speed for flight.

    a. Verify that the takeoff surface is suitable for the maneuver, and select ground reference points.

    b. Neutralize the cyclic, and raise the collective to establish the aircraft light on the wheels.

    • c. Use the pedals to maintain heading.
    • d. Coordinate forward cyclic, maintain heading with pedals, and increase the collective as necessary to accelerate the aircraft. Accelerate to MAX R/C–IAS (not to exceed 60 knots ground speed).
    • Note. It may be necessary to lower the collective to keep the main landing gear in contact with the takeoff surface until takeoff speed is attained. Do not force the aircraft to remain on the ground after takeoff speed is attained. Note that the aircraft nose will drop as a result of the stabilator programming as forward speed increases causing the tail wheel to lift off the surface.

    e. Upon reaching takeoff speed, adjust power to maximum and cyclic as necessary to allow the aircraft to become airborne.

    • f. After takeoff, trim the aircraft as soon as possible. Establish and maintain maximum rate of climb airspeed until the aircraft is clear of obstacles.
    • Note. For training, to simulate situations requiring a rolling takeoff, use 10 percent below hover torque as maximum torque available.
    • Note. Pilot technique, winds, and type of runway surface will affect the distance needed to perform this maneuver.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS:
    • 1. If sufficient illumination or night vision device (NVD) resolution exists to view obstacles, accomplish the takeoff in the same way as a rolling takeoff during the day. Visual obstacles such as shadows should be treated as physical obstacles. If sufficient illumination or NVD resolution does not exist, a rolling takeoff should not be performed.

    2. Reduced visual references during the takeoff and throughout the ascent at night may make it difficult to maintain the desired ground track. Knowledge of the surface wind direction and velocity will assist in establishing the crab angle required to maintain the desired ground track.

    • 3. Using the landing light or searchlight is recommended at night to view obstacles and maintain awareness of the rotor tip path plane. Ensure ground clearance with the searchlight or landing light as the helicopter lifts off the ground.
    • SNOW/SAND/DUST CONSIDERATIONS: This task may be used in environments where these conditions are present. It may allow the aircraft to get ahead of the blowing conditions into clear air before takeoff. This maneuver should be aborted if visual cues become lost when power is applied. Extreme care should be taken to confirm that the snow, sand, or dust conditions do not cover rough areas in the takeoff path that could damage the aircraft.
  47. TASK 1162
    Perform emergency egress

    WARNING

    Removing an injured crewmember or passenger may increase the
    severity of the injuries. Analyze the risk of additional injury versus the risk of leaving the crewmember or passenger in the aircraft until assistance arrives.

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Perform or describe using emergency exits on the aircraft per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual.

    2. Perform or describe the emergency egress of a pilot, nonrated crewmember (NCM), or passenger from his seat.

    3. Perform or describe the emergency engine shutdown of the aircraft per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual.

    4. Assist in marshaling passengers to designated assembly area.

    • 5. Perform or describe duties as briefed in the crew mission briefing.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot in command (PC) will direct an emergency egress. He will determine if the egress will be done before the rotor blades have stopped. (If the PC is incapacitated, the next ranking rated crewmember/nonrated crewmember [RCM/NCM] will perform this function.) He will also determine and announce if an emergency engine shutdown will be performed.

    b. The pilot on the controls (P*) and pilot not on the controls (P) will egress their respective positions and assist with passenger egress.

    c. The NCM will direct passenger egress.

    • d. All crewmembers will perform duties as briefed during the crew briefing and assist with the egress of incapacitated crewmembers and passengers, if required.
    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. If an emergency egress occurs, use the cabin/cockpit doors. If they are jammed, use the emergency release. If the emergency release does not work, break out the Plexiglas windows with the crash axe, boot, or other suitable object. Once out, guide yourself and passengers to clear the aircraft in a safe direction and meet at the assembly point. Account for all personnel.

    b. Perform the emergency egress of a pilot from his seat per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual. The instructions may also be found on the back of the seat.

    c. Perform emergency engine shutdown procedures per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual.

    OVERWATER CONSIDERATIONS: If egress must be made from an aircraft that has gone into the water, do not exit until rotor blades have stopped. Secure a handhold within the cockpit to maintain orientation, employ underwater breathing device (if equipped), and wait for cockpit and cabin area to fill with water. Once aircraft is full of water, use the cargo/cockpit doors. If they are jammed, use the emergency release. If the emergency release does not work, break out the windows with the crash axe, boot, or other suitable object, and swim clear of the aircraft. Do not activate life preserver until clear of aircraft and on surface.

  48. TASK 1166
    Perform instrument maneuvers

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter in instrument meteorological condition (IMC) or simulated IMC
    and given appropriate navigational publications.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Tune and identify appropriate navigational aids (NAVAIDs).

    2. Determine, intercept, and maintain the desired course ± 5 degrees.

    3. Maintain the desired heading ± 5 degrees.

    4. Maintain the desired distance measuring equipment (DME) arc ± 1 nautical mile.

    • 5. Identify station passage.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will remain focused inside the aircraft and will monitor radios and air traffic control (ATC) information. The P* will acknowledge all directives given by ATC or the pilot not on the controls (P). He will announce airspeed, heading, and altitude changes and any deviation not directed by ATC or the P.

    b. The P will select and announce radio frequencies. He also will monitor radios and ATC information not monitored by the P*. The P will confirm airspeed, heading, and altitude changes.

    c. During visual meteorological conditions (VMC) or simulated IMC, the P and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will focus primarily outside the aircraft to provide adequate warning of traffic or obstacles. They will announce when their attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside.

    2. Procedures. Adjust cyclic as required to maintain the desired airspeed and heading. Adjust collective as required to maintain the desired climb/descent rate or altitude and maintain aircraft in trim with the pedals. Perform instrument procedures per AR 95-1, FM 1-240, aeronautical information manual (AIM), FAA Instrument Flying Handbook, FAA Instrument Procedures Handbook and Department of Defense flight information publication (DOD FLIP).

    a. When expecting to use the automatic direction finder (ADF), ensure that the ADF will receive on the desired band and the Number 2 bearing pointer points at the selected station.

    b. When expecting to use the VHF omnidirectional range radio beacon/instrument landing system (VOR/ILS) receiver, ensure that the VOR is operational and the vertical situation indicator (VSI) and horizontal situation indicator (HSI) give the proper indications per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual.

    c. Before using a selected NAVAID for navigation, tune and identify the NAVAID. After identifying the desired station and the position of the aircraft in relation to the desired course, turn to an appropriate intercept heading. Maintain the intercept heading until approaching an on-course indication. Depending on the rate of closure, start a turn to intercept the desired course.

    d. Maintain heading to track the desired course. If the navigational instruments show an off-course condition, turn as necessary toward the course to reintercept. If navigational instruments do not indicate movement toward the course within a reasonable time, increase the intercept angle. When reintercepting the course, turn toward the course and apply the appropriate drift correction (normally one-half of the intercept angle). Continue to bracket the course by decreasing corrections until obtaining a heading that will maintain the aircraft on course. Determine arrival at radio intersections per procedures in FM 1-240, FAA Instrument Flying Handbook, FAA Instrument Procedures Handbook or AIM.
  49. TASK 1168
    Perform command instrument system procedures

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Configure the horizontal situation indicator/vertical situation indicator (HSI/VSI) mode select panels and command instrument system (CIS) to obtain the desired navigational data and commands.

    • 2. Follow the cyclic roll, cyclic pitch, and collective position indicator commands, as appropriate.
    • DESCRIPTION: Configure the CIS MODE SEL panel and, if required, the HSI/VSI MODE SEL panel, as required per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual.
  50. TASK 1170
    Perform instrument takeoff

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter in instrument meteorological condition (IMC) or simulated IMC and aircraft cleared.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    • 1. Adjust vertical situation indicator (VSI).
    • 2. Maintain power as required (+5 percent, -0 percent torque) to maintain desired climb airspeed and rate of climb without exceeding aircraft limits per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual.

    3. Maintain accelerative climb attitude + 2 degrees until climb airspeed is attained.

    • 4. Maintain the aircraft in trim after effective translational lift (ETL).
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will focus primarily outside the aircraft during the visual meteorological conditions (VMC) portion of the maneuver. He will announce when he
    • initiates the maneuver and his intent to abort or alter the takeoff. Before the aircraft enters simulated or actual IMC, he will make the transition to the flight instruments.

    b. The pilot not on the controls (P) will announce when ready for takeoff and will focus primarily outside the aircraft to assist in clearing during the VMC portion of the maneuver and to provide adequate warning of obstacles. He will announce when his attention is focused inside the aircraft. As the aircraft enters actual IMC, the P will announce when IMC and will monitor the flight instruments to assist in establishing coordinated flight within aircraft operating limits.

