Appropriate common standards plus use the correct actions on contact consistent with the tactical situation.
1. If appropriate, immediately deploy to a covered and concealed position using suppressive fires.
2. Continue observation as appropriate for the mission.
- 3. Transmit tactical report per signal operating instructions (SOI), unit standing operating procedure (SOP), or mission briefing.
- 1. Crew actions. When engaged by or upon detecting the enemy, the crewmember identifying the threat will announce the nature (visual observation, radar detection, or hostile fire) and the direction of the threat.
a. The pilot on the controls (P*) will deploy to cover or concealment. He will announce the direction of flight to evade detection.
b. The pilot not on the controls (P) will remain oriented on threat location. He will announce warnings to avoid obstacles. He will announce when his attention is focused inside the aircraft and again when his attention is reestablished outside.
c. When the crew encounters a directed threat, the P* will remain primarily focused outside to avoid obstacles, perform the required evasive maneuver, reposition the aircraft as necessary to break radar or visual lock, and then avoid the threat.
- d. The P will begin dispensing chaff or flares as required. The P and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will assist in clearing the aircraft and provide adequate warning of obstacles.
- Note. Remaining in the same position while activating chaff negates the effectiveness of this countermeasure.
e. The NCM will remove and install safety pin(s) according to the appropriate aircraft operator’s manual/checklist (CL) and will dispense flares as required.
f. The NCM will remain focused primarily outside the aircraft and announce adequate warning to avoid obstacles. He will also provide suppressive fire as required.
- g. The crew will transmit a tactical report per the SOI/TACSOP.
- Note. The P should note location of threat. The best method is doing a target store on the Doppler/global
- positioning system (GPS). If unable, note the location of a threat (distance and bearing) relative to a point on the route. Both the rated crewmembers (RCMs) and NCMs must be able to transmit a tactical report per the SOI, unit SOP, or mission briefing.
- 2. Procedures. Fly the helicopter to a concealed area using the evasive techniques below and suppressive fire, as required. Choose a course of action that supports the mission and the intent of the unit commander's directives. For additional information, see task 2022.
a. The specific maneuver required will depend on the type of hostile fire encountered.
(1) Tanks, rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs), and small arms
. Immediately turn away from the fire toward an area of concealment. If concealment is unavailable, make sharp turns of unequal magnitude and at unequal intervals and small changes in altitude to provide the best protection until you are beyond the effective range of hostile weapons. If the situation permits, employ immediate suppressive fire.
- (2) Large caliber, antiaircraft fire (radar controlled). Dispense chaff and execute an immediate 90-degree turn, as appropriate for the threat location, and mask the helicopter. After turning, do not maintain a straight line of flight or the same altitude for more than 10 seconds before initiating a second chaff dispense and 90-degree turn. To reduce the danger, descend immediately to nap of the earth (NOE) altitude.
- Note. Dispensing chaff while maneuvering may cause tracking radars to break lock.
Upon sighting a fighter, try to mask the helicopter. If the fighter is alone and executes a dive, turn the helicopter toward the attacker and descend. This maneuver will cause the fighter pilot to increase his attack angle. Depending on the fighter's dive angle, it may be advantageous to turn sharply and maneuver away once the attacker is committed. The fighter pilot will then have to break off his attack to recover from the maneuver. Once he breaks off his attack, maneuver the helicopter to take advantage of terrain, vegetation, and shadow for concealment.
- (4) IR Missiles. With an IR jammer installed, reduce the collective to decrease the IR signature and maneuver the aircraft to allow the jammer to be effective against the missile. If the Common Missile Warning System (CMWS) is installed and dispenses flares, ensure the distance between the IR signature created by the flares and the aircraft is maintained to allow the missile to track the IR flare(s). After manual/auto flare dispense, attempt to break line of sight with the threat location/direction and deploy to cover to preclude additional engagements.
- Note. Proper operation and full protection of the flare system may require level flight.
(5) Antitank-guided missiles.
Some missiles fly relatively slowly and can be avoided by rapidly repositioning the helicopter. If terrain or vegetation is not available for masking, remain oriented on the missile as it approaches. As the missile is about to impact, rapidly change flight path or altitude to evade it.
(6) Radar-guided missiles
. Maneuver the helicopter to break the line of sight to the radar source. Begin a descending, decelerating turn away from the threat source and attempt to maneuver the aircraft to keep the threat system to the right or left rear of aircraft and simultaneously dispense chaff. Attempt to keep the chaff cloud between the aircraft and the threat source. Once chaff is dispensed, turn the aircraft to maneuver away from the chaff cloud and continue to chaff and turn until the aircraft is masked.
. Depart the impact area and determine NBC requirements.
- b. If hit by hostile fire, rapidly assess the situation and determine an appropriate course of action. The first step is to assess aircraft controllability. Then check all instruments and warning and caution lights. If a malfunction is indicated, initiate the appropriate emergency procedure. If continued flight is possible, take evasive action. Make a radio call to report your situation, location, and action. Also, request assistance if desired. Continue to be alert for unusual control responses, noises, and vibrations. Monitor all instruments for an indication of a malfunction. Fly the aircraft to the nearest secure location and land (determine if flight should be extended for medical attention). After landing, inspect the aircraft to determine the extent of damage and if further flight can be continued.
- Note. Proper employment of terrain flight techniques will reduce exposure to enemy threat weapon systems.
- Note. Performing this maneuver in certain environments may require hover out of ground effect (OGE) power. Evaluate each situation for power required versus power available.
- NIGHT OR NVD CONSIDERATIONS: Threat elements will be harder to detect. Rapid evasive maneuvers will be more hazardous due to division of attention and limited visibility. Maintain situational awareness with regard to threat and hazard location. Flare deployment will degrade vision and night vision goggles.