    • c. The nonrated crewmember (NCM) will maintain airspace surveillance during the VMC portion of the maneuver. During simulated IMC, the P and NCM will focus primarily outside
    • the aircraft to provide adequate warning of traffic or obstacles. They will announce when their attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside.
    • 2. Procedures. On the runway or takeoff pad, align the aircraft with the desired takeoff heading. Set the attitude indicator for takeoff (wings level on the horizon). Initiate the takeoff by increasing the collective smoothly and steadily until takeoff power is reached. (Set power as
    • required to accelerate to the desired climb airspeed and maintain the desired climb rate.) Adjust the pitch attitude 3 to 5 degrees below the horizon to establish the initial accelerative climb attitude. Visually maintain takeoff clearance and alignment on takeoff and transition to the flight instruments before entering IMC. Maintain the heading/course required by the departure procedure or air traffic control (ATC) instructions. When the desired climb airspeed is reached, adjust cyclic to maintain airspeed, and adjust collective to maintain the desired climb rate.
    • Note. The takeoff may be initiated from the ground or a hover.
  51. TASK 1174
    Perform holding procedures

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter in instrument meteorological condition (IMC) or simulated IMC and given holding instructions and appropriate Department of Defense flight information publication (DOD FLIP).
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Tune and identify the appropriate navigational aids (NAVAIDs).

    2. Correctly enter the holding pattern.

    • 3. Time and track holding pattern legs.
    • 4. Send the appropriate report to air traffic control (ATC) per DOD FLIP.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. Before arrival at the holding fix, the pilot in command (PC) will analyze the holding instructions and determine the holding pattern and proper entry procedures. He will brief the other crewmembers on the proposed entry, outbound heading, and inbound course. (The PC may delegate this task to another rated crewmember [RCM].)

    b. The pilot not on the controls (P) will select radio frequencies and monitor radios. He will announce ATC information not monitored by the pilot on the controls (P*). He also will compute outbound times and headings to adjust for wind and direct the P* to adjust the pattern as necessary.

    c. The P* will fly headings and altitudes and will adjust inbound and outbound times as directed by ATC or the P. He will announce any deviation as well as ATC information not monitored by the P.

    • d. During simulated IMC, the P and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will focus primarily outside the aircraft to provide adequate warning of traffic or obstacles. They will announce when their attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside.
    • 2. Procedures. Upon arrival at the holding fix, turn (if required) to the predetermined outbound heading or track and check the inbound course. Maintain the outbound heading or track as published or as directed by ATC. After the appropriate time outbound, turn to the inbound heading and apply normal tracking procedures to maintain the inbound course. Note the time required to fly the inbound leg and adjust outbound course and time if necessary. When holding at a NAVAID, begin timing the outbound leg when abeam the station. This is indicated by the # 2 bearing pointer or the TO/FROM indicator indicating a FROM indication. When holding at an intersection, begin timing the outbound leg upon establishing the outbound heading.
  52. TASK 1176
    Perform nonprecision approach

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter in instrument meteorological condition (IMC) or simulated IMC, given approach information and appropriate Department of Defense flight information publication (DOD FLIP).
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Correctly perform the approach.

    2. Correctly intercept and maintain nondirectional beacon (NDB) courses within 5 degrees of course centerline.

    3. Correctly intercept and maintain VHF omnidirectional range radio beacon (VOR) courses within 5 degrees of course centerline (one dot on the horizontal situation indicator/vertical situation indicator [HSI/VSI]).

    4. Correctly intercept and maintain localizer courses within 2.5 degrees of course centerline (two dots on the HSI/VSI).

    5. During airport surveillance radar (ASR) approaches, make immediate heading and altitude changes issued by air traffic control (ATC) and maintain heading ±5 degrees.

    6. Comply with descent minimums prescribed for the approach.

    • 7. Perform the correct missed approach procedure as published or per ATC instructions upon reaching the missed approach point (MAP) if landing cannot be done per AR 95-1.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • Crew actions.
    • 1. The pilot in command (PC) will review the approach with the other crewmembers before initiating the procedure. He will confirm with the crew the specific approach to be flown, that the correct navigational aid(NAVAID)/communication frequencies are set, and the HSI /VSI mode select panel and command instrument system (CIS) are selected as required. The PC may assign other crewmembers to perform these duties.

    2. The pilot on the controls (P*) will focus primarily inside the aircraft on the instruments and perform the approach. He will follow the heading/course, altitude, and missed approach directives issued by the pilot not on the controls (P). He will announce any deviation not directed by ATC or the P and will acknowledge all navigation directives given by the P.

    3. The P will call out the approach procedure to the P* and will advise the P* of any unannounced deviations. He will monitor outside for visual contact with the landing environment. If he makes visual contact suitable to complete the landing per AR 95-1, he will announce such and may, if directed by the PC, take the controls and complete the landing. If visual contact is not made at the missed approach point, he will announce such and call out the missed approach procedures.

    4. During visual meteorological conditions (VMC), the P and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will focus primarily outside the aircraft to provide adequate warning of traffic or obstacles. They will announce when their attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside.

    Note. A Doppler/global positioning system (GPS) that is not certified for instrument flight rules (IFR) flight will not be used as the primary source of navigation information for IFR operations in controlled airspace; however, its use should be considered and planned for as an emergency backup system.
  53. TASK 1178
    Perform precision approach

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter in instrument meteorological condition (IMC) or simulated IMC, given approach information and appropriate Department of Defense flight information publication
    (DOD FLIP).
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Correctly perform the approach.

    2. For an instrument landing system (ILS) approach, intercept and maintain the localizer course within 2.5 degrees of course centerline (two dots on the horizontal situation indicator (HSI), and glide slope within 0.5 degree of glide slope center (two dots on the VSI).

    3. For a precision approach radar (PAR) approach, make immediate heading and altitude changes issued by air traffic control (ATC) and maintain heading ±5 degrees; for final approach, maintain glide slope as directed by ATC.

    4. Comply with the published decision altitude (DA) or decision height (DH) prescribed for the approach.

    • 5. Perform the correct missed approach procedure as published or per ATC instructions upon reaching the DA/DH if landing cannot be done per AR 95-1.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • Crew actions.
    • 1. The pilot in command (PC) will review the approach with the other crewmembers before initiating the procedure. He will confirm with the crew the specific approach to be flown, that the correct navigational aid (NAVAID)/communication frequencies are set, and the HIS/VSI mode select panel and command instrument system (CIS) are selected as required. The PC may assign other crewmembers to perform these duties.

    2. The pilot on the controls (P*) will focus primarily inside the aircraft on the instruments and perform the approach. He will follow the heading/course, altitude, and missed approach directives issued by the P. He will announce any deviation not directed by ATC or the pilot not on the controls (P) and will acknowledge all navigation directives given by the P.

    3. The P will call out the approach procedure to the P* and will advise the P* of any unannounced deviations. He will monitor outside for visual contact with the landing environment. If he makes visual contact suitable to complete the landing per AR 95-1, he will announce such and may, if directed by the PC, take the controls and complete the landing. If visual contact is not made by DA/DH, the P will announce such and call out the missed approach procedures.

    • 4. During visual meteorological conditions (VMC), the P and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will focus primarily outside the aircraft to provide adequate warning of traffic or obstacles. They will announce when their attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside.
    • Note. A Doppler/global positioning system (GPS) that is not certified for instrument flight rules (IFR) flight will not be used as the primary source of navigation information for IFR operations in controlled airspace; however, its use should be considered and planned for as an emergency backup system.
  54. TASK 1180
    Perform emergency global positioning system recovery procedure

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter in visual meteorological conditions (VMC) or simulated instrument meteorological condition (IMC), given an approved emergency global positioning system
    (GPS) recovery procedure.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Enter and/or confirm the appropriate waypoints (initial approach fix [IAF], intermediate approach fix [IF], final approach fix [FAF], missed approached point [MAP]) into the navigation system.

    2. Execute the procedure according to an approved recovery procedure.

    3. Maintain a briefed airspeed not to exceed 90 knots indicated airspeed (KIAS), appropriate for the conditions, during all segments of the approach.

    4. Maintain the prescribed course +5 degrees.

    5. Comply with the descent minimums prescribed for the procedure.

    6. Arrive at the minimum descent altitude (MDA) prior to reaching the MAP.

    7. Execute a missed approach upon reaching the MAP if a safe landing cannot be done.

    8. During the missed approach, immediately establish a climb using an appropriate rate of climb airspeed (until established at the minimum safe altitude [MSA]).

    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Before the flight, the crew should review the recovery procedure in conjunction with the map to familiarize themselves with the procedure and with local terrain and obstructions in the vicinity of the procedure. The pilot in command (PC) performs a thorough map reconnaissance to determine the highest obstruction in the area of operations.

    2. Before initiating the procedure, the pilot on the controls (P*) must climb to the prescribed MSA, proceed toward the IAF, and make the appropriate radio calls. During the procedure, the P* will focus primarily inside the aircraft on the instruments. He will adjust the aircraft ground track to cross the IAF, IF, and then the FAF on the prescribed course. When over the FAF, he begins the final descent as appropriate.

    3. The pilot not on the controls (P) remains primarily focused outside the aircraft to provide adequate warning for avoiding obstacles/hazards and will announce when his attention is focused inside the cockpit. The P and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will monitor the aircraft instruments during the procedure and the P will tune the communication and navigation radios and transponder as required. The P will be prepared to call out the procedure to the P*, if asked, and be in a position to assume control of the aircraft and land the aircraft if VMC is encountered.

    • 4. The NCM will position himself on the P* side of the aircraft for obstruction clearance and airspace surveillance. He alerts the crew immediately if VMC is encountered.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS. The P should be in a position to assume control of the aircraft when a landing environment can be determined visually (aided/unaided). During night unaided flight, consider using the searchlight to identify the landing area.

    • TRAINING CONSIDERATIONS: This task will ONLY be performed under VMC or simulated IMC in a training environment.
    • Note. The IAF, IF, FAF and MAP may be programmed into the navigation system as an additional route for the mission.

    Note. It is not necessary to hold after a missed approach. The PC may elect to return to the IF at the MSA and attempt to complete the approach after coordinating with air traffic control (ATC) or with other aircraft using the approach procedure.

    Note. The AN/ARN-128B Doppler/GPS will not be used as the primary source of navigation information for IFR operations in controlled airspace; however, its use should be considered and planned for as an emergency backup system.

    Note. Inadvertent IMC multiship operations must be thoroughly briefed in the mission brief as a minimum on the following topics: individual aircraft holding altitudes/separation, when individual aircraft are allowed to depart their assigned altitude, missed approach procedure with aircraft in the holding pattern, frequencies, and command/control procedures.
  55. TASK 1182
    PERFORM UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter in visual meteorological conditions (VMC) or simulated instrument meteorological condition (IMC).
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Analyze aircraft attitude.

    2. Without delay, use correct recovery procedures.

    a. Attitude—level the wings on the attitude indicator.

    b. Heading—maintain heading; turn only to avoid known obstacles.

    • c. Torque—adjust torque as necessary.
    • d. Trim—trim aircraft as necessary.

    • e. Airspeed—adjust airspeed as necessary.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The trainer or evaluator will place the aircraft in unusual attitude and transfer aircraft controls to the pilot not on the controls (P). The P will acknowledge the transfer of controls, the unusual attitude, and recover the aircraft as pilot on the controls (P*).

    b. The P* will remain focused inside the aircraft during this maneuver and will acknowledge the unusual attitude recovery and transfer of aircraft controls.

    c. The P will assist in monitoring the aircraft instruments; he will call out attitude, torque, and trim as necessary.

    • d. During VMC, the P and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will focus primarily outside the aircraft to provide adequate warning of traffic or obstacles. They will announce when their attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside.
    • 2. Procedures. To recover from an unusual attitude, correct the pitch and roll attitude, adjust power, and trim the aircraft as required to return to level flight. All components are changed simultaneously with little lead of one over the other. The displacement of controls used in recoveries may be greater than those for normal flight. Care must be taken in making adjustments as straight-and-level flight is approached. The instruments must be observed closely to avoid over
    • controlling.

    NIGHT OR NVD CONSIDERATIONS: IMC is not a prerequisite for an unusual attitude. Low level ambient light may induce visual illusions and spatial disorientation. During night vision goggle (NVG) operations, video noise may contribute to loss of visual cues.

    SNOW/SAND/DUST CONSIDERATIONS: Obscurants other than weather can induce loss of visual contact. At low altitudes where these conditions would be encountered, it is extremely important that these procedures be initiated immediately to prevent ground contact.
  56. TASK 1184
    RESPOND TO INADVERTENT INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter, in visual meteorological conditions (VMC).
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Announce “IMC,” maintain proper aircraft control, immediately make the transition to instrument flight, and initiate immediate climb.

    2. Initiate correct inadvertent IMC recovery procedures.

    a. Attitude—level the wings on the attitude indicator.

    b. Heading—maintain heading; turn only to avoid known obstacles or as briefed for multiship operations.

    • c. Torque—adjust torque as necessary.
    • d. Trim—trim aircraft as necessary.

    e. Airspeed—adjust airspeed as necessary.

    • 3. Contact air traffic control (ATC), as required. Comply with ATC instructions, local regulations, and standing operating procedure (SOP).
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls/pilot not on the controls (P*/P) will announce inadvertent IMC as appropriate.

    b. The pilot in command (PC) will announce the minimum altitude to which the crew will climb (and heading if turn required for single and multiship operations) as the procedure is initiated.

    c. The P* will announce when he initiates inadvertent IMC procedures. He will announce if he is disoriented and unable to recover.

    d. The P will monitor the cockpit instruments to assist in recovery, set the transponder to emergency, make the appropriate radio calls, and perform any other crew tasks as directed by the P*. It may be necessary for the P to take the controls and implement recovery procedures.

    • e. The nonrated crewmember (NCM) will focus primarily outside the aircraft to provide adequate warning for avoiding terrain or obstacles. The P and NCM will perform any other crew tasks as directed by the PC.
    • 2. Procedures. If inadvertent IMC are encountered—

    a. Immediately adjust the pitch and roll attitude, adjust power, trim, and airspeed as required to ensure obstacleclearance/avoidance. All components are changed simultaneously with little or no lead time over the other.

    b. Complete the inadvertent IMC recovery per local regulations and policies.

    NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: When using night vision goggles (NVGs), he may see through a thin obscuration, such as fog and drizzle, with little or no degradation. The NVGs may be removed or flipped up once stable flight is established. It may be beneficial for the P not to completely remove his NVGs. The NVGs may assist in recovery by allowing the P to see through thin obscuration that would otherwise prevent him from seeing the landing environment.

    Note. If IMC conditions are entered with the searchlight or landing light on, spatial disorientation may occur.
  57. TASK 1188
    Operate aircraft survivability equipment

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter equipped with aircraft survivability equipment (ASE).
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:
    • 1. Rated.
    • a. Describe the purpose of installed ASE.

    b. Perform/describe preflight inspection; turn on, test, operation, emergency procedures, and shutdown of installed ASE.

    • c. Employ/describe using installed ASE.
    • 2. Nonrated.
    • a. Prepare equipment for operation.

    • b. Employ/describe using installed ASE
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot in command (PC) will ensure that crewmembers understand the employment of installed ASE during the conduct of the mission

    • b. The PC will also ensure that all ASE payloads and settings are per the mission briefing.
    • 2. Procedures. Perform or describe preflight inspection, turn on, test, operation, emergency
    • procedures, and shutdown of installed ASE equipment. Evaluate and interpret the ASE visual and aural indications.
  58. TASK 1190
    Perform hand and arm signals

    CONDITIONS:
    Given a list of hand and arm signals from FM 21-60 to identify or perform.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:
    • 1. Rated. Identify at a minimum the hand and arm signals required for moving an aircraft left, right, forward, or backward and for takeoff and landing per FM 21-60.
    • 2. Nonrated. Identify and perform at a minimum the hand and arm signals required for moving an aircraft left, right, forward, or backward and for takeoff and landing per FM 21-60.
    • DESCRIPTION: Identify or perform the hand and arm signals required to move an aircraft from one point to another.
  59. TASK 1194
    Perform refueling operations

    CONDITIONS:
    With a H-60 helicopter and refueling equipment.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Ensure that safety procedures are complied with per FM 10-67-1 and the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual, FM 3-04.111, and FM 1-113.

    2. Ensure that all doors and windows are closed on the refueling side (for hot refueling operations).

    3. Ensure that the aircraft is refueled per FM 10-67-1, the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual, FM 3-04.111, FM 1-113, and the unit standing operating procedure (SOP).

    • 4. Enter the appropriate information on DA Form 2408-12 (Army Aviator’s Flight Record).
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions cold refueling.
    • a. A crewmember will guide the refueling vehicle to the aircraft. Ensure that the driver parks the vehicle the proper distance from the aircraft per FM 10-67-1. Verify that all personnel not involved with the refueling operations are a safe distance away.

    • b. Ground and refuel the aircraft per FM 10-67-1, the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual, and the unit SOP. Ensure that the tanks are filled to the required level. When the refueling is completed, ensure that all caps are secured and remove the ground connection if the aircraft will not remain parked. Make the appropriate entries on DA Form 2408-12.
    • 2. Crew actions hot refueling.
    • a. The pilot not on the controls (P) and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will assist the pilot on the controls (P*) in positioning the aircraft. Ensure that the proper separation is maintained between the fuel source, the aircraft, and the refueling equipment. Before refueling the aircraft, the PC will verify that personnel not involved with the refueling operation are a safe distance away.

    b. The crewmember outside will ensure that the aircraft is grounded, refuel the aircraft per FM 10-67-1, the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual, the unit SOP, and assist with the refueling operation. Ensure that the tanks are filled to the required level. When the refueling is completed, ensure that all caps are secured and remove the ground connection.

    • c. The crewmember outside will inform the PC when the refueling is completed. Assist passengers in boarding the aircraft and in securing their seat belts. Assist the P* and P in clearing the aircraft during the departure from the refueling area. Make the appropriate entries on DA Form 2408-12.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: Supplement aircraft lighting at the refueling station by using an explosion-proof flashlight with an unfiltered lens to check for leaks and fuel venting.
  60. TASK 1262
    Participate in a crew-level after action review

    CONDITIONS:
    After flight in a H-60 and given a unit-approved, crew-level after action review
    checklist.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. The pilot in command (PC) will conduct a detailed crew-level after action review using the example shown below or a unit-approved crew-level after action review checklist.

    • 2. All crewmembers will actively participate in the review.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The PC will conduct a crew-level after action review. He will use a unit-approved checklist similar to the one shown in table 4-2 below. The PC will actively seek input from all crewmembers. He will ensure that the results of the review are passed to unit operations and flight standards.

    • b. All crewmembers will actively participate in the review. The intent is to constructively review the mission and apply lessons learned into subsequent missions.
    • 2. Procedures. Using an after action review checklist, participate in a crew-level after action review of the mission. The review should be an open and frank discussion of all aspects of the mission. It should include all factors of the mission and incorporate all crewmembers. The results of the review should be passed to operations and flight standards.
  61. TASK 2010
    PERFORM MULTIAIRCRAFT OPERATIONS

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:
    • 1. Rated.
    • a. Maneuver into the flight formation.

    b. Change position in the flight formation when required.

    c. Maintain proper horizontal and vertical separation for the type of formation flight being conducted.

    • d. Perform techniques of movement, if required.
    • 2. Nonrated.
    • a. Assume a position in the helicopter (as briefed) to observe other aircraft in the formation.

    • b. Announce if visual contact is lost with other aircraft.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will focus primarily outside the aircraft for clearing and keeping track of other aircraft. He will announce any maneuver or movement before execution and inform the pilot not on the controls (P) and nonrated crewmember (NCM) if visual contact is lost with other aircraft. He will ensure the appropriate radio calls are made during inadvertent instrument meteorological condition (IMC) breakup.

    b. The P and NCM will provide adequate warning of traffic or obstacles detected in the flight path and identified on the map. They will inform the P* if visual contact is lost with other aircraft, if an enemy is sighted, and when their attention is focused inside the aircraft again when attention is reestablished outside. The PC will call out direction and altitude in case of IMC breakup.

    • c. The NCM will position himself in the aircraft (as briefed) to observe other aircraft in the formation and assist in maintaining aircraft separation and obstacle clearance.
    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. Perform formation flight per appropriate publications and the unit standing operating procedure (SOP).

    • b. If the tactical situation requires, perform techniques of movement per TC 1-201.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: Closure rates are more difficult to determine. Keep changes in the formation to a minimum. All crewmembers must avoid fixation by using proper scanning techniques.

    1. Night. During unaided night flight, the crew should use formation and position lights to aid in maintaining the aircraft's position in the formation.

    • 2. Night vision goggle (NVG). When conducting NVG formation flight, the crew should use the infrared (IR) formation lights to maintain the aircraft's position in the formation.
    • Note. Additional crewmember requirements are in TC 1-210, chapter 4.
  62. TASK 2012
    PERFORM TACTICAL FLIGHT MISSION PLANNING

    CONDITIONS:
    Before flight in a H-60 helicopter and given a mission briefing, navigational maps, a navigational computer, approved mission planning software (if available), and other flight planning materials as required.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Analyze the mission using the mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, civil considerations (METT-TC) factors available.

    • 2. Perform a map/photo reconnaissance using the available map media or photos. Ensure that all
    • known hazards to terrain flight are plotted or entered into the approved mission planning software (if applicable).

    3. Select the appropriate terrain flight modes.

    4. Select appropriate primary and alternate routes and enter all of them on a map, route sketch, or into the approved mission planning software.

    5. Determine the distance ±1 kilometer, ground speed ±5 knots, and ETE ±1 minute for each leg of the flight.

    6. Determine the fuel required and reserve per AR 95-1 ±100 pounds.

    7. Obtain and analyze weather briefing to determine that weather and environmental conditions are adequate to complete the mission.

    • 8. Conduct a thorough crew mission briefing.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot in command/air mission commander (PC/AMC) will delegate mission tasks to crewmembers, have the overall responsibility for mission planning, and will conduct a thorough crew mission briefing. He will analyze the mission in terms of METT-TC.

    b. The pilot not on the controls (P) and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will perform the planning tasks directed by the PC/AMC. They will report the results of their planning to the PC/AMC.

    • 2. Procedures. Analyze the mission using the METT-TC factors. Conduct a map or aerial photo reconnaissance. Obtain a thorough weather briefing that covers the entire mission. Include sunset and sunrise times, density altitudes, winds, and visibility restrictions. If the mission is to be conducted at night, the briefing would also include moonset and moonrise times and ambient light levels, if available. Determine primary and alternate routes, terrain flight modes, and movement techniques. Determine time, distance, and fuel requirements using the navigational computer or approved mission planning software. Annotate the map, overlay, or approved mission planning software with sufficient information to complete the mission according to unit standing operating procedure (SOP). This includes waypoint coordinates that define the routes for entry into the Doppler/global positioning system (GPS) and/or approved mission planning software. Consider such items as hazards, checkpoints, observation posts, and friendly and enemy positions. Review contingency procedures.
    • Note. Evaluate weather impact on the mission. Considerations should include aircraft performance and limitations.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: More detailed flight planning is required when the flight is conducted in reduced visibility, at night, or in the night vision goggle (NVG) environment. TC 1-204 contains details about night navigation. NVG navigation with standard maps can be difficult because of map colors, symbology, and colored markers used during map preparation.
  63. TASK 2014
    Perform electronic countermeasures/electronic counter-countermeasures procedures

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter and given a signal operating instructions (SOI).
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Test and operate aircraft avionics and voice security equipment according to the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual.

    2. Maintain radio discipline.

    3. Use the SOI.

    4. Recognize and respond to enemy electronic countermeasures.

    • 5. Operate Mark XII identification, friend or foe (IFF) system.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot in command (PC) will ensure assigned radio frequencies are briefed during the crew briefing. He will indicate whether the pilot on the controls (P*) or pilot not on the controls (P) will establish and maintain primary communications.

    b. The P* will announce mission information not monitored by the P and any deviation from directives.

    • c. The P will manage and announce radio frequencies and copy and decode pertinent information. He will announce mission information not monitored by the P*.
    • 2. Procedures. Electronic communications should not be used in a tactical environment except when absolutely necessary. If electronic communication is required, the preferred method is to operate in frequency hoppin (FH)/have-quick secure voice mode. To eliminate confusion and reduce transmission time, the crew must use approved communication words, phrases, and codes. Plan what to say before keying the transmitter. Transmit information clearly, concisely, and slowly enough to be understood by the receiving station. Ideally, keep transmissions under 10 seconds. Do not pass mission critical information on unsecured nets. Do not identify a unit or an individual by name during nonsecure radio transmissions. Follow procedures listed below.

    a. Authentication. Use proper SOI procedures to authenticate all in-flight mission changes, artillery advisories, when entering or departing a radio net, when challenged or when requesting authentication.

    b. Meaconing, interference, jamming, and intrusion/joint spectrum interference resolution (MIJI/JSIR) procedures. Keep accurate and detailed records of any MIJI incidents. Report an incident as soon as possible when a secure communications capability exists. (See task 2022 for information on transmitting a tactical report.)

    c. Visual methods. Use other visual communication methods such as flags, lights, panels, pyrotechnics, hand and arm signals, and aircraft maneuvers.

    d. Mark XII IFF. Turn on, test, and operate the IFF per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual. Operate the IFF per the tactical situation. During shutdown, hold or zeroize the code, as required.
  64. TASK 2022
    Transmit tactical reports

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter and given sufficient information to compile a tactical report.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus transmit the appropriate report using the current
    • signal operating instructions (SOI).
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • Crew actions.
    • 1. The pilot on the controls (P*) and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will focus primarily outside the aircraft to clear the aircraft and provide adequate warning of traffic or obstacles. The P* will announce any maneuver or movement before execution.

    • 2. The P will assemble and transmit the report. He will use the correct format as specified in the SOI and transmit the report to the appropriate agency. The NCM(s) must also be able to transmit the report if the pilot not on the controls (P) is unable to do so.
    • 3. Procedures. To save time, minimize confusion, and ensure completeness, report information in an established format. Assemble the report in the correct format and transmit it to the appropriate agency. Standard formats may be found in the SOI or other sources.
    • Note. Encryption is required only if information is transmitted by nonsecure means.
  65. TASK 2024
    PERFORM TERRAIN FLIGHT NAVIGATION

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter and given a mission briefing and required maps and materials.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:
    • 1. Rated.
    • a. During nap of the earth (NOE) flight (surface to 25 feet above highest obstacle [AHO]), know the en route location within 200 meters.

    b. During contour flight (25 to 80 feet AHO) or low-level flight (80 to 200 AHO), know the en route location within 500 meters.

    c. Locate each objective within 100 meters.

    d. Arrive at each objective at the planned time ±1 minute (if an objective arrival time was given in the mission briefing).

    • 2. Nonrated. Anounce significant terrain features to aid in navigation.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will remain focused outside the aircraft and respond to navigation instructions and cues given by the pilot not on the controls (P). He will acknowledge commands issued by the P for heading and airspeed changes necessary to navigate the desired course. The P* and NCM will announce significant terrain features to assist the P in navigation.

    b. The P will furnish the P* with the information required to remain on course. He will announce all plotted wires before approaching their location. The P will use rally terms and terrain features to convey instructions to the P*. Examples of these terms are "Turn left to your 10 o'clock," "Stop turn," and "Turn down the valley to the left." If using the horizontal situation indicator (HSI) during low-level flight, the P may include headings. The P should use electronically aided navigation to help arrive at a specific checkpoint or turning point.

    • c. The P*, P and nonrated crewmember (NCM) should use standardized terms to prevent misinterpretation of information and unnecessary cockpit conversation. The crew must look far enough ahead of the aircraft at all times to assist in avoiding traffic and obstacles.
    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. During NOE and contour flight, identify prominent terrain features that are located some distance ahead of the aircraft and which lie along or near the course. Using these terrain features to key on, the P* maneuvers the aircraft to take advantage of the terrain and vegetation for concealment. If this navigational technique does not apply, identify the desired route by designating a series of successive checkpoints. To remain continuously oriented, compare actual terrain features with those on the map. An effective technique is to combine using terrain features and rally terms when giving directions. This will allow the P* to focus his attention outside the aircraft.

    b. For low-level navigation, the time and distance can be computed effectively. This means that the P* can fly specific headings and airspeeds.

    • Note. Each of the methods for stating heading information is appropriate under specific conditions. When a number of terrain features are visible and prominent enough for the P* to recognize them, the most appropriate method is navigation instruction toward the terrain feature in view. When forward visibility is restricted and frequent changes are necessary, controlled turning instructions are more appropriate. Clock headings are recommended when associated with a terrain feature and with controlled turning instructions.
    • Note. For additional information, see task 1044, task 1046, and task 1172.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS:
    • 1. Conducting the flight in reduced visibility or at night requires more detailed and extensive flight planning and map preparation. TC 1-204 contains details on night navigation. Night vision goggle (NVG) navigation with standard maps can be difficult because of map colors, symbology, and colored marker use during map preparation.

    2. Use proper scanning techniques to ensure obstacle avoidance.
  66. TASK 2026
    PERFORM TERRAIN FLIGHT

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter with tactical flight mission planning completed.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:
    • 1. Rated.
    • a. Maintain altitude and airspeed appropriate for the selected mode of flight, terrain, weather, visibility, and mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, civil considerations (METT-TC).

    b. Maintain aircraft in trim during contour and low-level flight and when appropriate for nap of the earth (NOE) flight.

    • 2. Nonrated. Maintain constant scan of assigned sector.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will focus primarily outside the aircraft and acknowledge all navigational and obstacle clearance instructions given by the pilot not on the controls (P). He will announce the intended direction of flight or any deviation from instructions given by the P. During terrain flight, the P* is primarily concerned with threat and obstacle avoidance.

    • b. The P will provide adequate warning to avoid obstacles detected in the flight path or identified on the map. The P and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will assist in clearing the aircraft and provide adequate warning of obstacles, unusual attitudes, altitude changes, or threat. The P and NCM will announce when their attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside.
    • c. During contour flight, the P will advise the P* whenever an unannounced descent is detected. If the descent continues without acknowledgement or corrective action, the P will again advise the P* and be prepared to make a collective control input. The P will raise the collective when it becomes apparent that the aircraft will descend below 25 feet above highest obstacle (AHO).

    • d. During NOE flight, the P will advise the P* whenever an unannounced descent is detected. He will immediately raise the collective when it becomes apparent that the P* is not taking corrective action and that the aircraft will descend below 10 feet AHO.
    • 2. Procedures. Terrain flight involves flight close to the earth's surface. The modes of terrain flight are NOE, contour, and low level. Crewmembers will seldom perform purely NOE or contour flight. Instead, they will alternate techniques while maneuvering over the desired route.
    • The crew must look far enough ahead of the aircraft at all times to assist in avoiding traffic and obstacles.

    a. NOE flight. Perform NOE flight at varying airspeeds and altitudes as close to the earth's surface as vegetation, obstacles, and ambient light will permit.

    b. Contour flight. Perform contour flight by varying altitude and while maintaining a relatively constant airspeed—depending on the vegetation, obstacles, and ambient light. Generally, follow the contours of the earth.

    • c. Low-level flight. Perform low-level flight at a constant airspeed and altitude. To prevent or reduce the chance of detection by enemy forces, fly at the minimum safe altitude that will allow a constant altitude.
    • Note. Hover out of ground effect (OGE) power may be required for this task.
    • Note. Terrain flight is considered sustained flight below 200 feet (AGL) (except during takeoff and landing).
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS:
    • 1. Wires are difficult to detect with the night vision goggle (NVG).

    2. Use proper scanning techniques to ensure obstacle avoidance.

    • 3. During NVG terrain flight, observe the NVG speed and altitude restrictions in TC 1-210.
    • OVERWATER CONSIDERATIONS: Overwater flight, at any altitude, is characterized by a lack of visual cues, and therefore, has the potential of causing visual illusions. Be alert to any unannounced changes in the flight profile and be prepared to take immediate corrective actions. The radar altimeter low bug should be set to assist in altitude control. Hazards to terrain flight such as harbor lights, buoys, wires, and birds must also be considered during overwater flight. These considerations may also apply to flight over desert or broad expanses of snow, especially under low ambient lighting.
  67. TASK 2034
    PERFORM MASKING AND UNMASKING

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    • 1. Rated.
    • a. Perform a thorough map reconnaissance of the desired observation area.

    b. Mask the aircraft from enemy visual and electronic detection.

    c. Ensure that aircraft exposure time does not exceed 10 seconds during the unmasking.

    d. Observe assigned scan sector during unmasking.

    e. Maintain a sufficient distance behind obstacles to allow for safe maneuvering.

    f. Move to a new location before subsequent unmasking.

    • g. Report observations if required.
    • 2. Nonrated.
    • a. Scan assigned sector.

    • b. Announce if/or when the lateral sides of the aircraft are exposed or unmasked.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot in command (PC) will assign scanning sectors to all crewmembers to maximize the area scanned during the time unmasked.

    b. The pilot on the controls (P*) will focus primarily outside the aircraft to clear the aircraft throughout the maneuver. He will announce the type of unmasking before executing the maneuver.

    c. The pilot not on the controls (P) and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will focus primarily outside the aircraft. They will warn the P* of obstacles and unusual or unanticipated drift and altitude changes. The NCM(s) will announce when the sides of the aircraft are exposed or unmasked. The P and NCM will announce when their attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when attention is reestablished outside.

    • d. The crew must clear directly below the aircraft if descending vertically or the flight path if moving laterally.
    • 2. Procedures. Masking is a technique using terrain to mask (cover or conceal) the aircraft from threat detection and weapons employment. Unmasking is a maneuver used when it becomes necessary to observe points of interest that are obscured while in a masked position. Before unmasking, a thorough map reconnaissance should be completed so that all eyes can be focused outside during the unmasking. The three general types of unmasking are as follows:
    • a. Unmasking in flight. This type is used when the aircraft has forward speed and can best be described as a quick "pop up and peek" at the desired point or area of observation. It is usually used while flying behind a ridgeline or other linear barrier.
    • b. Unmasking at a hover (vertically). Announce intent to unmask. The crew will acknowledge that they are prepared to execute the maneuver. Ensure that sufficient power is available to unmask. Increase the collective to obtain sufficient altitude to see over the mask without exceeding aircraft limitations. Maintain horizontal main rotor blade clearance from the mask in case of a power loss or a tactical need to mask the aircraft quickly. When possible, unmask at a safe distance from the mask to allow a rapid descent to a masked condition if the aircraft is detected or fired upon. Be aware of a common tendency to move forward or rearward while vertically unmasking and remasking. Establish reference points to assist in maintaining position during ascents and descents. Keep aircraft exposure time to a minimum.

    • c. Unmasking at a hover (laterally). Sometimes, the aircraft may be unmasked by moving laterally from the mask. Announce intent to hover the aircraft sideward to provide the smallest silhouette possible to enemy observation or fire. The crew will acknowledge that they are prepared to execute the maneuver. Keep aircraft exposure time to a minimum.
    • Note. Hover out of ground effect (OGE) power may be required for this task.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: When hovering above 25 feet, the P* may have difficulty in maintaining altitude and position. Use the radar altimeter to assist in maintaining altitude. Use references, such as lights, tops of trees, or manmade objects above and to the sides of the aircraft. By establishing a reference angle to these objects, the P* can detect altitude changes when his perspective to these objects changes. Ground objects—fences, trails, roads—provide excellent references for detecting lateral drift. Proper scanning techniques must be used. The P* may become spatially disoriented when alternating his viewing perspective between high and low references.
  68. TASK 2036
    PERFORM TERRAIN FLIGHT DECELERATION

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:
    • 1. Rated.
    • a. Maintain heading alignment with the selected flight path.

    b. Maintain the tail clear of all obstacles.

    • c. Decelerate to the desired airspeed or to a full stop.
    • 2. Nonrated.
    • a. Maintain the tail clear of all obstacles.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will focus primarily outside the aircraft to clear the aircraft throughout the maneuver. He will announce his intention to decelerate or come to a full stop, any deviation from the maneuver, and completion of the maneuver.

    • b. The pilot not on the controls (P) and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will provide adequate warning to avoid obstacles detected in the flight path and will announce when their attention is focused inside the cockpit and again when attention is reestablished outside.
    • 2. Procedures. Coordinate applying cyclic and collective to establish a decelerative attitude that keeps the tail clear of all obstacles. Consider variations in the terrain and obstacles when determining tail clearance. Apply aft cyclic as required to slow to the desired airspeed or to a full stop while adjusting the collective to maintain the tail clear of obstacles. Maintain heading and make all control movements smoothly. If the aircraft attitude is changed excessively or abruptly, it may be difficult to return the aircraft to a level attitude and over controlling may result.
    • Note. Hover out of ground effect (OGE) power may be required for this task.
    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: Because of the limited field of view of the night vision goggle (NVG), avoid making abrupt changes in aircraft attitude. An extreme nose-high attitude limits the forward field of view and may cause disorientation. Maintain proper scanning techniques to ensure
    • obstacle avoidance and tail rotor clearance.
  69. TASK 2042
    Perform actions on contact

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus use the correct actions on contact consistent with the tactical situation.

    1. If appropriate, immediately deploy to a covered and concealed position using suppressive fires.

    2. Continue observation as appropriate for the mission.

    • 3. Transmit tactical report per signal operating instructions (SOI), unit standing operating procedure (SOP), or mission briefing.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions. When engaged by or upon detecting the enemy, the crewmember identifying the threat will announce the nature (visual observation, radar detection, or hostile fire) and the direction of the threat.

    a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will deploy to cover or concealment. He will announce the direction of flight to evade detection.

    b. The pilot not on the controls (P) will remain oriented on threat location. He will announce warnings to avoid obstacles. He will announce when his attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when his attention is reestablished outside.

    c. When the crew encounters a directed threat, the P* will remain primarily focused outside to avoid obstacles, perform the required evasive maneuver, reposition the aircraft as necessary to break radar or visual lock, and then avoid the threat.

    • d. The P will begin dispensing chaff or flares as required. The P and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will assist in clearing the aircraft and provide adequate warning of obstacles.
    • Note. Remaining in the same position while activating chaff negates the effectiveness of this countermeasure.

    e. The NCM will remove and install safety pin(s) according to the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/checklist (CL) and will dispense flares as required.

    f. The NCM will remain focused primarily outside the aircraft and announce adequate warning to avoid obstacles. He will also provide suppressive fire as required.

    • g. The crew will transmit a tactical report per the SOI/TACSOP.
    • Note. The P should note location of threat. The best method is doing a target store on the Doppler/global
    • positioning system (GPS). If unable, note the location of a threat (distance and bearing) relative to a point on the route. Both the rated crewmembers (RCMs) and NCMs must be able to transmit a tactical report per the SOI, unit SOP, or mission briefing.
    • 2. Procedures. Fly the helicopter to a concealed area using the evasive techniques below and suppressive fire, as required. Choose a course of action that supports the mission and the intent of the unit commander's directives. For additional information, see task 2022.

    a. The specific maneuver required will depend on the type of hostile fire encountered.

    (1) Tanks, rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs), and small arms. Immediately turn away from the fire toward an area of concealment. If concealment is unavailable, make sharp turns of unequal magnitude and at unequal intervals and small changes in altitude to provide the best protection until you are beyond the effective range of hostile weapons. If the situation permits, employ immediate suppressive fire.

    • (2) Large caliber, antiaircraft fire (radar controlled). Dispense chaff and execute an immediate 90-degree turn, as appropriate for the threat location, and mask the helicopter. After turning, do not maintain a straight line of flight or the same altitude for more than 10 seconds before initiating a second chaff dispense and 90-degree turn. To reduce the danger, descend immediately to nap of the earth (NOE) altitude.
    • Note. Dispensing chaff while maneuvering may cause tracking radars to break lock.

    (3) Fighters. Upon sighting a fighter, try to mask the helicopter. If the fighter is alone and executes a dive, turn the helicopter toward the attacker and descend. This maneuver will cause the fighter pilot to increase his attack angle. Depending on the fighter's dive angle, it may be advantageous to turn sharply and maneuver away once the attacker is committed. The fighter pilot will then have to break off his attack to recover from the maneuver. Once he breaks off his attack, maneuver the helicopter to take advantage of terrain, vegetation, and shadow for concealment.

    • (4) IR Missiles. With an IR jammer installed, reduce the collective to decrease the IR signature and maneuver the aircraft to allow the jammer to be effective against the missile. If the Common Missile Warning System (CMWS) is installed and dispenses flares, ensure the distance between the IR signature created by the flares and the aircraft is maintained to allow the missile to track the IR flare(s). After manual/auto flare dispense, attempt to break line of sight with the threat location/direction and deploy to cover to preclude additional engagements.
    • Note. Proper operation and full protection of the flare system may require level flight.

    (5) Antitank-guided missiles. Some missiles fly relatively slowly and can be avoided by rapidly repositioning the helicopter. If terrain or vegetation is not available for masking, remain oriented on the missile as it approaches. As the missile is about to impact, rapidly change flight path or altitude to evade it.

    (6) Radar-guided missiles. Maneuver the helicopter to break the line of sight to the radar source. Begin a descending, decelerating turn away from the threat source and attempt to maneuver the aircraft to keep the threat system to the right or left rear of aircraft and simultaneously dispense chaff. Attempt to keep the chaff cloud between the aircraft and the threat source. Once chaff is dispensed, turn the aircraft to maneuver away from the chaff cloud and continue to chaff and turn until the aircraft is masked.

    (7) Artillery. Depart the impact area and determine NBC requirements.

    • b. If hit by hostile fire, rapidly assess the situation and determine an appropriate course of action. The first step is to assess aircraft controllability. Then check all instruments and warning and caution lights. If a malfunction is indicated, initiate the appropriate emergency procedure. If continued flight is possible, take evasive action. Make a radio call to report your situation, location, and action. Also, request assistance if desired. Continue to be alert for unusual control responses, noises, and vibrations. Monitor all instruments for an indication of a malfunction. Fly the aircraft to the nearest secure location and land (determine if flight should be extended for medical attention). After landing, inspect the aircraft to determine the extent of damage and if further flight can be continued.
    • Note. Proper employment of terrain flight techniques will reduce exposure to enemy threat weapon systems.
    • Note. Performing this maneuver in certain environments may require hover out of ground effect (OGE) power. Evaluate each situation for power required versus power available.
    • NIGHT OR NVD CONSIDERATIONS: Threat elements will be harder to detect. Rapid evasive maneuvers will be more hazardous due to division of attention and limited visibility. Maintain situational awareness with regard to threat and hazard location. Flare deployment will degrade vision and night vision goggles.
  70. TASK 2048
    PERFORM SLING LOAD OPERATIONS

    WARNING

    When performing this task with cabin doors open, ensure that
    personnel in the cabin area are wearing safety harnesses secured
    to tie-down rings or are seated in seats with seat belts on.

    CAUTION

    A static electricity discharge wand will be used according to FM 10-450-3.

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 or a UH-60 FS helicopter with an operational cargo hook, sling load, completed DA Form 7382-R (Sling Load Inspection Record) or training load according to FM 10-450-3.

    Note.
    Prior to sling load operations, a qualified sling load inspector will inspect all sling loads. Certification must be recorded on a DA Form 7382-R and a copy provided to the aircrews.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:
    • 1. Rated.
    • a. Before hookup. Verify copy of DA Form 7382-R is complete and on file and that the aircraft will remain within gross weight and center of gravity (CG) limitations.

    • b. Hook up and hover.
    • (1) Ensure that the aircraft remains clear of the load and any obstacles.

    (2) Perform a vertical ascent with the load to a load height of 10 feet ±5 feet.

    (3) Determine power sufficient to complete the maneuver without exceeding aircraft limitations.

    c. Take off. Maintain aircraft in trim (above 100 feet AGL).

    • d. Approach and load release.
    • (1) Maintain a constant approach angle to ensure the load safely clears obstacles and terminate over the intended point of landing with a load height of 10 feet ±5 feet.

    • (2) Perform a vertical descent with the load to the desired touchdown point ±5 feet.
    • 2. Nonrated.
    • a. The nonrated crewmember (NCM) will ensure that the aircraft is prepared for sling load operations. He will also ensure that all slings have been inspected according to FM 10-450-3 and all sling equipment is secured in the aircraft before takeoff.

    b. Provide aircraft guidance for hookup and release.

    c. Clear the aircraft and sling load during the operation.

    d. Confirm load is hooked and secure.

    e. Ensure load is free of entanglements.

    • f. Continue to monitor load for oscillation.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot in command (PC) will conduct a thorough crew briefing and ensure all crewmembers are familiar with sling load operations, emergency, and communication procedures. He will ensure that DD Form 7382-R has been completed. He will determine the direction of takeoff by analyzing the tactical situation, the wind, the long axis of the takeoff area, and the lowest obstacles and he will confirm that required power is available by comparing the information from the performance planning card (PPC) to the hover power check.

    b. The pilot on the controls (P*) will remain primarily focused outside the aircraft throughout the maneuver. He will monitor altitude and avoid obstacles.

    c. The pilot not on the controls (P) will monitor the cockpit instruments and assist the P* in clearing the aircraft. He will set cargo hook switches, as required, and should make all radio calls. When directed by the P* during the approach, the P will place the cargo hook arming switch to the ARMED position. The P or NCM will release the load.

    d. The P and NCM will assist in clearing the aircraft and will provide adequate warning of obstacles.

    • e. The NCM will remain primarily focused on the load. He will guide the P* during the load pickup, advise of the load condition in flight, and direct the P* when setting down the load.
    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. Hookup and hover. Set cargo hook control switches per the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual. Follow hand and arm signals from the signalman and commands from the NCM to hover over the load. Remain vertically clear of and centered over the load. When the load is hooked up, remove slack from the sling and ascend vertically to a load height of 10 feet AGL. Ensure aircraft limitations are not exceeded.

    • b. Takeoff. Establish a constant angle of climb that will permit safe obstacle clearance. When above 100 feet AGL or when clear of obstacles, adjust attitude and power as required to establish the desired rate of climb and airspeed. Smoothly adjust flight controls to prevent load oscillation. After passing above 300 feet AGL, place the cargo hook arming switch to the SAFE position.
    • Note. Ensure that the cargo hook-arming switch is in the ARMED position when operating at altitudes below 300 feet AHO.

    c. En route. Maintain the desired altitude, flight path, and airspeed. Make smooth control applications to prevent load oscillation. If a lateral load oscillation occurs, reduce airspeed. If a fore-and-aft oscillation occurs, begin a shallow turn while reducing airspeed.

    • d. Approach and load release. Establish and maintain an approach angle that will keep the load clear of obstacles to the desired point of termination. Establish a rate of closure appropriate for the conditions and the load. When passing below 300 feet AGL, place the cargo hook arming switch to the ARMED position. Terminate the approach at a stationary hover with the load 10 feet above the intended release point. Confirm with the NCM that the release point is clear. Descend vertically until the load rests completely on the ground. Continue descent to obtain slack in the sling, and then hover laterally to ensure the clevis is clear of the load before releasing the load. Confirm that the load is released before moving away from the release point.
    • Note. Loads will meet external air transportability (EAT) requirements according to FM 10-450-4 and FM 10-450-5. Procedures for air transportation of hazardous material will be according to AR 95-27.
    • Note. Avoid flight over populated areas.
    • Note. Before the mission, the PC will ensure that all crewmembers are familiar with the hand and arm signals shown in FM 21-60 and with forced landing procedures. In case of a forced landing, the aviator will land the aircraft to the left of the load. The hookup man will move to his left (which is to the right of the aircraft) and lie facedown on the ground. The signalman will remain in place and lie facedown on the ground.
    • Note. Control switches will not be moved without verbal announcement first. If the crewmember pendant is used, the crewmember must be trained according to the unit standing operating procedure (SOP).
    • Note. Sling extenders or “reach pendants” will be used to ensure load clearance when transporting the following: M119/105 (forward firing position), any “built up” high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) (Avenger, ambulance, shelter, and so forth), or any other equipment that requires additional clearance.
    • Note. Self-hookup operations are authorized provided planning, briefing, and training has been done according to the unit SOP. Self-hookup is used to support gun raids, forward arming and refueling point (FARPs), and so forth when support personnel are not available. The type of load, as well as the size and height, must be considered before attempting a selfhookup. Some loads are more prone to entangle the sling straps than others. A “shepherd’s hook,” “Q-Tip,” or similar device may be used by the NCM to grab the clevis. Hands and arms will not be used to grab the clevis.
    • Note. The following standard words and phrases are some examples of terminology used for
    • sling load operations:
    • 􀁺 “Hook is armed.” 􀁺 “Load is hooked.”
    • 􀁺 “Load under the nose.” 􀁺 “Hookup crew clear.”
    • 􀁺 “Load in sight.” 􀁺 “Slings coming tight.”
    • 􀁺 “Forward.” 􀁺 “Load is centered.”
    • 􀁺 “Back.” 􀁺 “Load is off the ground.”
    • 􀁺 “Left.” 􀁺 “Load on ground.”
    • 􀁺 “Right.” 􀁺 “Slack in the slings.”
    • 􀁺 “Down.” 􀁺 “Release the load.”
    • 􀁺 “Up.” 􀁺 “Load is released.”
    • 􀁺 “Hold.” 􀁺 “Clear to reposition.”

    • NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS:
    • 1. For unaided night flight, the landing light and searchlight should be operational. If a night vision goggle (NVG) filter is installed, it should be removed.

    2. When NVGs are used, hovering with minimum drift is difficult and requires proper scanning techniques and crewmember coordination. If possible, an area with adequate ground contrast and reference points should be used. Visual obstacles such as shadows should be treated the same as physical obstacles.

    3. The rate of descent and rate of closure should be slightly slower to avoid abrupt attitude changes at low altitudes.

    4. Sling loads should be marked with chemstick lighting.
  71. TASK 2081
    OPERATE NIGHT VISION GOGGLES

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter, given a set of night vision goggles (NVGs).
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Preflight the NVGs.

    2. Mount and adjust NVGs.

    • 3. Store unit after use.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) is responsible for clearing the aircraft and obstacle avoidance.

    • b. The pilot not on the controls (P) will announce when his attention is focused inside the cockpit. Upon completing the aviator’s night vision imaging system (ANVIS) checks and adjustments, he will announce the status of his goggles.
    • 2. Procedures. Ensure the NVGs are within inspection dates and check for serviceability. Adjust for proper fit, focus, and diopter setting. After use, ensure batteries are removed. Store the unit.
  72. TASK 2086
    OPERATE AVIATOR’S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM HEADS-UP DISPLAY

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter with aviator’s night vision imaging system heads-up display
    (ANVIS HUD) installed.
    • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus describe and demonstrate correct terminology
    • and usage of the AN/AVS-7 according to TM 11-5855-300-10.
    • DESCRIPTION: Perform operational procedures for the AN/AVS-7. These include assembly, preparation for use, operating procedures, and equipment shutdown.
  73. TASK 2090
    PERFORM LANDING AREA RECONNAISSANCE FOR SIMULATED MAXIMUM GROSS WEIGHT

    CONDITIONS: In a H-60 helicopter, simulating maximum gross weight for conditions, while using
    tabular data.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Establish altitude, airspeed, and flight path for conducting a high reconnaissance commensurate with terrain and environmental conditions.

    2. Accurately determine wind direction and approximate velocity at touchdown point and identify other pertinent wind characteristics in proximity to landing zone (LZ).

    3. Accurately assess the LZ size, axis, surface conditions, and obstacles.

    4. Precisely plan routes in and out for maneuver to include any and all escape routes required above and below effective translational lift (ETL).

    • 5. Confirm the winds and tentative plan formulated in the high reconnaissance by performing a
    • thorough low reconnaissance.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • Crew actions.
    • 1. On approaching the operational area, the crew will identify the LZ and determine its suitability for landing and takeoff. The pilot on the controls (P*) will establish a high reconnaissance pattern appropriate for the terrain and wind. Using tabular data, the pilot not on the controls (P) will determine if out of ground effect (OGE) capability exists and the maximum power available. The P*/P will assess the wind in and around the LZ using as necessary wind/terrain analysis, visible indications, and cockpit indications. The P*/P will determine the best possible route into and out of the LZ and select the precise landing point. The routing should reflect power available, wind conditions, and escape options available for an aircraft at maximum gross weight. When the wind direction and conditions are in doubt, the best escape routes should dictate the approach and departure routes.
    • Note. The best possible route is that route requiring the least amount of power for the landing intended—to the ground or a particular hover height—without compromising a viable escape.
    • Note. The difference between a go-around and an escape is that a go-around is a proactive maneuver with full control available while an escape is a reactive maneuver without full control. Usually the collective must either be maintained or reduced during an escape maneuver.

    2. The tentative plan for the landing and takeoff was established in the high reconnaissance. The low reconnaissance is performed to confirm or refute information determined in the high reconnaissance. It is performed as low and as slow as good judgment dictates but not below ETL. The P*/P must use cockpit or visual cues to confirm wind predictions, verify the suitability of the precise landing point, confirm that the escape routes identified are viable, confirm the precise altitude of the landing point, and verify environmental conditions are the same as those selected in the tabular data. The P* will thoroughly brief the maneuver and crew duties including those duties required if an escape plan is executed.

    Note. This is a training maneuver unto itself and should not be rushed or performed haphazardly. Even the smallest errors or omissions will result in incorrect power calculations. The pilots must appreciate and anticipate the aircraft’s limits and their own limits as well as the aircraft’s and their own reactions to those limits. At no time in power management training will pilots knowingly attempt to execute landing or takeoffs at less than actual torque values.
  74. TASK 2092
    RESPOND TO NIGHT VISION GOGGLES FAILURE

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter given an academic or a visual cue that the night vision goggles
    (NVGs) have failed.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Identify or describe indications of impending NVG failure.

    • 2. Perform or describe emergency procedures for NVG failure.
    • DESCRIPTION: Impending NVG failure may be indicated by one or both tubes flickering or blinking.
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will remain focused outside the aircraft. He is responsible for clearing the aircraft and obstacle avoidance. If the P*’s NVGs fail or indicate impending failure, he will announce “goggle failure.” He will transfer the controls to the pilot not on the controls (P) if necessary.

    • b. If the P’s NVGs fail or indicate impending failure, he will announce “goggle failure” and switch batteries or troubleshoot the goggles. If the NVGs are not restored to operation, make the appropriate report and modify the mission as briefed.
    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. During nap of the earth (NOE) or contour flight, the P* will immediately announce "goggle failure" and begin a climb at a rate that will ensure obstacle avoidance. Transfer the flight controls if necessary, and attempt to restore the goggles. If NVGs are restored, continue the mission. If not restored, lock the NVGs in the up position and proceed as briefed.

    • b. During low-level flight or flight conducted at higher altitude, the P* will use the procedure described above. A climb is not required.
    • Note. NVG tube failure is infrequent and usually provides ample warning. Only occasionally will a tube fail completely in a short time. Rarely will both tubes fail at the same time. There is no remedy for in-flight tube failure.
  75. TASK 2093
    PERFORM SIMULATED MAXIMUM GROSS WEIGHT APPROACH AND LANDING

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter with landing area reconnaissance for simulated maximum gross
    weight complete.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the folowing additions/modifications:

    1. Maintain approach angle sufficient to clear obstacles.

    2. Maintain the predetermined rate of horizontal and vertical closure appropriate for conditions.

    3. Monitor wind conditions using cockpit indicators (CI).

    4. Execute a smooth, controlled termination to the ground or the hover altitude determined in the reconnaissance.

    • 5. Correctly determine wind direction and velocity at the landing point.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will maintain his primary focus outside the aircraft while conducting a cross-reference of CI to execute the approach. During the approach, the P* will announce any deviation to the briefed approach, particularly any deviation in escape routing. The pilot not on the controls (P) will cross monitor CIs and alert the P* when briefed parameters (CI) are being approached or exceeded. The P and crew chief (CE) will assist in clearing the aircraft during the entire maneuver.

    • b. Upon completing the approach, the P* will conduct a hover power check in the intended landing direction, over the intended landing point, and at the altitude selected in the reconnaissance. The crew will then verify whether conditions (surface, wind, and temperature/pressure altitude) are the same as they predicted during the reconnaissance.
    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. Airspeed compared to ground speed indicates headwind/tailwind or no wind. This is also used to control horizontal closure speed.

    b. Heading compared to ground track indicates crosswind direction.

    c. Torque compared to pedal position (aircraft must be aligned with ground track (below 50 feet), airspeed slightly above effective translational lift, and referencing a known torque/pedal reference setting) indicates crosswind direction.

    d. The vertical speed indicator (VSI) indicates rate of vertical closure and the possibility of inadequate torque applied.

    e. The early or abrupt movement of the airspeed indicator needle to zero indicates a tailwind. Airspeed indicator behavior is referenced against previous no-wind condition.

    f. The duration of the transverse flow shudder and the distance remaining to termination when it ceases also indicates the presence of a headwind or tailwind. The “normal” distance is referenced during no-wind conditions. This is also used to control horizontal closure speed.

    g. The correlation of airspeed, torque and VSI indicates and/or measures the presence and strength of updrafts and downdrafts.

    NIGHT OR NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG) CONSIDERATIONS: Using CIs will provide the crewmembers with improved control during periods of reduced visual cues and acuity. There are no other special considerations.
  76. TASK 2095
    PERFORM SIMULATED MAXIMUM GROSS WEIGHT TAKEOFF

    CONDITIONS:
    In a H-60 helicopter, with the maximum torque available known, and aircraft clear.
    STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications:

    1. Correctly determine the type of takeoff that requires the minimum amount of power to safely complete the maneuver and accurately predict the amount required.

    2. Correctly determine the point where the aircraft will enter effective translational lift (ETL) and, if necessary, establish an abort line.

    3. Use the minimum power necessary for the type of takeoff being performed.

    • 4. Accurately determine the amount of power used in the maneuver.
    • DESCRIPTION:
    • 1. Crew actions.
    • a. After assessing the landing zone (LZ), wind, and obstacles, the pilot on the controls (P*) will select the type of takeoff—level acceleration (coordinated climb, best angle, best rate), constant angle, or vertical. The P* will then determine the ETL point for the takeoff selected and establish an abort plan.
    • Note. In having to correctly determine the ETL point, the P* is forced to accurately consider the effects of his control inputs, wind, and surface considerations. Any under or over estimation of the point must be explained in the post-task analysis following the takeoff maneuver. In considering a nap of the earth (NOE) deceleration as part of the abort plan, the P* must consider the amount of power and tail rotor authority available for the abort and the amount of airspeed at the time of the abort. As in the simulated maximum gross weight (SMGW) approach, the amount of power determined necessary for the maneuver would also be the hypothetical limit for establishing the takeoff escape plan. Power used beyond that determined necessary would have to be explained in the takeoff post-task analysis.

    • b. The pilot not on the controls (P) and crew chief (CE) will announce when ready for takeoff and will focus their attention primarily outside the aircraft to assist in clearing the obstacles. The P will also cross-monitor torque to note the amount of power used as well as when it was used. The crew will select reference points to assist in maintaining ground track.
    • Note. If it becomes apparent that the power selected for the maneuver is insufficient for obstacle clearance, the abort will be executed or additional power will be applied as necessary and noted by the P.
    • 2. Procedures.
    • a. Level acceleration. This is a simulated situation where the power required to hover is the maximum power available. The P* will coordinate cyclic and pedals as necessary to accelerate the aircraft. The first objective is to achieve ETL without allowing the aircraft to settle to the surface. If it becomes apparent that the aircraft will contact the surface, apply sufficient aft cyclic to prevent contact or abort if necessary, and analyze for cause. As the transverse flow shudder develops, increase forward cyclic. As the aircraft enters ETL, make a significant forward cyclic input to prevent blowback. Maintain altitude and allow the aircraft necessary height. If using the best angle, ensure ETL is not lost.
    • Note. Recommendation—Practice this maneuver paralleling barriers rather than into them until proficiency is attained.
    • b. Constant angle.
    • (1) In this maneuver, the angle can range from vertical to flat. It demands that more power is available than the power required to hover. The angle is initiated from the point of hover (or ground) to a point in space. The goal is for the P* to accurately predict the amount of power required to clear the obstacle given a particular angle. The P* initiates the takeoff by coordinating all the flight controls to begin a constant angle climb over a predetermined path. Power is used as required and the P notes the amount as well as when it was used.

    • (2) Vertical takeoffs are also constant angle takeoffs. As in very steep to vertical approaches, there is a point where there is no discernible difference in power required between vertical takeoffs and those of a lesser angle. In some wind conditions, less power is required to depart vertically than at a lesser angle.
    • NIGHT OR NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG) CONSIDERATIONS: If sufficient illumination exists to adequately view obstacles, the P* may accomplish the maneuver in the same manner as in daylight; however, additional altitude should be used in the hover height to avoid settling to the surface due to poor visual cues. If insufficient illumination exists, then an altitude over airspeed takeoff should be used. The crew must use proper scanning techniques to avoid spatial disorientation. Visual obstacles such as shadows should be treated the same as physical obstacles.

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